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  german and comparative criminal law
  INDEX AND CV
  index new
  cv new
  index of 14 sp 2010
  cv2
  cv1
  index oc 2010
  cv 2 oc 2010
  languages
  cv 1 dc 2010
  index dc 2010
  cv2 ja 2011
  how to disable hacker
  CV1
  cv 2 apr 2011
  cv 1 ap 2011
  index chrono my 2011
  index works my 2011
  lords ; cv 2 my 2011
  soc; cv2; my 2011
  anglo-am establishmt/index/my2011
  berlin; index; 06 2011
  07 2011 AESTHETIK; INDEX
  konstanzer sch; cv1; 07 2011
  norway false flag; index quotes; 07 2011
  eu constitution; quotes index; ag 2011
  eu constitution; vve; quotes; ag 2011
  dt vereinigung; quotes ag2011
  kunst=freiheit; cv1; ag 2011
  kor christians; quotes; sp 2011
  much ado; quotes 09 2011
  `an i may hide my face; cv1 09 2011
  strategy against aids; quotes 10 2011
  occupation of korea; index chrono; 10 2011
  transtro''mer poeta 10 2011
  nobel; quotes; oc 2011
  aspects..shakespeare; quotes; nv 2011
  kr=us fta; hacker roots; quotes; 11 2011
  economic colonialism; quotes; 11 2011
  price of fta/quotes/dc 2011
  kr= us fta/ quotes/ 12 2011
  xmas; baudelaire; index chrono; 12 2011
  baud/ works/ 12 2011
  baudelaire/ cv1/ 12 2011
  baudelaire 2/ 12 2011
  baudelaire 2/ quotes/ 12 2011
  baud 2; index chrono; 12 2011
  c baudelaire 3/ c baud 4/ 12 2011
  baud 5/merry xmas 2011/index chrono
  index chrono ja 2012
  cv2; freiheit; ja 2012
  cv1; freiheit; 01 2012
  medicine; hippocrates; 01 2012
  quotes; med; ja 2012
  quotes; neuro=science and law; ja 2011
  quotes; hirnforschung und recht; ja 2012
  IND; BIOLOGISCHE WELT=ANSCHAUUNG U RECHT; FB 2012
  QS; FRAUEn=BEWEGUNG/ KRIMINAL=POLITIK/ REPRESSIVER PAKT; 02 2012
  qs; inhumane aus=grenzung; sicherungs=gedanken; das biologische boese; 02 2012
  qs; risiko=strafrecht; neuro=science; 02 2012
  medizin und recht 8; fb 2012
  cv1; med and law; 02 2012
  cv2; risiko=strafrecht ; mh2012
  cv1; risiko=str; a= d; 03 2012 sel
  ap 2012; eu=v; a=euv; quotes
  hacking; cv1; 04 2012
  subsidiaritaet 04 2012
  [firefox safe mode; cv1 a= d ]04 2012
  [hacking 04 2012 ]
   [pride and destiny; index; 05 2012 ]
  [pub summary; cv2 a= d; 05 2012]
  [eu and world govt 05 2012 ]
  [world govt a= e 05 2012 ]
  [ eu and workd govt/ cv2 a= e 05 2012 ]
  [EU; WORLD GOVT ;CV1 A= D 06 2012 ]
  [history objective; qs a= e 06 2012 ]
  [isp hijack; aka 1= 5 jn 2012 ]
  [pub summary/cv2 /06 2012 ]
  [Criminology and law.. CONCLUDING COMMENTS 06 2012]
   [GEORGIA GUIDE=STONES/QUOTES 06 2012 ]
  [NWO/QS 06 2012 ]
  [nwo lackeys; quotes 07 2012 seoul ]
  ==MEDICINE AND N W O ; QS; 07 2012 SEOUL==
  //messiah and n w o 07 2012 //
  ==NEW AGE; N W O ; QUOTES 07 2012 ==
   ==INTELLIGENCE; N W O; QUOTES 07 2012 SEOUL ==
   ==ufo ; n w o; quotes 07 2012 seoul ==
   ==CV2; CRIMINOLOGY; PUB SUMMARY; 07 2012 SEOUL==
   == spy shelter/ hacking/ a= e/ 08 2012 seoul ==
  ==cv1/ n w o/ a= d/ 08 2012 seoul ==
   [UN/ PRIVATE WORLD GOVT/ QUOTES A= E/ 08 2012 SEOUL ]
  cv2; private world govt 08 2012
  CV2 08 2012 seoul
   [world govt/ summary/ contents 08 2012]
   [academia and n w o quotes a= e 08 2012 ]
   [asr /advanced protection against unknown threats a= e 09 2012 ]
   [cv1/ world govt and law/ a= d/ 09 2012 seoul ]
   /PATRIOT ACT 1; QUOTES; A= E; 09 2012 sEOUL /
   [/N W O/ 11 09 [2001 ] AND LAW 9b sp 2012 seoul / ]
   //cv2; n w o/911 and law; a= d; 10 2012 seoul //
  --cv1/ n w o/ pat act a-- e 10 2012 seoul --
   --index chrono. german and comp penal law. 1- 5. 10 2012 seoul --
  cn poetry 1. 10 2012 seoul.
  cn poetry 2. 10 2012 seoul.
  cv1. gcp2012.npage.de 10 2012 seoul
  a` dieu to ms sherman. hacking. 10 2012 kr
  scherman. sprache vom koerper. quotes. 10 2012 kr
  QUOTES/ new--speak 10 2012 kr
  QUOTES/ 1984/ 1949 g o. 10 2012 kr.
   Dt polizei—recht 2. oc 2012. kr.
  CV2. publications. 11 2012 kr
  sprach--lenkung.denk--verbot. 11 2012 kr
  CV1. sites list. nv 2012 seoul
  gute fahrt mr obama. yp 07 11 2012 seoul
  HACKING. gamers info. 11 2012 kr
  HACKING. ime. sys shut--down. 11 2012 seoul
  Dt stpo 3. 11 2012 kr
  Icc before and after kampala. 11 2012 seoul
  CV2/pub summary. 11 2012 kr
  merry xmas and great new year 2013.
  German poet heine. Ii--a. 12 2012 seoul
  ECONOMIC LAW. AND ECONOMY AND LAW. 12 2012
  ECONOMIC LAW. AND ECONOMY AND LAW. 12 2012
  German poet heine. Ii--b. 12 2012 seoul
  MONTAIGNE. 12 2012 seoul
  a` dieu 2012. montaigne ii. 12 2012 seoul
  happy 2013. heine 3- 4. 01 2013 kr
  fechner c. 01 2013 seoul
  hacking.myspace hijack,01 2013 kr
  mali-a-b-c-01-2013-kr
  pub-list-01-2013-kr
  re-kolonialisierung and n w o agenda under vorwand of false humanitarian-ism/02/2013/kr
  publications list-02-2013
  monroe-death-1962-03-2013-seoul
  monroe-2-death-03-2013-kr
  monroe-1-b-quotes-03-2013
  sites-map-cv1-03-2013
  chronology-of-sites-cv3-03-2013
  edit-cmos-safely-03/2013
  publications-list-cv2-03-2013
  monroe-about-monroe-monroe-1-b-03-2013
  n-korea-and-us-03-2013. 4
  pub list 04 2013 seoul
  QUOTES. unsc. 05 2013 seoul
  N KOREA UPDATE 5b 05 2013
  cv3. remembrance of a friend 05 2013
  cv2. publications list 05 2013
  hacking. hdd interrupt request 05 2013
  quotes. legal pluralism 05 2013
  korean poet s w kim part 1. 05 2013
  korean poet s w kim part 2 contents 05 2013
  cannes 2013 pt1-pt5. 06 2013
  quotes martens clause 06 2013
  cv 2 pubs list 06 2013
  hacking-pwr supply - 06 2013
  cv 3 site chronology 06 2013
  cv 1 sites map 06 2013
  RIMBAUD PT I 06 2013
  rimbaud pt ii 06 2013
  rimbaud pt iii 06 2013
  arthur r pt1 06 2013
  arthur r pt2 06 2013
  arthur r pt 3 06 2013
  arthur r pt 4 06 2013
  nwo,strahlentod.06 2013
  new site.. https://myspace.com/muc2013
  new site http://gcci2013.npage.de 06 2013
  myspace and national security 06 2013
  cv3 sites chronology. link updates 06 2013
  cv2 pubs list. link updates 06 2013
  cv1 sites map. link updates 06 2013
  cv1 sites map link updates ctnd 06 2013
  cv3 site chronology link update ctnd 06 2013
   CRIMINAL PSYCHOLOGY AND LAW __ SECTION A__ @@@@@@@@@@@@@ CHAP 1 OPENING STATEMENT: zzzzzzzzzzzzzzzzzzzzzzzzzz sexually related delicts against children, CRIMINAL PSYCHOLOGY AND LAW SECULAR AND ECCLESIASTICAL @@@@@@@@@@@@@@@ DR YONG K PARK SEOUL 2010
  CRIMINAL PSYCHOLOGY AND LAW @@@@@@@@@@@@@ CHAP 4Y24 //////////////////////////////////// CRIMINAL MIND Patrick Mackay +++++ Patrick Mackay was known in school as a liar and troublemaker, @@@@@@@@@@@@@@@
  CRIMINAL PSYCHOLOGY AND LAW @@@@@@@@@@@@@ CHAP 4Z__6B //////////////////////////////////// Canada XXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXX Florida's new law, which takes effect in September 2005 ZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZ Jacob Wetterling Crimes Against Children and Sexually Violent Offender Registration Act, ZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZ Passive GPS utilizes an ZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZ ,,ankle bracelet ,, ZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZ and a MTD (Miniature Tracking Device). XXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXX GPS sex offender tracking __CTND__ XXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXX
  CRIMINAL PSYCHOLOGY AND LAW @@@@@@@@@@@@@ CHAP 4Z__8__90 //////////////////////////////////// ,, Real sex offenders, people who rape and prey on others, should be marked but the average person on the lists didnt do anything wrong. ``````````````````````````````````````````````````````````````` Get the predators off the streets and we will all be safer. ``````````````````````````````````````````````````````````````` Really, is everyone that naive? ,,
  CRIMINAL PSYCHOLOGY AND LAW @@@@@@@@@@@@@ CHAP 4Z__90__0BA //////////////////////////////////// Index of Bills by Subject Matter ZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZ ⓒ2006 The Missouri Bar
  CRIMINAL PSYCHOLOGY AND LAW @@@@@@@@@@@@@ CHAP 4Z__98 //////////////////////////////////// Sex Offenders Report ZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZ Sex Offenders - Fox Point to discuss restrictions for sex offenders (Milwaukee Journal, ]]]]]]]
  RE CRIMINAL PSYCHOLOGY AND LAW @@@@@@@@@@@@@ CHAP 4Z__98 //////////////////////////////////// Sex Offenders Report ZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZ Sex Offenders - Fox Point to discuss restrictions for sex offenders (Milwaukee Journal, ]]]]]]]
  AGAIN CRIMINAL PSYCHOLOGY AND LAW @@@@@@@@@@@@@ CHAP 4Z__98 //////////////////////////////////// Sex Offenders Report ZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZ Sex Offenders - Fox Point to discuss restrictions for sex offenders (Milwaukee Journal, ]]]]]]]
  CRIMINAL PSYCHOLOGY AND LAW @@@@@@@@@@@@@ CHAP 4Z__101__J //////////////////////////////////// Vatican positions and procedures Catholic sex abuse cases ]]]]]]]]]]]]]] From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia ]]]]]]]
  CRIMINAL PSYCHOLOGY AND LAW @@@@@@@@@@@@@ CHAP 4Z__102G //////////////////////////////////// Ireland ,, Church responses,, Catholic sex abuse cases ]]]]]]]]]]]]]]
  CRIMINAL PSYCHOLOGY AND LAW__ SECTION B__ @@@@@@@@@@@@@ CHAP 4Z__102Q //////////////////////////////////// Formal Apology Catholic sex abuse cases ]]]]]]]]]]]]]]
  CRIMINAL PSYCHOLOGY AND LAW @@@@@@@@@@@@@ CHAP 4Z__103__0B //////////////////////////////////// PROBLEMS AND LIMITATIONS IN OBTAINING RELIABLE DATA ZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZ Prevalence and Incidence of Roman Catholic Clerical Sex Offenders ]]]]]]]]]] GERARD J. MCGLONE__ GJM GLONE__ ]]]]]]]
  CRIMINAL PSYCHOLOGY AND LAW__ SECTION B__ @@@@@@@@@@@@@ CHAP 4Z__103A //////////////////////////////////// Pope shuns scandal at Easter Sunday mass ZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZ ]]]]]]]
  GERMAN AND COMPARATIVE CRIM LAW 0X19B ZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZ CRIMINAL PSYCHOLOGY AND LAW @@@@@@@@@@@@@ CHAP 4Z__104__00G //////////////////////////////////// November 11, 2009 ZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZ Antigonish Priest Abuse Class Action Decision Released
   GERMAN AND COMPARATIVE CRIM LAW 0X19B ZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZ CRIMINAL PSYCHOLOGY AND LAW @@@@@@@@@@@@@ CHAP 4Z__104__09 //////////////////////////////////// Is the Catholic Church the Problem?
  GERMAN AND COMPARATIVE CRIM LAW 0X19B ZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZ CRIMINAL PSYCHOLOGY AND LAW @@@@@@@@@@@@@ CHAP 4Z__104__0A7 //////////////////////////////////// May 5, 2008 ZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZ Diocese Ignored Sex Abuse Claims Against Priest: Vermont
   GERMAN AND COMPARATIVE CRIM LAW 0X19B ZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZ CRIMINAL PSYCHOLOGY AND LAW @@@@@@@@@@@@@ CHAP 4Z__104__0A999 //////////////////////////////////// the Church's cover up of Sylvestre's abuse appears to be more the rule +++++++++ than the exception.
  GERMAN AND COMPARATIVE CRIM LAW 0X19B ZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZ CRIMINAL PSYCHOLOGY AND LAW @@@@@@@@@@@@@ CHAP 5H Scholars like GALL and SPURZHEIM were regarded by a small few ++++++ as the true founders of criminology.
  GERMAN AND COMPARATIVE CRIM LAW 0X19B ZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZ CRIMINAL PSYCHOLOGY AND LAW __ SECTION B__ @@@@@@@@@@@@@ CHAP 7 ANTI-SOCIAL PERSONALITY, SOCIO-PATHY, AND PSYCHO-PATHY
  GERMAN AND COMPARATIVE CRIM LAW 0X19B ZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZ CRIMINAL PSYCHOLOGY @@@@@@@@@@@@@ CHAP 7H A FOCUS ON SELF-HANDICAPPING
  GERMAN AND COMPARATIVE CRIM LAW 0X19C ZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZ CRIMINAL PSYCHOLOGY[ SECTION C ] @@@@@@@@@@@@@ CHAP 8B5 a kind of folk psychology.
  GERMAN AND COMPARATIVE CRIM LAW 0X19C ZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZ CRIMINAL PSYCHOLOGY AND LAW @@@@@@@@@@@@@ CHAP 9B01 serotonin, +++++ dopamine, +++++ and nor__epinephrine. *29__0__8A
  GERMAN AND COMPARATIVE CRIM LAW 0X19C ZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZ CRIMINAL PSYCHOLOGY AND LAW __ SECTION C__ @@@@@@@@@@@@@ %%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%% CHAP 11 the nature of a crime ZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZ can be related to the personality of the offender -- a major assumption of profiling ANTHROPO__LOGICAL CRIMINOLOGY
  GERMAN AND COMPARATIVE CRIM LAW 0X19C ZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZ CRIMINAL PSYCHOLOGY AND LAW __ SECTION C__ @@@@@@@@@@@@@ CHAP 12 criminology never really embraced the ,,psychological determinism,, inherent in most learning psychologies. zzzzzzzzzzzzzzzzzzzzzzzzzz LEARNING THEORIES OF CRIME
  GERMAN AND COMPARATIVE CRIM LAW 0X19C ZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZ CRIMINAL PSYCHOLOGY AND LAW @@@@@@@@@@@@@ CHAP 13H0B1 interpersonal __ types of coercion __*29__0__999A (which is direct, zzzzzzzzzzzzzzzzzzzzzzzzzzzzzzzzzzzzzzz +++++++ involving the use __ of force from parents, peers, and significant others __*29__0__999A +++++++ or threat of force from parents, peers, and significant others); impersonal__ types of coercion __ *29__0__999A (which involves pressures zzzzzzzzzzzzzzzzzzzzzzzzzzzzzzzzzzzzzzzzzzz beyond individual control). Zzzzzzzzzzzzzzzzz A fairly new "latent trait" approach +++++++++ DEVELOPMENTAL THEORIES ////////////////// MORAL DEVELOPMENT __ THEORIES OF CRIME __ +++++++ AND DEVELOPMENTAL THEORIES OF CRIME
  CRIMINAL PSYCHOLOGY AND LAW @@@@@@@@@@@@@ CHAP 14cA1a Divorce *29__1__4A is the most studied broken home variable /////////////////// and __ Divorce __is often compared to death of a parent. ZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZ THE ROLE OF THE FAMILY CONTROL THEORIES OF CRIME
  GERMAN AND COMPARATIVE CRIM LAW 0X19C ZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZ CRIMINAL PSYCHOLOGY AND LAW__ SECTION C__ @@@@@@@@@@@@@ CHAP 15 Social dis__organization is a rather difficult term to define. ]]]]]] SOCIAL DIS__ORGANIZATION THEORIES __ SD__OF CRIME ]]]]]]]]]]]]]]]]]]]]]]]]]]]]]]]
   GERMAN AND COMPARATIVE CRIM LAW 0X19C ZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZ CRIMINAL PSYCHOLOGY AND LAW @@@@@@@@@@@@@ CHAP 15H1 The victimization, __ movement __ or guardianship, movement *29__1__9O ZZZZZZZZ draws upon ]]]]]] the routine activities approach ]]]]] __ neighborhood __CONTEXTUAL __ THEORIES __AND GUARDIANSHIP THEORIES SOCIAL DISORGANIZATION THEORIES OF CRIME
  GERMAN AND COMPARATIVE CRIM LAW 0X19C ZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZ CRIMINAL PSYCHOLOGY AND LAW __ SECTION C__ @@@@@@@@@@@@@ CHAP 17 people with less power XXXXXXXXXXX are more likely to be defined and processed as deviants and criminals. ZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZ CONFLICT CRIMINOLOGY ]]]]]]]]]]]]]]]]]]]]]]]]]]]]]]]
  GERMAN AND COMPARATIVE CRIM LAW 0X19C ZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZ CRIMINAL PSYCHOLOGY AND LAW[ SETION C ] @@@@@@@@@@@@@ CHAP 17C__4 Coser (1956), *29__2__5I a functionalist, also comes close to Simmel's position. ZZZZZZZZZZZ The image of the ever-present and always-emerging offender *29__2__5I +++++++ is also consistent with the ideas of Simmel, ++++++++ except that Coser follows a more "crime is functional" approach. *29__2__5I ZZZZZZZZZZZZ Conflict Theories in the Simmelian Tradition
  GERMAN AND COMPARATIVE CRIM LAW 0X19D ZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZ CRIMINAL PSYCHOLOGY AND LAW__ SECTION D__ @@@@@@@@@@@@@ CHAP 18C__4 Whether the proper focus of Cloward and Ohlin's theory is serious crime*29__2__9I is questionable. ///////// CLOWARD AND OHLIN'S STRAIN THEORY STRAIN THEORIES OF CRIME
  GERMAN AND COMPARATIVE CRIM LAW 0X19D ZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZ CRIMINAL PSYCHOLOGY AND LAW @@@@@@@@@@@@@ CHAP 19C KATZ MORAL SEDUCTION THEORY ZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZ LABELING THEORIES OF CRIME ]]]]]]]]]]]]]]]]
  GERMAN AND COMPARATIVE CRIM LAW 0X19D ZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZ CRIMINAL PSYCHOLOGY AND LAW @@@@@@@@@@@@@ CHAP 21D THE NATURE OF HUMAN NATURE ZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZ INTEGRATED THEORY IN CRIMINOLOGY CCCCCCCCC FEMINIST CRIMINOLOGY, FEMALE CRIME, AND INTEGRATED THEORY__ 2__ ]]]]]]]]]]]]]]]]
  GERMAN AND COMPARATIVE CRIM LAW 0X19d ZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZ CRIMINAL PSYCHOLOGY AND LAW @@@@@@@@@@@@@ CHAP 22__0B13 ZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZ Multiplices Inter, ZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZ 25 September 1865 $$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$ The Roman Catholic hierarchy are, and historically have been, quite interested in Freemasonry. ]]]]]] For over two hundred and fifty years the Vatican has been condemning Masonry ++++++
  GERMAN AND COMPARATIVE CRIM LAW 0X19d ZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZ CRIMINAL PSYCHOLOGY AND LAW @@@@@@@@@@@@@ CHAP 22__0c0a4 ; CHAP 22__0c9 ZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZ BUCH V KIRCHEN VERMOGEN XXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXX CODEX DES KANONISCHEN RECHTES XXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXX S. auch: Herausgeber- und Mitarbeiterverzeichnis IntraText CT ist der Text als Hypertext zusammen mit Wordlisten und Konkordanzen. Hilfe: Ubersicht - Text und Suche - Listen - Konkordanzen - Glossar - Zum angenehmeren Lesen... - Inhalt - Statistik & Schaubilder (Belege: 111526. Worter: 10419)
  GERMAN AND COMPARATIVE CRIM LAW 0X19d ZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZ CRIMINAL PSYCHOLOGY AND LAW @@@@@@@@@@@@@ CHAP 22__0c7 ZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZ BOOK VI. ```````````````````````````````````````````````````````````````````````````` SANCTIONS IN THE CHURCH LIBER VI. ```````````````````````````````````````````````````````````````````````````` DE SANCTIONIBUS IN ECCLESIA PART II. ```````````````````````````````````````````````````````````````````````````` PENALTIES FOR INDIVIDUAL DELICTS TITLE VII. ```````````````````````````````````````````````````````````````````````````` GENERAL NORM ```````````````````````````````````````````````````````````````````````````` (Can. 1399) ZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZ
  GERMAN AND COMPARATIVE CRIM LAW 0X19D ZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZ CRIMINAL PSYCHOLOGY AND LAW__ section d__ @@@@@@@@@@@@@ CHAP 220d7 ZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZ Geschichte ZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZ Der Beginn des kanonischen Rechts ++++++++ Canon ZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZ
  GERMAN AND COMPARATIVE CRIM LAW 0X19D ZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZ CRIMINAL PSYCHOLOGY AND LAW__ section D__ @@@@@@@@@@@@@ CHAP 22__0D10 ZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZ CANON Recht als eine Wissenschaft +++++++ Canon ZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZ Allgemeine Informationen ]]]]]
  GERMAN AND COMPARATIVE CRIM LAW 0X19E ZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZ CRIMINAL PSYCHOLOGY AND LAW__ section E __ @@@@@@@@@@@@@ CHAP 22__0D14__4 ZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZ Historische Entwicklung von Texten und Sammlungen XXXXXXXXXXXXX B. ZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZ Die Canonical Sammlungen in /DEL..den/ DEM / Westen zu Pseudo-Isidore XXXXXX (4) $$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$ In Spanien ZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZ Canon ZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZ Allgemeine Informationen ]]]]]
  GERMAN AND COMPARATIVE CRIM LAW 0X19E ZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZ CRIMINAL PSYCHOLOGY AND LAW__ section E__ @@@@@@@@@@@@@ CHAP 22__0D17 ZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZ IV. Historische Entwicklung der Texte und Sammlungen ZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZ E. ZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZ Decretals /////////// und Decretalists XXXXXXXX Canon ZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZ Allgemeine Informationen ]]]]]
  GERMAN AND COMPARATIVE CRIM LAW 0X19E ZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZ CRIMINAL PSYCHOLOGY AND LAW__ section E__ @@@@@@@@@@@@@ CHAP 22__0D19 ZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZ V. ZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZ KODIFIZIERUNG XXXXXX Canon ZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZ
  GERMAN AND COMPARATIVE CRIM LAW 0X19E ZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZ CRIMINAL PSYCHOLOGY AND LAW__ section E__ @@@@@@@@@@@@@ CHAP 22__0D21 ZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZ VII. ZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZ Die wichtigsten CANONISTS XXXXXXX
  GERMAN AND COMPARATIVE CRIM LAW 0X19E ZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZ CRIMINAL PSYCHOLOGY AND LAW__ section E__ @@@@@@@@@@@@@ CHAP 22__0D21 ZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZ VII. ZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZ Die wichtigsten CANONISTS CTND XXXXXXX
  GERMAN AND COMPARATIVE CRIM LAW 0X19E ZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZ CRIMINAL PSYCHOLOGY AND LAW__ section E__ @@@@@@@@@@@@@ CHAP 22__0D25 ZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZ Der Rest des/deL..DER pala/ R/stinensisch-ju/ E/dischen Canon / DEL.. ES/ ZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZ
  GERMAN AND COMPARATIVE CRIM LAW 0X19E ZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZ CRIMINAL PSYCHOLOGY AND LAW__ section E__ @@@@@@@@@@@@@ CHAP 22__0D28 ZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZ Die Kethubim / wa-Kethubim / ]]]] oder Hagio-grapha ]]]]]]]] ZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZ schliet /DEL..der/ DEN/ judischen Canon ZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZ
  GERMAN AND COMPARATIVE CRIM LAW 0X19E ZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZ CRIMINAL PSYCHOLOGY AND LAW__ section E__ @@@@@@@@@@@@@ $$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$ CHAP 22__0D31 ZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZ Kanon +++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++ unter den ALEXANDRIAN JUDEN ZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZ (DEUTERO__CANONICAL Bu/E/cher) CTND ZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZ
  GERMAN AND COMPARATIVE CRIM LAW 0X19E ZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZ CRIMINAL PSYCHOLOGY AND LAW__ section E__ @@@@@@@@@@@@@ $$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$ CHAP 22__0D33 ZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZ A. ZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZ /DEL..Das/ DER / alteS Testament -Kanon ]]]]] TTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTT (einschlielich der DEUTEROS) ++++++++++ in /DEL..den/ DEM/ neuen Testament CTND ZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZ
  GERMAN AND COMPARATIVE CRIM LAW 0X19E ZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZ CRIMINAL PSYCHOLOGY AND LAW__ section E__ @@@@@@@@@@@@@ %%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%% CHAP 22__0D34 ZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZ __ CTND__ ZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZ B. ZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZ Kanon /DEL..der/ DES / alten Testament / S / ++++++ TTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTT in der Kirche der ersten drei Jahrhunderte/ C1__C3 / PPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPP
  GERMAN AND COMPARATIVE CRIM LAW 0X19E ZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZ CRIMINAL PSYCHOLOGY AND LAW__ section E__ @@@@@@@@@@@@@ %%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%% CHAP 22__0D35 ZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZ C. ZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZ Kanon /DEL..der / DES / alten Testament /S/ +++++++++ im vierten / Jahrhundert / -C4- EEEEEEEEEE und / IM /ersten Ha/E /lfte des fu/ E /nften, Jahrhundert /S -C5 - CTND ZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZ
  GERMAN AND COMPARATIVE CRIM LAW 0X19F ZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZ CRIMINAL PSYCHOLOGY AND LAW__ section F__ @@@@@@@@@@@@@ %%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%% CHAP 22__0D36a ZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZ Die lateinische Kirche CTND ZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZ E. ZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZ /in /den /Kanon / ES /DEL..der / DES/ alten Testament /S / wa/E /hrend des Mittelalters __ MA__ ZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZ Die griechische Kirche ZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZ D. ZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZ Kanon der / S / alten Testament / S / ++++ aus der Mitte des fu/ E /nften bis zum Ende des siebten Jahrhunderts/C5__C7/ ZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZ
  GERMAN AND COMPARATIVE CRIM LAW 0X19F ZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZ CRIMINAL PSYCHOLOGY AND LAW__ section F__ @@@@@@@@@@@@@ %%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%% CHAP 22__0D46 ZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZ A. ZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZ Bildung der /DEL..neuen/ NEUES /- Testament __CANON/ ES / (AD 100-220) __ C2/C3__ 1. ZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZ Das Zeugnis des Neuen Testaments zu sich selbst: ZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZ
  GERMAN AND COMPARATIVE CRIM LAW 0X19F ZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZ CRIMINAL PSYCHOLOGY AND LAW__ section F__ @@@@@@@@@@@@@ %%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%% CHAP 22__0D47 ZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZ A. ZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZ Bildung der /DEL..neuen/ NEUES /- Testament __CANON/ ES / (AD 100-220) __ C2/C3__ 2. ZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZ Das Prinzip der ```````````````````````````````````````````````````````````````````````````````````````````````````````````````````````` canonicity CTND ```````````````````````````````````````````````````````````````````````````````````````````````````````````````````````` ZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZ
  GERMAN AND COMPARATIVE CRIM LAW 0X19F ZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZ CRIMINAL PSYCHOLOGY AND LAW__ section F__ @@@@@@@@@@@@@ %%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%% CHAP 22__0D48 ZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZ __ CTND__ A. ZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZ Bildung der /DEL..neuen/ NEUES- Testament CANON/ ES / (AD 100-220) __ C2/C3__ 3. ZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZ Die Bildung /DEL..der / DES Tetra-morph, /S ```````````````````````````````````````````````````````````````````````````````````````````````````````````````````````` oder Fou-r-fold Gospel CTND ZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZ
  GERMAN AND COMPARATIVE CRIM LAW 0X19F ZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZ CRIMINAL PSYCHOLOGY AND LAW__ section F__ @@@@@@@@@@@@@ %%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%% CHAP 22__0D50 ZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZ A. ZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZ Bildung der/DEL.. neuen/ NEUES- Testament CANON/ ES / (AD 100-220) __ C2/C3__ 5. ZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZ Die restlichen Bu/ E/cher ZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZ
  GERMAN AND COMPARATIVE CRIM LAW 0X19F ZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZ CRIMINAL PSYCHOLOGY AND LAW__ section F __ @@@@@@@@@@@@@ %%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%% CHAP 22__0D54 ZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZ B. ZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZ THE PERIOD OF DISCUSSION (AD 220-367) __ C3/C4 AD__ ZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZ 2. ZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZ Eusebius CTND ZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZ Canon ZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZ
  GERMAN AND COMPARATIVE CRIM LAW 0X19F ZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZ CRIMINAL PSYCHOLOGY AND LAW__ section F __ @@@@@@@@@@@@@ %%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%% CHAP 22__0D57 ZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZ __ CTND__ C. ZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZ DIE ZEIT DER FIXATION (AD 367-405) __ C4/C5 AD__ ZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZ 1. ZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZ St. Athanasius ZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZ Canon ZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZ
  GERMAN AND COMPARATIVE CRIM LAW 0X19F ZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZ CRIMINAL PSYCHOLOGY AND LAW__ section F __ @@@@@@@@@@@@@ %%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%% CHAP 22__0D59 ZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZ __ CTND__ C. ZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZ DIE ZEIT DER FIXATION (AD 367-405) __ C4/C5 AD__ ZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZ 3. ZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZ Fixation in /DEL..der / DEN / afrikanischen Kirchen YYYYYYYYYYYYYYYYYYYY und / IN DEN / Gallican / KIRCHEN/ CTND ZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZ Canon ZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZ
  GERMAN AND COMPARATIVE CRIM LAW 0X19F ZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZ CRIMINAL PSYCHOLOGY AND LAW__ section F __ @@@@@@@@@@@@@ %%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%% CHAP 22__0D62 ZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZ D. ZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZ Spa/ E/ter/DEL..en/ ER / Verlauf /DEL..des/ TTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTT DER /DEL..neuen/NEUES- Testament CANON / ES / ZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZ 3. ZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZ /DEL..Das/ DER/ NeueS- Testament Kanon TTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTT auerhalb der Kirche ZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZ
  GERMAN AND COMPARATIVE CRIM LAW 0X19F ZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZ CRIMINAL PSYCHOLOGY AND LAW @@@@@@@@@@@@@ %%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%% CHAP 22__0f4 ZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZ IV. +++++ Historical Development of Texts and Collections ]]]]]]]] A PPPPPPP Canonical collections in the East XXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXX Home > Catholic Encyclopedia > L > Canon Law Canon Law ]]]]]]]]]]]]]
  GERMAN AND COMPARATIVE CRIM LAW 0X19F ZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZ CRIMINAL PSYCHOLOGY AND LAW @@@@@@@@@@@@@ %%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%% CHAP 22__0f10 ZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZ Codification XXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXX Home > Catholic Encyclopedia > L > Canon Law Canon Law ]]]]]]]]]]]]]
  GERMAN AND COMPARATIVE CRIM LAW 0X19F ZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZ CRIMINAL PSYCHOLOGY AND LAW @@@@@@@@@@@@@ %%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%% CHAP 22__0h4 ZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZ Canon law and Church office %%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%% Canon law (Catholic Church) From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia ]]]]]
  cf ####################################### gccl 0x19 e ##################################################### cf C H A P 2 2 _ _ 0 D 1 2 Z Z Z Z Z Z Z Z Z Z Z Z Z Z Z Z Z Z Z Z Z Z Z Z Z Z Z Z Z Z Z Z Z Z Z Z Z _ _ C T N D _ _ H i s t o r i s c h e E n t w i c k l u n g v o n T e x t e n u n d S a m m l u n g e n X X X X X X X X X X X X X C a n o n Z Z Z Z Z Z Z Z Z Z Z Z Z Z Z Z Z Z Z Z Z Z Z Z Z Z Z Z Z Z Z Z Z Z Z Z Z A l l g e m e i n e I n f o r m a t i o n e n ] ] ] ] ] D R Y O N G K P A R K S E O U L 2 0 1 0 @ @ @ @ @ @ @ @ @ @ @ @ @ pppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppp
  GERMAN AND COMPARATIVE CRIM LAW 0X19G ZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZ CRIMINAL PSYCHOLOGY AND LAW-SECTION G- @@@@@@@@@@@@@ %%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%% CHAP 22__1 ZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZ 29.200.000 Ergebnisse fur CANON LAW: ]]]]]]]]]]]]]]]]]]]]]]]]]
  GERMAN AND COMPARATIVE CRIM LAW 0X19G ZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZ CRIMINAL PSYCHOLOGY AND LAW-Section G- @@@@@@@@@@@@@ CHAP 22__2K2 ZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZ Sources XXXXXXX Wikipedia. ZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZ This article is licensed under the Creative Commons Attribution/Share-Alike License. It uses material from the Wikipedia article "Catholic Church". Wikipedia: ++++++ Catholic Church XXXXXXXXXXXX RCC/CANON LAW ZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZ
  CRIMINAL PSYCHOLOGY AND LAW @@@@@@@@@@@@@ %%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%% CHAP 22__2s2 ZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZ References $$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$ Notes ++++++++++ Wikipedia. ZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZ This article is licensed under the Creative Commons Attribution/Share-Alike License. It uses material from the Wikipedia article "Catholic Church". Wikipedia: ++++++ Catholic Church XXXXXXXXXXXX
  GERMAN AND COMPARATIVE CRIM LAW 0X19G ZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZ CRIMINAL PSYCHOLOGY AND LAW @@@@@@@@@@@@@ %%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%% CHAP 22__2U__r ZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZ Membership ++++++ Wikipedia. ZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZ This article is licensed under the Creative Commons Attribution/Share-Alike License. It uses material from the Wikipedia article "Catholic Church". Wikipedia: ++++++ Catholic Church XXXXXXXXXXXX
  GERMAN AND COMPARATIVE CRIM LAW 0X19G ZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZ CRIMINAL PSYCHOLOGY AND LAW @@@@@@@@@@@@@ %%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%% CHAP 23__1C ZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZ RCC PART IV : THE PENAL PROCESS PART IV : THE PENAL PROCESS CHAPTER I : THE PRELIMINARY INVESTIGATION XXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXX
  GERMAN AND COMPARATIVE CRIM LAW 0X19G ZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZ CRIMINAL PSYCHOLOGY AND LAW @@@@@@@@@@@@@ %%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%% CHAP 23__2C ZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZ RCC http://www.vatican.va/archive/ENG1104/_INDEX.HTM CODE OF CANON LAW ]]]]]]]
  GERMAN AND COMPARATIVE CRIM LAW 0X19G ZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZ CRIMINAL PSYCHOLOGY AND LAW @@@@@@@@@@@@@ %%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%% CHAP 23__3 ZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZ Canon Law http://www.ourladyswarriors.org/ ]]]]]]] DR YONG K PARK SEOUL 2010 @@@@@@@@@@@@@
  GERMAN AND COMPARATIVE CRIM LAW 0X19G ZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZ CRIMINAL PSYCHOLOGY AND LAW @@@@@@@@@@@@@ CHAP 23--8 ZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZ RCC CL http://www.ourladyswarriors.org/canon/c1311-1363.htm#par2689 PART I : OFFENCES AND PUNISHMENTS IN GENERAL PART I : OFFENCES AND PUNISHMENTS IN GENERAL TITLE I: THE PUNISHMENT OF OFFENCES ZZZZZZZZZZZ IN GENERAL XXXXXXXXXXXX DR YONG K PARK SEOUL 2010 @@@@@@@@@@@@@
  GERMAN AND COMPARATIVE CRIM LAW 0X19G ZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZ CRIMINAL PSYCHOLOGY AND LAW @@@@@@@@@@@@@ CHAP 24A ZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZ RCC CL http://www.ourladyswarriors.org/canon/c1311-1363.htm#par2753 PART I : OFFENCES AND PUNISHMENTS IN GENERAL PART I : OFFENCES AND PUNISHMENTS IN GENERAL TITLE I: THE PUNISHMENT OF OFFENCES ]]]]]] IN GENERAL ]]]] DR YONG K PARK SEOUL 2010 @@@@@@@@@@@@@
  GERMAN AND COMPARATIVE CRIM LAW 0X19G ZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZ CRIMINAL PSYCHOLOGY AND LAW @@@@@@@@@@@@@ CHAP 24E ZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZ RCC CL http://www.ourladyswarriors.org/canon/c1311-1363.htm#par2795 PART I : OFFENCES AND PUNISHMENTS IN GENERAL PART I : OFFENCES AND PUNISHMENTS IN GENERAL TITLE I: THE PUNISHMENT OF OFFENCES ]]]]]] IN GENERAL ]]]] DR YONG K PARK SEOUL 2010 @@@@@@@@@@@@@
  GERMAN AND COMPARATIVE CRIM LAW 0X19H ZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZ CRIMINAL PSYCHOLOGY AND LAW @@@@@@@@@@@@@ CHAP 25__27__05 //////////////////////////////////// Here's an article that I think sums it up... Ala. Court Rules Against Gay Mother ZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZ Fri Feb 15,10:30 PM ET __ 2010__ ]]]]]] By PHILLIP RAWLS, ///// Associated Press Writer MONTGOMERY, Ala. ZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZ RCC EXPOSED ]]]]]]]]] Think about that Mr & Mrs Catholic. ZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZ The money you donate to your church is NOT going to spread the Gospel. ZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZ It's going to pay off lawsuits for child rapists. ZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZ
  GERMAN AND COMPARATIVE CRIM LAW 0X19H ZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZ CRIMINAL PSYCHOLOGY AND LAW @@@@@@@@@@@@@ CHAP 25__28__0G //////////////////////////////////// 20 October 2003 commentary ZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZ Canon Law Society of America ZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZ Father Morrissey J.C.D. (Saint Paul University), PhD (University of Ottawa) ZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZ Father Frank Morrissey is an Ottawa-based Oblate priest and professor of canon lawyer at Ottawa's Roman Catholic University of Saint Paul who has gained international renown. ]]]]]]] Morrissey, who believes it is "bad stewardship" to throw away the $250,00[0 ]// SIC *29__6__2Y7EG // invested in ordaining a priest PPPPPPP by defrocking him, ZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZ
  GERMAN AND COMPARATIVE CRIM LAW 0X19H ZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZ CRIMINAL PSYCHOLOGY AND LAW __ SECTION H __ @@@@@@@@@@@@@ CHAP 29__26__1E Sociological positivism// Criminology From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia ]]]]]]]]]]]]]]]]]]]]]]]]]]]]]]]]]
  CRIMINAL PSYCHOLOGY AND LAW @@@@@@@@@@@@@ CHAP 30__25__6 http://de.search.yahoo.com/search;_ylt=A0oGkzI4I39LPA4BepUzCQx.?p=criminal+psychology&fr2=sb-top&fr=yfp-t-708&rd=r1&sao=1 __RECAPITULATED__ PSYCHOLOGY CRIMINAL__SEARCH/RE @@@@@@@@@@@@@@@
  GERMAN AND COMPARATIVE CRIM LAW 0X19H ZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZ CRIMINAL PSYCHOLOGY AND LAW-SECTION H- @@@@@@@@@@@@@ XXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXX CHAP 30__29__1A PAINE THOMAS/1737~1809// ENGL_AMER SCHRIFTSTELLER/ //////////////////////////////////// the most effectual means to prevent all such evils and impositions ``````````` is ```````````` not to admit of any other revelation ``````````````` than that which is manifested in the book of creation, ]]] and to contemplate the creation as the only true and real word of God ``````````` that ever did // exist //or ever will exist; ]]]] and that everything else, called the word of God, ````````````````` is fable and imposition. @@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@ XXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXX http://libertyonline.hypermall.com/Paine/AOR-Frame.html
   GERMAN AND COMPARATIVE CRIM LAW 0X19H ZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZ CRIMINAL PSYCHOLOGY AND LAW @@@@@@@@@@@@@ XXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXX CHAP 29__1A6 //////////////////////////////////// PAINE THOMAS/1737~1809// ENGL_AMER SCHRIFTSTELLER/ the most effectual means to prevent all such evils and impositions ``````````` is ```````````` not to admit of any other revelation ``````````````` than that which is manifested in the book of creation, ]]] and to contemplate the creation as the only true and real word of God ``````````` that ever did // exist //or ever will exist; ]]]]
   GERMAN AND COMPARATIVE CRIM LAW 0X19H ZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZ CRIMINAL PSYCHOLOGY AND LAW @@@@@@@@@@@@@ CHAP 30__29__1A12 //////////////////////////////////// material CERTAIN READER MAY NEED FOR REFUTING T PAINE.. TTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTT CF and to contemplate the creation as the only true and real word of God ``````````` that ever did // exist //or THAT ever will exist; ]]]] and [to contemplate ] that everything else, called the word of God, ````````````````` is fable and imposition. @@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@
   GERMAN AND COMPARATIVE CRIM LAW 0X19H ZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZ CRIMINAL PSYCHOLOGY AND LAW @@@@@@@@@@@@@ CHAP 30__29__1A18 //////////////////////////////////// and to contemplate the creation as the only true and real word of God ``````````` that ever did // exist //or ever will exist; ]]]]
  GERMAN AND COMPARATIVE CRIM LAW 0X19H ZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZ CRIMINAL PSYCHOLOGY AND LAW __ SECTION H__ @@@@@@@@@@@@@ CHAP 31 CLOSING COMMENT A: zzzzzzzzzzzzzzzzzzzzzzzzzz sexually related delicts against children, CRIMINAL PSYCHOLOGY AND LAW SECULAR AND ECCLESIASTICAL @@@@@@@@@@@@@@@ DR YONG K PARK
  GERMAN AND COMPARATIVE CRIM LAW 0X19H ZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZ CRIMINAL PSYCHOLOGY AND LAW __ SECTION H__ @@@@@@@@@@@@@ CHAP 31 CLOSING COMMENT B: zzzzzzzzzzzzzzzzzzzzzzzzzz sexually related delicts against children, CRIMINAL PSYCHOLOGY AND LAW SECULAR AND ECCLESIASTICAL @@@@@@@@@@@@@@@ DR YONG K PARK SEOUL 2010 @@@@@@@@@@@@@
  GERMAN AND COMPARATIVE CRIM LAW 0X19H ZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZ CRIMINAL PSYCHOLOGY AND LAW @@@@@@@@@@@@@ DR YONG K PARK SEOUL 2010 @@@@@@@@@@@@@ CRIMINAL PSYCHOLOGY AND LAW __ SECTION H__ @@@@@@@@@@@@@ CHAP 31 CLOSING COMMENT C: zzzzzzzzzzzzzzzzzzzzzzzzzz sexually related delicts against children, CRIMINAL PSYCHOLOGY AND LAW SECULAR AND ECCLESIASTICAL @@@@@@@@@@@@@@@ DR YONG K PARK SEOUL 2010 @@@@@@@@@@@@@ A Focus on the American Eugenics Movement (1907-1939) CTND TTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTT most people, against their will TTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTT or talked into it (by genetic counselors), CCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCC were sterilized by castration, CCCCCCCCCCC TTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTT vasectomy, TTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTT or hysterec-tomy. *29__0__6D ZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZ
  GERMAN AND COMPARATIVE CRIM LAW 0X19H ZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZ CRIMINAL PSYCHOLOGY AND LAW @@@@@@@@@@@@@ DR YONG K PARK SEOUL 2010 @@@@@@@@@@@@@ CRIMINAL PSYCHOLOGY AND LAW __ SECTION H__ @@@@@@@@@@@@@ CHAP 31 CLOSING COMMENT C: zzzzzzzzzzzzzzzzzzzzzzzzzz sexually related delicts against children, CRIMINAL PSYCHOLOGY AND LAW SECULAR AND ECCLESIASTICAL @@@@@@@@@@@@@@@ DR YONG K PARK SEOUL 2010 @@@@@@@@@@@@@
  GERMAN AND COMPARATIVE CRIM LAW 0X19A ZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZ CONTENTS SECTION A ZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZ XXXXXXXXXX CRIMINAL PSYCHOLOGY AND LAW __ SECTION A__ @@@@@@@@@@@@@ TTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTT OPENING STATEMENT: zzzzzzzzzzzzzzzzzzzzzzzzzz sexually related delicts against children, CRIMINAL PSYCHOLOGY AND LAW SECULAR AND ECCLESIASTICAL @@@@@@@@@@@@@@@
  GERMAN AND COMPARATIVE CRIM LAW 0X19B ZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZ CONTENTS SECTION B ZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZ XXXXXXXXXX CRIMINAL PSYCHOLOGY AND LAW__ SECTION B__ @@@@@@@@@@@@@ TTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTT Formal Apology Catholic sex abuse cases DR YONG K PARK SEOUL 2010 @@@@@@@@@@@@@
  GERMAN AND COMPARATIVE CRIM LAW 0X19C ZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZ CONTENTS SECTION C XXXXXXXXXX YYYYYYYYYYYYYYYYYYYYYYYYYYYYYYYYY CRIMINAL PSYCHOLOGY AND LAW - SECTION C - @@@@@@@@@@@@@ TTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTT the notion of emotional intelligence +++++++ THEORIES OF INTELLIGENCE MENTAL DEFICIENCY AND CRIME ]]]]]]]]]]]]]]]]]]]]]]]]]]]]]
  CONTENTS SECTION C CTND XXXXXXXXXX YYYYYYYYYYYYYYYYYYYYYYYYYYYYYYYYY CRIMINAL PSYCHOLOGY AND LAW-SECTION C CTND @@@@@@@@@@@@@ TTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTT Single parenting ZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZ has only been studied recently. THE ROLE OF THE FAMILY CONTROL THEORIES OF CRIME ]]]]]]]]]]]]]]]]]]]]]]]]]]]]]]]
  GERMAN AND COMPARATIVE CRIM LAW 0X19D ZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZ CONTENTS SECTION D XXXXXXXXXX TTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTT CRIMINAL PSYCHOLOGY AND LAW__ SECTION D__ @@@@@@@@@@@@@ TTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTT CLOWARD AND OHLIN'S STRAIN THEORY STRAIN THEORIES OF CRIME ]]]]]]]]]]]]]]]]]]]]]]]]]]]]]]]
  GERMAN AND COMPARATIVE CRIM LAW 0X19E ZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZ CONTENTS SECTION E XXXXXXXXXX TTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTT CRIMINAL PSYCHOLOGY AND LAW__ section E__ @@@@@@@@@@@@@ TTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTT Historische Entwicklung von Texten und Sammlungen XXXXXXXXXXXXX Canon ZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZ Allgemeine Informationen ]]]]]
  GERMAN AND COMPARATIVE CRIM LAW 0X19F ZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZ CONTENTS SECTION F XXXXXXXXXX TTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTT CRIMINAL PSYCHOLOGY AND LAW__ section F_ @@@@@@@@@@@@@ TTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTT / Kanon /ES /DEL..der / %%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%% DES/ alten Testament /S / %%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%% wa/E /hrend des Mittelalters __ MA__ ZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZ Die griechische Kirche ZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZ
  GERMAN AND COMPARATIVE CRIM LAW 0X19G ZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZ CONTENTS SECTION G XXXXXXXXXX TTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTT CRIMINAL PSYCHOLOGY AND LAW-SECTION G- @@@@@@@@@@@@@ %%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%% TTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTT 29.200.000 Ergebnisse fur CANON LAW: ]]]]]]]]]]]]]]]]]]]]]]]]] DR YONG K PARK SEOUL 2010 @@@@@@@@@@@@@
  GERMAN AND COMPARATIVE CRIM LAW 0X19H ZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZ CONTENTS SECTION H XXXXXXXXXX TTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTT QUICK RETROSPECT..see below TTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTT TTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTT CONTENTS SECTION H XXXXXXXXXX TTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTT CRIMINAL PSYCHOLOGY AND LAW __ SECTION H__ @@@@@@@@@@@@@ TTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTT CLOSING COMMENT C: zzzzzzzzzzzzzzzzzzzzzzzzzz sexually related delicts against children, CRIMINAL PSYCHOLOGY AND LAW SECULAR AND ECCLESIASTICAL @@@@@@@@@@@@@@@
  german and comparative criminal law0x15d xxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxx OOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOO LAST MODIFIED 2010 02 SEL KR SOCIOLOGY AND LAW 1 DR YONG K PARK 2010 SEOUL @@@@@@@@ SOCIOLOGY AND LAW SECTION A CHAP 0 PROLOGUE: RELEVANCE OF SOCIOLOGY IN PENAL LAW LOCAL AND GLOBAL DR YONG K PARK 2010 SEOUL @@@@@@@@
  german and comparative criminal law0x15d xxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxx OOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOO SOCIOLOGY AND LAW SECTION B -------------------------------------------------------------------------------- CHAP 1A -------------------------------------------------------------------------------- SOCIOLOGY DR YONG K PARK 2010 SEOUL @@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@
  german and comparative criminal law0x15d xxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxx OOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOO SOCIOLOGY AND LAW CHAP 2 -------------------------------------------------------------------------------- SOCIOLOGY--SEARCH
  german and comparative criminal law0x15d xxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxx OOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOO SOCIOLOGY AND LAW -------------------------------------------------------------------------------- CHAP 6 -------------------------------------------------------------------------------- SOCIOLOGY--ANTIPOSITIVISM
  german and comparative criminal law0x15d xxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxx OOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOO SOCIOLOGY AND LAW -------------------------------------------------------------------------------- CHAP 10 -------------------------------------------------------------------------------- SOCIOLOGY--CRITICAL
  SOCIOLOGY AND LAW 2 DR YONG K PARK 2010 SEOUL @@@@@@@@ CHAP 17 -------------------------------------------------------------------------------- SOCIOLOGYLAW: SEARCH
  german and comparative criminal law0x15e xxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxx OOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOO CHAP 20 -------------------------------------------------------------------------------- SOCIOLOGYLAW: International Institute for the Sociology of Law
  german and comparative criminal law0x15e xxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxx OOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOO CHAP 28 -------------------------------------------------------------------------------- SOCIOLOGYLAW: LEGAL REALISM/US DR YONG K PARK 2010 SEOUL @@@@@@@@
  german and comparative criminal law0x15e xxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxx OOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOO CHAP 36 -------------------------------------------------------------------------------- SOCIOLOGYLAW: Reasonable doubt DR YONG K PARK 2010 SEOUL @@@@@@@@
  german and comparative criminal law0x15e xxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxx OOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOO CHAP 45 -------------------------------------------------------------------------------- SOCIOLOGYLAW: SOCIOLOGICAL JURISPRUDENCE
  german and comparative criminal law0x15e xxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxx OOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOO SOCIOLOGY AND LAW SECTION C CHAP 56 EPILOGUE: SOCIOLOGY OF PENAL LAW LOCAL AND GLOBAL DR YONG K PARK 2010 SEOUL @@@@@@@@
  SOCIOLOGY AND LAW SECTION A CHAP 0 PROLOGUE: RELEVANCE OF SOCIOLOGY IN PENAL LAW LOCAL AND GLOBAL DR YONG K PARK 2010 SEOUL @@@@@@@@
  german and comparative criminal law0x15e CHAP 36 SOCIOLOGYLAW: Reasonable doubt DR YONG K PARK 2010 SEOUL @@@@@@@@
  SOCIOLOGY AND LAW SECTION C CHAP 56 EPILOGUE: SOCIOLOGY OF PENAL LAW LOCAL AND GLOBAL DR YONG K PARK 2010 SEOUL @@@@@@@@
  link updates.. cv ii.. pubs list.. 07 2013 seoul
  07 2013 Ongoing parts of this site PPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPP
  07 2013 HTML TEXT CUTTER. HACKING $$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$
  SYG LAW VIII MMXIII , CV VI QUOTES
  DEL SAFE BOOT MINIMAL VIII MMXIII, CV V APPENDIX. HACKING
  EU STA VIII MMXIII, CV II publications list
  new ------------------------------------------------ HTTP://gcci2013.npage.de ------------------------------------ US LAW STAND YOUR GROUND
  CV V APPENDIX. HACKING--Unterstutzt AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA Gunter Grass - Was gesagt werden muss --viii mmxiii
  CV I sites map--LINK UPDATES--ONNGOING PARTS--VIII MMXIII
  new/////////////////// www.facebook.com/yongk.park.14 ---------------us law syg viii mmxiii
  SEPT LOOK YYYYYYYYYYYYYYYYYYYYYYYYYYYYYYYYY VIEWED BY YK PARK UUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUU IX MMXIII SEOUL
  AUT + OMNIA ME FALLUNT ''''''''''''''''''''''''''' AUT CESAR VINCET cv iii tatbegriff in eu strafrecht ix mmxiii seoul
  cv 2 publ list. hotmail ignored. 10 2013 seoul
  cv5. hacking. mail server hijack possible. 10 2013
  cv 6 quotes r m rilke 10 2013 seoul
  cv 1 sites map 10 2013 seoul
  mail server hijack. change browser to firefox. cv5 mmxiii
  r m rilke intro by dr yk park gcci2013.npage.de mmxiii
  quotes k popper cv 6 mmxiii seoul
  cv i map german comparative criminal and intl law x mmxiii seoul
  nietzsches gedichte i/ ii at gcci2013.npage.de x mmxiii seoul
  Jeder dritte HIV-infizierte Europaer, wei nicht, dass er infiziert ist. cf nwo--manufasactured aids seoul x mmxiii
  Jeder dritte HIV-infizierte Europaer, wei nicht, dass er infiziert ist. cf nwo manufactured aids seoul x mmxiii
  cv 6 quotes popper ctnd seoul x mmxiii
  BND; NSA LLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLL ONLINE security info x mmxiii
  www.hi5.com/yongkpark x mmxiii seoul abschied brutal
  www.hi5.com/gccl1t one sad oct day x mmxiii seoul
  https://myspace.com/muc2013 --gcci-- x mmxiii seoul
  sites chronology. novalis 1/ 2. cv 3. 11 2013 seoul
  ongoing parts. freedom to fascism, cv 2. seoul 11 2013
  for hi5 and facebook users.. 11 2013 seoul --hacking. cv 5
  + die 'leise Liquidierung' . Arafat 11 2013 seoul
  cv 1. projects including kor re--unification 11 2013
  publications list cv 2. 11 2013 seoul
  kor re--unification quotes cv vi seoul xi mmxiii
  Heiraten: Sind Sie wirklich bereit für die Ehe? xi mmxiii
  obama asia pivot quotes cv 6 seoul 11 2013
  cv 2 pubs list popper ep--istemology dr yong k park 11 2013
  hacking, msft, fbi, nsa, windows backdoors cv 5 seoul 11 2013
  cv 3 popper epistemology. sites history 11 2013
  cv iii popper gcci2013.npage.de seoul 11 2013
  cv ii popper gcci2013.npage.de seoul 11 2013
  jfk rip i dr yk park 11 2013 seoul
  jfk rip ii dr yk park 11 2013 seoul
  jfk requiescat contents 11 2013 seoul
  cv 2 publications list. us presidents. alternative views. dr yk park 11 2013
  merry xmas dc 2013. cv 5 asr svc hijack
  Evangelii Gaudium. pope francis. cv 2. 12 2013 seoul
  Jahresruckblick 2013..........xii mmxiii seoul
  sites map cv 1 xii mmxiii seoul
  hacking. port monster. 3 useful options. cv 5 xii mmxiii seoul
  evangelii gaudium, pope francis on capitalism, 12 2013 seoul
  KOR RE-UNIFICATION I . CV II. 12 2013
  KOR RE--UNIFICATION II. CV III. 12 2013
  CAMUS. CV 2. PUB LIST 12 2013 YK PARK
  CAMUS QUOTES, CV 6 XII MMXIII SEOUL
  CAMUS, CV 3. SITES CHRONOLOGY, SEOUL 2013
  QUOTES CAMUS CV 6 XII MMXIII SEOUL
  re AD BELLUM PER HUMANITATEM gcci2013.npage.de xii mmxiii
  brust==amputation 12 2013 seoul
  med augen==verletzung 12 2013
  POPE FRANCIS EVANGELII GRADIUM CH 5 QUOTES CV 6 XII MMXIII SEOUL
  ctnd EVANGELII GAU==DIUM--DEL GRA==DIUM -- QUOTES 12 2013 CV 6
  pub list YK PARK 01 MMXIV SEOUL
  pope francis quotes CH 4 CTND EVANGELII GAUDIUM 01 MMXIV SEOUL
  2004 MISS VENEZUELA KILLED 01 MMXIV SEOUL
  CTTS 2004 MISS VENEZUELA KILLED 01 MMXIV
  SITES MAP cv 1 YK PARK 01 MMXIV SEOUL
  POPE FRANCIS EVANGELII GAUDIUM CH 3 FR CTND 01 MMXIV
  GATES AND NWO DUTY? SEOUL 01 MMXIV QUOTES
  DIS++ABLE HACKERS' BROWSER ADD++ONS.. OPERA..01 MMXIV SEOUL
  us military AND NEW WORLD ORDER 01 MMXIV SEOUL QUOTES
  karma and N W O 02 MMXIV SEOUL QUOTES
  ALLEN W IN DIFFICULTIES 02 mmxiv seoul
  gcci sites map new 01 MMXIV SEOUL
  YK PARK PUB LIST NEW 02 MMXIV SEOUL
  amaterdam 11 2013. RE++POST 02 MMXIV SEOUL
  ams++terdam repost 02 mmxiv seoul
  gcci SITES HISTORY 02 MMXIV SEOUL
  archives GCCI INDEXES++ I ++2005 REPOST 02 MMXIV SEOUL
  archives GCCI INDEXES++ II ++2005 REPOST 02 MMXIV SEOUL
  archives GCCI INDEXES++ III ++2005 REPOST 02 MMXIV SEOUL
  archives GCCI INDEXES++ IV ++2005 REPOST 02 MMXIV SEOUL
  archives GCCI INDEXES++ V ++2005 REPOST 02 MMXIV SEOUL
  archives GCCI INDEXES++ VI ++2005 REPOST 02 MMXIV SEOUL
  SEOUL 02 MMXIV ........Die schrgsten Kndigungen
  the laws of karma THEODICY AND NWO 02 MMXIV SEOUL QUOTES
  cv 6 quotes north kor and coi rpt SEOUL 02 MMXIV
  yk park pub list cv 2 NORTH KOR AND COI RPT ET AL 02 MMXIV SEOUL
  where be roses gone amh 1976 cv 6 quotes end feb 2014 seoul
  WHERE BE ROSES GONE link korrektur to gcci2013.npage.de 02 mmxiv seoul
  cv 5 hacking LIMIT HACKER ACCESS TO YOUR FIREFOX 03 mmxiv seoul
  archives gcci indexeS++d ++ XIX++1++ 2007 REPOST 03 MMXIV SEOUL
  archives gcci indexeS++d ++ XIX++2++ 2007 REPOST 03 MMXIV SEOUL
  archives gcci indexeS++d ++ XX++ 2007 REPOST 03 MMXIV SEOUL
  archives gcci indexeS++d ++ XXI++ 2007 REPOST 03 MMXIV SEOUL
  archives gcci indexeS++d ++ XXII++ 2007 REPOST 03 MMXIV SEOUL
  archives gcci indexeS++d ++ XXIII++ 2007 REPOST 03 MMXIV SEOUL
  archives gcci indexeS++d ++ XXIV++ 2007 REPOST 03 MMXIV SEOUL
  o++scar 2014 SEOUL 03 MMXIV
  HACKING spyblocker change directory in engl 03 MMXIV CV 5
  Drei-Prozent-Hrde bei Europa++wahl INTRO BY DR Y K PARK 03 mmxiv seoul
  Unglck oder Terroranschlag einer Boeing 777 in Sdostasien. 03 mmxiv seoul
  hacking. change registry. windows shutdown TIME key 03 MMXIV SEOUL CV 5
  cv 4 gcci ongoing parts SEOUL 03 MMXIV
  CV 2 YK PARK PUB LIST 03 2014 SEOUL
  DIS++USE FFoX SaFE MODE FOR jamaicans.com free mail 03 2014 seoul cv 5 hacking
  A BOE++ING 777 ++XIII ++ SEOUL 03 2014
  HACKING CAUTION WEB++CAM SEOUL 03 2014 CV 5
  S++KOREA AND RE++UNIFICATION 03 2014 SEOUL
  DR Y K PARK PUP LIST 03 2014 SEOUL CV 2
  RE++POST HACKING WEB++CAM 03 2014 SEOUL CV 5
  MH 370 QUOTES SEOUL 03 2014 CV 6
  THE BOE++ING 777++XIV ++ET AL SEOUL 03 2014
  GCCI ON++GOING PARTS SEOUL 03 2014 CV 4 NEW
  S ++KOREA ET AL CTND 03 MMXIV
  THE BOE++ING 777++XV +ET AL 04 2014 SEOUL
  S KOREA ET AL ++III ++ 04 2014 SEOUL
  REPOST LITERATUR ET AL 04 2014 SEOUL
  REPOST HISTORY AND LAW++ I ++ET AL 04 2014 SEOUL
  REPOST HISTORY AND LAW++II ++ ET AL 04 2014 SEOUL
  REPOST BANDEN++DIEBSTAHL 04 2014 SEOUL
  REPOST CRIMINOLOGY COMMENT CONCLUDING 04 2014
  REPOST DT STVR PR ROXIN VORWORT 04 2014
  SOCIOLOGY LOCAL AND GLOBAL REPOST 04 2014
  repost schuld dt version dr y k park 04 2014 seoul
  repost politics and law ++i a ++ 04 2014
  politics and law++i b ++ seoul 04 2014
  politics and law++ii a ++ seoul 04 2014
  politics and law++ii b ++ seoul 04 2014
  REPOST BECCARIA ET AL 04 2014 SEOUL
  DT STR AT SAMPLE KOREAN VERSION ++I A ++ SEOUL 04 2014
  DT STR AT ++I B ++ SEOUL 04 2014
  DT STR AT ++II A ++ REPOST 04 2014
  DT STR AT++II B ++ REPOST 04 2011
  DT STR AT++II C ++ REPOST 04 2014
  THE BOE++ING 777++XVI ++ SEOUL 04 2014
  S KOREA ET AL++IV ++ SEOUL 04 2014
  RE++POST FREIHEIT U DEFENSE SOCIALE 2014
  EU STA++ I A ++ RE++POST 04 2014 SEOUL
  RE++POST EU STA++I B ++ 04 2014 SEOUL
  us law stand your ground++1 a ++ re++post 04 2014
  re++post us law syg ++1 b ++ 04 2014
  us law syg++2 aa ++ re++post 04 2014
  syg++2 bb ++ us law re++post 04 2014
  TAT IN EU STR++I A ++ 04 2014 RE++POST
  TAT IN EU STR++I B ++ 04 2014 RE++POST
  TAT IN EU STR++II AA ++ RE++POST 2014
  TAT IN EU STR++II BB ++RE++POST 2014
  TAT IN EU STR++III ++RE++POST 2014
  tat in eu str++ iv a++ repost 2014
  tat in eu str++iv b ++ repost 2014
  tat in eu str repost++v aa ++ 2014
  tat in eu str repost++v bb ++ 2014 seoul
  RILKE REPOST++I A ++ 04 2014 SEOUL
  boe++ing 777 et al ++ xvii pt 1 ++ 04 2014
  the boe++ing 777 et al ++ xvii pt ii ++ 2014
  n korea drone et al ++iv ++ 04 2014 seoul
  RILKE ++I B ++ 04 2004 RE++POST
  RE++POST RILKE ++II AA ++ 2014 SEOUL
  RILKE ++II AA ++ REPOST 04 2014
  RILKE ++II BB ++ REPOST 04 2014
  nietzsche gedichte repost 04 mmxiv seoul
  freedom to fascism ++i ++ repost 04 mmxiv
  repost freedom to fascism ++ii ++ 04 mmxiv
  popper epistemology++i ++ repost 04 mmxiv
  repost popper++ii ++ 04 mmxiv seoul
  evangelii gaudium pope francis++ i ++ repost 2014
  repost evangelii gaudium++ii ++ 04 2014 seoul
  missing boe++ing 777++xviii ++ 04 mmxiv
  kor unification ++i a ++repost 04 2014 seoul
  repost kor unification ++i b ++ 04 2014
  kor unification ++ii aa ++ repost 04 2014
  repost kor unification ++ii bb ++ 04 2014
  kor unification ++ii cc ++ repost 04 2014
  kor unification ++ii aaa ++ repost 04 2014 kr
  repost kor unification ++ii bbb ++ 04 2014 kr
  kor unification++ii ccc ++ repost 04 2014 kr
  DR Y K PARK PUBLICATIONS LIST 04 2014
  GCCI ON++GOING PARTS 04 2014 KR
  dr y k park cv 1 seoul 04 2014
  arthur rimbaud LAST LINES seoul 05 mmxiv
  SE WOL FERRY IN SOUTH KOR 04++05 mmxiv
  gibran k on friendship et al seoul 05 mmxiv
  south kor ferry se++wol ++pt ii ++04 mmxiv kr
  mr. mr. for all the deceased in se++wol south kor ferry on 16 04 mmxiv
  SOUTH KOR FERRY SE++WOL++PT III ++14
  s kor ferry se++wol ++pt v ++dr y k park 05 2014
  ww iii incoming dr y k park 05 mmxiv seoul
  se++wol++pt vi++ video quotes dr y k park 14
  hacking cf How Jew++s Run The Internet - 14
  se++wol ++pt vii ++cf sma dr y k park 05 2014
  REPOST SE++WOL PT VII dr y k park seoul 14
  mh 370 pt 19++boeing 777 pt 19 ++ y k park 14
  publications list dr yk park 06 mmxiv cv 2 kr
  ongoing parts of site gcci 06 mmxiv cv 4 kr
  hacking dis++use win 8++china 06 mmxiv cv 5
  boeing 777 pt xx quotes cv 6 dr y k park 14 kr
  rimbaud cassis river i/ ii ++video ++yp 14 kr
  video i d bowie/ video ii b holiday yp 14 kr
  rimbaud shot ++pt i ++y k park seoul 06 mmxiv
  rimbaud shot ++pt ii ++y p seoul 06 mmxiv
  video all i see is you parker 06 mmxiv yp kr
  alexander pope uk poet 06 mmxiv yp seoul
  flash player muted y k park cv 5 06 mmxiv kr
  shakespeare pt i dr y k park 07 mmxiv seoul
  shakespeare pt ii 07 mmxiv kr
  SHAKESPEARE PT III Y K PARK 07 MMXIV KR
  GK POET HOMER PT I YK PARK 07 MMXIV KR
  HOMER PT II 07 MMXIV SEOUL
  HOMER PT III 07 MMXIV KR
  HOMER PT IV 07 MMXIV SEOUL
  HOMER PT V 07 MMXIV KR
  HOMER GK POET PT VI 07 MMXIV KR Y PARK
  buddha pt i dr y k park 07 mmxiv kr
  buddah pt ii seoul 07 mmxiv
  BUDDHA PT II Y K PARK 07 MMXIV SEOUL
  BUDDHA PT I Y PARK 07 MMXIV KR
  BUDDHA PT III Y PARK 07 MMXIV SEOUL
  REPOST BUDDHA PT II Y PARK 07 MMXIV KR
  c mar++lowe uk poet y k park 07 14 s korea
  MAR++lowe uk poet pt 2 YP 07 2014 seoul
  MAR++lowe uk poet pt 3 YP 07 2014 seoul
  MAR++lowe uk poet pt 4 YP 07 2014 seoul
  OVid poet roman YP 07 2014 s Korea
  HAcking Security Backdoors YP 07 2014 Kr
  stop genocide pt vi dr y k park seoul 08 14
  stop genocide pt v dr y k park seoul 08 14
  stop genocide pt iv dr y k park seoul 08 14
  stop genocide pt iii dr y k park seoul 08 14
  stop genocide pt ii dr y k park seoul 08 14
  stop genocide pt i a dr y k park seoul 08 14
  stop genocide pt i dr y k park seoul 08 14
  dr yong k park publications list 08 2014 seoul
  dr yong k park cv et sites map 08 2014 s kor
  FRANCIS POPE ET S KOREA 08 14 YP SEOUL
  MH 370 PT 21 ET MH 17 KR 08 14 Y K PARK
  USA HIJACKED ET GENO++CIDE 08 14 Y PARK
  .ICC ET GENO++CIDE ST 1 08 14 SEOUL YP
  .ICC ET GENO++CIDE ST 2 08 14 SEOUL YP
  .UN ET GENO++CIDE CT 1 08 14 DR Y K PARK
  .UN ET GENO++CIDE CT 2 08 14 DR Y K PARK
  .UN ET GENO++CIDE CT 3++ CT 4 08 14 Y P
  MUC0X5G.NETWIZZ.DE CLOSED 08 2014 YP
  ARAB GENO++CIDE PT 9 A 09 2014 Y K PARK
  ARAB GENO++CIDE PT 9 09 2014 Y K PARK
  ARAB GENO++CIDE PT VIII 09 2014 Y K PARK
  ARAB GENO++CIDE PT VI 09 2014 Y K PARK
  ARAB GENO++CIDE PT V RE 09 2014 Y K PARK
  ARAB GENO++CIDE PT IV 09 2014 Y K PARK
  ARAB GENO++CIDE VII 09 2014 DR Y K PARK
  ARAB GENO++CIDE III 09 2014 DR Y K PARK
  ARAB GENO++CIDE II 09 2014 DR Y K PARK
  ARAB GENO++CIDE I 09 2014 DR Y K PARK
  A' DIEU NETWIZZ.DE,, 09 2014 yong k park kr
  FOR NETWIZZ.DE TEAM EXCELLENT 09 14 YP
  YP PUBLICATIONS LIST FINAL PERHAPS 09 14
  NEW CEIL2014.REPAGE DE AUGSBURG YP 14
  CEIL ALIAS GCCI ONGOING PARTS 09 14 YKP
  HACKING..PASSWORD LEAK VIA MOUSE++POINT HIJACK 09 14 YKP
  NEW CEIL2014B.REPAGE2.DE 10 14 YKP SK
  new gcpeil.homepagestart.de 11 14 seoul
  a' dieu npage.de ongoing pts of gcpeil 11 14
  LIST OF PUBS OF DR YK PARK 11 14 S KOR
  +poets mistral 1 fr et chilean nv 14 ykp seoul
  +poets mistral 2 fr et chilean nv 14 ykp seoul
  +gcpeil2.homepagestart.de ++new++14 yp sk
  ISIL CTND 3A 11 2014 DR YK PARK SEOUL
  +frohe weihnachten dc 2014 s korea yk park
  +zeit zurueckdrehen dr yk park seoul dc 14
  GREAT 2009 ET VIDEO ARGENTINA JA 15 YKP
  GREAT ++DEL 2009 ++2015 JA 15 YK PARK SK
  +palestine sovereignty ja 2015 dr yk park sk
  RE WAR GG RUSSIA JA MMXV YKP
  JEWS ET WW II JA MMXV YKP
  POPE FRANCIS ET NWO JA MMXV YKP
  KOELN LICHT AUS JA MMXV SEOUL YKP
  +publications of ykp ja mmxv s korea
  +paul anka papa youtube.com ja 2015 ykp
  COR++RESPONDENCE OF YKP JA 2015 SK YP
  USB TARGET OF HACKER JA 2015 YP SEOUL
  DANCER PRIVATE T TURNER JA MMXV YP SK
  +it law++cyber law pt 4 ++ja 2015 seoul ykp
  +korea et israel ja 2015 s korea dr yk park
  +911 comments seoul ja mmxv ykp
  +powers foreign et 911 s korea ja mmxv ykp
  +youtube.com house of rising sun vietnam ja 15 yp
  DATENSCHUTZ++RECHT SEOUL FB 15 YKP
  DATENSCHUTZ++RECHT SEOUL FB 15 YKP
  +ykp cv et notes s korea fb 2015
  +ykp publications 1985 to 2015 seoul fb mmxv
  +words on this site s korea fb 2015 dr yk park
  +words on this site s korea fb 2015 dr yk park
  +bardot b seoul fb 2015 ykp
  ISIS ET US FB MMXV SEOUL YKP
  +c dion parler a mon pere s korea fb 15 ykp
  +ru et us dr yk park seoul fb mmxv
  +berlin et films cf taxi cf hosanna fb 2015 ykp sk
  +lendman et us seoul fb mmxv ykp
  +time scattered seoul fb 2015 dr yk park
  JK ET WORLD FB 15 SEOUL YKP
  MSPY ET FLEXISPY FB MMXV SK YKP
  JOHNNY HALLYDAY FB 15 SEOUL YKP
  +tarja turnen sun sleeping seoul fb 2015 ykp
  +eu on collapse s korea fb mmxv dr yk park
  +diego garcia cf mh 370 seoul fb 2015 ykp
  +map of this site gcci alias ceil ou gcpeil 15 ykp sk
  +us wants war with ru seoul fb mmxv ykp
  CMOS USER PW PLUS SUPERVISOR PW YKP
  OVER++POPULATION ET NWO 15 YKP
  NWO ET DE++POPULATION 15 DR YK PARK
  +survive n war? mh 2015 seoul ykp
  +isis video fake? mh mmxv s korea ykp
  +eu et 5 year plan failed mh 2015 seoul ykp
  +attack on us dipl mh mmxv s korea dr yk park
  ISIS VIDEO RE MH 2015 DR YK PARK S KOR
  HEBDO CHARL ET METABUNK MH 15 YKP
  ISIS VIDEO ET METABUNK MH 15 YKP SK
  +sonne in der nacht p maffay mh 15 seoul ykp
  +us neocon et fpi mh mmxv s korea dr yk park
  +putin et crim mh 2015 seoul ykp
  +putin et n korea mh mmxv s korea ykp
  NWO DIPLOMACY MH 2015 YKP SEOUL
  US POLICE PRIVATE MH MMXV YKP S KOR
  PREVENT SPIDER VEINS MH 2015 DR YKP SK
  NWO POLICE PRIVATE 2 MH MMXV YKP
  +comodo button graphics hijack mh 15 ykp seoul
  +apple lost soul mh 2015 s korea ykp
  +androids tech et nwo mh mmxv dr yk park seoul
  +us state dept jews mh 2015 dr ykp s korea
  +us higher edu critique mh mmxv ykp seoul
  HANG THE BANKERS MH 15 YKP SEOUL
  CHEON++AN RE CTD MH 15 YKP S KOREA
  CHEON++AN RE MH 2015 DR YKP S KOREA
  GERMAN WINGS CRASH MH MMXV YKP SK
  +cheon++an re iv seoul ykp mh 2015
  +cheon++an re iv ctnd seoul dr yk park mh 2015
  +cheon++an re iii seoul dr yk park mh 2015
  +s l to media editors mh mmxv ykp s korea
  +einstein et nwo mh 2015 seoul dr yk park
  NETAN++YAHU SEOUL AR 2015 YKP
  DONBASS INDEPENDENCE AR MMXV YP SK
  DEAR HOMOSEXUAL AR 2015 SEOUL YKP
  SOROS ET KIEV AR 2015 YKP S KOREA
  MARIJUANA POTENCY AR MMXV YKP SEL
  NWO SOFT POWER REVOLUTION 15 DR YKP
  +new http://ceil2014c.repage2.de 15 dr yk park sk
  +threaten iran ar mmxv seoul ykp
  +venezuelan democracy ar 2015 s korea ykp
  +pal option null ar mmxv seoul ykp
  +beheading arab citzs ar 2015 ykp sk
  FIESTAR YOUTUBE.COM AR 2015 SEOUL YKP
  PC RISK OF FIRE ET IM++/EXPLOSION 15 YKP
  +hellovenus youtube.com seoul ar mmxv ykp
  +neocons danger ar 2015 sk dr yk park
  +n w o police seoul ar 2015 ykp
  CTRL PANEL HIJACK SEOUL AR 15 YKP
  RE++ORDER H GEN++OME AR XV S KOR YKP
  ORGAN OF BABY ABORTED AR 15 YKP SEL
  EU ARMY PROPOSED AR 15 SK YKP
  TORTURE SITES CHICAGO 15 DR YK PARK
  +1st coup jekyll island nv 1913 youtube.com 15 yp
  +2nd coup jfk nv 1963 youtube.com ar mmxv dr ykp
  +3rd coup 911 et israel 2001 youtube.com 15 ykp
  JFK COUP 1963 AR MMXV SEOUL YKP
  APRIL FOOLS AR 2015 S KOR DR YKP
  ISIL ET ISRAEL AR MMXV SEOUL YKP
  NWO AT YOUTUBE.COM AR 2015 S KOR YKP
  +video jfk berlin speech ar mmxv seoul dr ykp
  +video isis et isrl ar 2015 s korea ykp
  +video louis amstrong world wonderful 15 yk park
  + video afghanistan drug et us ar mmxv ykp s kor
  NWO ET MIL COUP OPTION AR 15 DR YKP SK
  NWO ET MORE WARS AR 15 SEOUL YKP
  +war on ru eu ukr ar mmxv seoul dr yk park
  +roths++child speaks ar mmxv s kor ykp
  +bohemian group rocke++feller et al xv ykp
  +blair greed ar 2015 seoul ykp
  +cia reform ar mmxv s kor ykp
  +uk univ for what ar mmxv seoul dr ykp
  TERAT++OMA AR 2015 SEOUL YKP
  FUKUSHHH ET PARA AR XV YKP S KOR
  US CONST ET SECRET AR 15 SEL YKP
  C ROBERTS ET FUKUSHHH 15 YKP SK
  ROBERTS ET US CONST 15 DR YKP SEL
  VIRUS ET FUKUSHHH AR 2015 YKP SEL
  HITLER TO NWO YOUTUBE.COM 15 YKP
  USB AS WIN 7 BLOCKER AR 15 YKP SEL
  +j pilger et fascism my mmxv seoul ykp
  +mass radiation et nwo my 2015 dr ykp s kor
  +video hiroshima 1945. seoul ykp my mmxv
  +seneca my 2015 ykp s korea
  +video fukushima 2011 my mmxv ykp seoul
  DR YK PARK PUB LIST MY 2015 SEOUL
  +video andrea berg ein bisschen wahnsinn yp
  +history by zinn my 2015 s korea ykp
  +reverse++engineering humanity et nwo yp
  +global warming et nwo my mmxv seoul yp
  +shelley zeit++time ++ my 2015 dr yk park
  DE++JUDIFICATION MY 15 SEOUL YKP
  FAT ET UGLY MY MMXV YP S KOREA
  RECHTS++MEDIZIN 2 SEOUL MY 15 YKP
  FORENSICS++RECHTSMED 1 YKP 15 SK
  HISTORY BY ZINN FIN 15 DR YKP SEOUL
  +kirwan nwo et fukushima 2011 my xv ykp
  +s++virus et fukushima 2011 my 15 dr ykp
  +kha++zarian traitors kirwan my 15 ykp seoul
  +yemen 2015 my mmxv ykp s korea
  GOOGLE ADS LINKS ET PLUGINS 15 DR YKP
  S KOR DATEN++SCHUTZR MY 2015 YKP SEL
  US NOT SURVIVE MY MMXV DR YK PARK SK
  CANNES 2015 SEOUL MY MMXV YKP
  S VIRUS BY ISRL MY 2015 SEOUL YKP
  METEO BLACK OP 2011 MY MMXV DR YKP SK
  HAA++RP TESLA ET NWO MY 2015 YKP SK
  +new http://gcpeil3.homepagestart.de my 15 dr yp
  +drone strikes il++legal my mmxv seoul ykp
  +un climate agenda my 2015 s kor ykp
  +s kor datenschutz++r 2 my 2015 seoul dr ykp
  UKRAINE IS DEAD MY MMCV SEOUL YKP
  ANTI++SEMITISM AS CRIME INTL? MY 15 YKP
  GLYPHO++SATE ET NWO MY MMXV YKP
  H CLINTON ET NWO MY 2015 SEOUL YKP
  GMO ECOLOGY ET NWO MY MMXV YKP
  +video c badi je viens du sud my 2015 yp sel
  +reset great? et nwo stt my mmxv dr ykp sk
  +reset great? et nwo fin my mmxv dr ykp sel
  +true jew my 2015 seoul dr yk park
  m king et nwo my mmxv s kor ykp
  +hacking. inside ip my 2015 seoul ykp
  DR YK PARK POSTS LIST 1985 TO 2015
  ANNA++BEL LEE ET E A POE 15 SEOUL YP
  +video iu jn 2015 s korea yp
  +vid watching you watch e hutchinson 15 yp
  +vietnam war by zinn jn mmxv s kor ykp
  +nwo end++game jn mmxv seoul dr yk park
  +911 et free energy jn mmxv seoul ykp
  NEW CEIL2014D.REPAGE2.DE JN 2015 YKP
  TPP BY SARTRE PENNAME JN 15 SEOUL YP
  TPP AT HORSE PENNAME JN XV S KOR YP
  FOOD R++ACTIVE JN 2015 SEOUL DR YKP
  WAR AT ZINN JN MMXV S KOR YKP
  +billie jean m jackson jn mmxv seoul yp
  +r kennedy shot jn 1968 yp s kor jn 2015
  HOLOCAUST AND GENOCIDE jn mmxv dr ykp
  +law gg++against ++ non++jew jn 2015 ykp
  +child sacrifice et nwo jn 2015 ykp
  +victims jn 2015 seoul dr yk park
  LOVE YOU LIKE A LOVE SONG S GOMEZ 15 P
  INVASION OF SYRIA ISIL JN 2015 DR YKP SK
  GENE EDITING? JN MMXV SEOUL YKP
  MERS IN S KOREA JN MMXV YKP SEOUL
  FORD ET JEW JN 2015 SEOUL YKP
  MONEY THAT KILLS JN 2015 SEOUL YKP
  TPP SRC ARTICLES JN MMXV S KOR YP
  8 MI TO DISAPPEAR JN MMXV SEOUL YP
  +fed res act jn 2015 seoul dr yk park
  +us code et eo jn mmxv s korea yp
  +jfk eo 11110 jn 2015 seoul ykp
  +unchained melody ghost jn 2015 yp seoul
  +fifa et al jn mmxv s kor ykp
  +govt in++visible jn 2015 seoul dr yk park
  +in++mate troubled mentally jn mmxv sk ykp
  +micro beads jn 2015 seoul yp
  +death penalty re jn 2015 s kor ykp
  +prison summer jn mmxv seoul ykp
  +s kor mers pat nr 1 jn mmxv seoul dr ykp
  +mand++rake et nsa jn 2015 seoul ykp
  +poverty violence jn mmxv s kor ykp
  +regime change jn mmxv seoul yp
  +syria creep jn 2015 seoul yp
  +cn mil strategy jn mmxv dr ykp
  ANTHRAX TO S KOR JN MMXV DR YK PARK
  +3 boys killed jn mmxv dr yk park seoul
  +isrl on the edge jn 2015 s kor dr ykp
  +count++down jk jn mmxv seoul yp
  +gold lies jn 2015 s kor ykp
  +haa++rp re jn mmxv s kor ykp
  +us fascism jn 2015 seoul yp
  +lassa fever jn mmxv seoul ykp
  +santa++yana poet jn mmxv dr yk park seoul
  +lucretius poet roman jn 2015 s kor ykp
  +police private danger jn mmxv ykp s kor
  +usd 200 mi for ukr jn mmxv seoul ykp
  +isil gg assad jn 2015 s kor ykp
  FIFA BY TB JN 2015 SEOUL DR YK PARK
  VAMP A DISEASE JN MMXV YKP S KOR
  VIETNAM ET ASSTON TB JN 2015 SEOUL YKP
  CAMERON ET HAND++OVER JN 15 YKP SK
  BBC ET P MULLAN JN XV YKP SEOUL
  CN SHIP UN++FALL JN 2015 YKP S KOR
  SECRET TIS++A JN 2015 SEOUL YKP
  JADE HELM 15 JN XV YKP S KOR
  ACCUSE FED JN XV YKP SEOUL
  F++BOOK JUNKFOOD JN 15 SEOUL YKP
  POLE SHIFT JK JN 15 YKP SEOUL
  PAL MINORS TORTURE JN XV YKP S KOR
  +grace amazing obama et al jl mmxv yp seoul
  +food poisoning bug jl 2015 s kor ykp
  +hpv vaccine et nwo jl mmxv yp s kor
  +pole reversal 2 s kor jl 2015 ykp
  +olig++archy us jl mmxv seoul dr yk park
  +a conditioner jl 2015 seoul yp
  +lady gaga alejandro jl mmxv yp s kor
  MADONNA BITCH VID JL 2015 SEOUL YP
  CANCER IMMUNO++THERAPY JL 15 YP
  KILLER ROBOTS JL MMXV DR YKP S KOR
  FREEDOM ACT 2 JL MMXV SEOUL YP
  MH 17 RE JL 2015 S KOR YKP
  KOR WAR LESSONS JL 2015 S KOR YP
  FREEDOM ACT 1 SEOUL JL 2015 YKP
  PATRIOT A RE JL MMXV YKP S KOR
  YEMEN ET ISRL JL 2015 SEOUL YKP
  UKR GANGSTER ST JL MMXV SEOUL YP
  TPP FIRE PLAY JL MMXV S KOR YKP
  WARRANTS NEW JL 2015 SEOUL YP
  GMO ET NWO JL MMXV DR YKP S KOR
  CANCER WORLD++WIDE JL 2015 SEOUL YP
  UFO ET REJECTION JL 2015 SEOUL YP
  CIA GOVT SECRET JUL MMXV YP S KOR
  FBOOK ENCRYPTION JL 2015 SEOUL YP
  GHOST SOLDIERS IRAQ JL 2015 YKP SEOUL
  +press us daily item jl 2015 ykp seoul
  +black widow i azalea vid jl mmxv yp s kor
  +poro++shenko qui jl 2015 ykp seoul
  +yemen pounding jl mmxv yp s kor
  +us war on cn for bankers jl mmxv dr yk park
  +jew++us circum++cision jl mmxv seoul yp
  +r ora poison vid jl mmxv yp s kor
  +billie jean m jackson vid jl 2015 yp seoul
  +jew holocaust et pop culture jl 15 ykp sk
  +jew pop culture et accuse anti++sem 15 ykp
  +jew literature et money jl 15 dr ykp seoul
  +jew media et govt jl 2015 s kor ykp
  +jew art et govt jl 15 seoul yp
  +jew et mass media jl 15 ykp s kor
  +jew et media jl 2015 seoul ykp
  +jew geno++cide in iraq jl mmxv seoul dr ykp
  +non++jew et jew jl mmxv seoul yp
  +jew religion et chicanery jl mmxv ykp s kor
  +jew pre++varication jl 2015 yp s kor
  +jew c++hutz++pah et s kahn jl mmxv yp sk
  +dr yk park pub list jl 2015 seoul
  +economists prostitutes jl mmxv seoul yp
  +end cash jl mmxv s kor ykp
  +tpp rapp++port jl mmxv s kor ykp
  +non++jews killed by jews jl 2015 s kor ykp
  +jew relig heterim dis++pensations 15 yp
  JEW HOLO++CAUST 2 JL MMXV YP SEOUL
  JEW GOVT 1 JL 2015 S KOR YKP
  JEW MEDIA 2 ET SEX JUL MMXV SEOUL YP
  JEW MEDIA 1 ET MONROE JL 2015 S KOR YP
  JEW MEDIA 3 ET JEWS JL MMXV SEOUL YP
  JEW POP CULTURE 2 SEOUL JL 2015 YP
  JEW USURY JL MMXV S KOR YKP
  JEW APART++HEID JL 2015 SEOUL YKP
  JEW TRUTHS JL MMXV S KOR YP
  JEW PRE++EMINENCE JL 2015 S KOR YKP
  JEW AGAINST CHRISTIANITY JL 2015 YP SK
  JEW CRIMES 2 SEOUL JL MMXV YKP
  JEW CRIMES 1 S KOR JL 2015 YP
  JEW SAYAN++IM JL MMXV SEOUL YKP
  JEW CONGO HOLO++CAUST JL MMXV DR YP
  ISRL FOUNDING MYTHS JL MMXV YKP SK
  JEW TERROR JL 2015 S KOR YKP
  JEW DRUG SEOUL JL 2015 YKP
  JEW ART JL 2015 S KOR YKP
  HACKING. CHANGE SEARCH SERVER 15 YP
  JEW VICTIMOLOGY JL 2015 SEOUL YKP
  JEW BLACK SLAVERY JL MMXV DR YKP SK
  WHAI IS JEW JL 2015 S KOR YKP
  JEW MONEY JL 2015 SEOUL YKP
  JEW ACCUSES ANTI++SEM JL 2015 YKP SK
  JEW TALMUD JL MMXV DR YKP SK
  JEW WHITE SLAVERY JL 2015 DR YKP SEL
  +japn nuc waste jl 2015 seoul ykp
  +hacking et cyber war++fare jl mmxv s kor yp
  +trump on netan--yahu jl 2015 seoul ykp
  +s kor se++wol re 2015 s kor mmxv dr ykp
  +s kor mers 2 et pentagon jl mmxv seoul dr ykp
  +s kor mers 1 et pentagon seoul jl 2015 dr ykp
  +tallinn ii et cyber war++fare s kor jl mmxv yp
  +tallinn i et cyber war++fare seoul jl 2015 yp
  +wang wei cn poet s kor jl mmxv dr ykp
  +jew holo++caust 1 s kor jl 2015 yp
  +jk consequences ag 2015 seoul yp
  +us under jew rule ag mmxv dr ykp s kor
  +accuse antisem 1 ykp s kor ag 2015
  +accuse antisem 2 ykp s kor ag 2015
  +jew pop cult 1 ykp s kor ag 2015
  +jew pop cult 2 ykp s kor ag 2015
  +jew govt 1 ykp seoul ag 2015
  +jew govt 2 ykp seoul ag 2015
  +holocaust 1 ykp s kor ag 2015
  +holocaust 2 yp seoul ag mmxv
  +s kor sewol re 2 dr ykp seoul ag 2015
  +cheonan re 1 dr ykp s kor ag mmxv
  +cheonan re 2 ykp s kor ag mmxv
  +cheonan re 3 ykp s kor ag mmxv
  +cheonan re 4 ykp s kor ag mmxv
  +cheonan re 5 ykp s kor ag mmxv
  +cheonan re 6 ykp s kor ag mmxv
  +pat zero concocked++ebola ykp seoul ag xv
  +tian++jin explosion 2 ag 2015
  +tian++jin explosion 1 ag 2015
  +amnesty et prostitution ag mmxv
  +new gcpeil5.homepagestart.de ag 2015
  +new gcpeil6.homepagestart.de ag 2015
  +gk people et poet d thomas ag mmxv
  +us taken by nwo ag 2015
  +st gilles gg ttip ag mmxv
  +jew tyranny alias usa ag mmxv
  +re mh 370 1 ag 2015
  +re mh 370 2 ag 2015
  +re mh 370 3 ag 2015
  +mh 370 et hebdo charlie ag mmxv
  +cwc f ag 2015
  +cwc e ag 2015
  +cwc d ag mmxv
  +cwc c ag mmxv
  +cwc b ag 2015
  +cwc a ag 2015
  +bio war for re++colonization ag 2015
  +bwc ag 2015
  +ukr energy wars ag 2015
  +dr yk park pub list ag 2015
  +session++id hijack ad 2015
  +site map ag 2015
  repost tian++jin explosion 2 ag 2015
  SCHELLEN++HUBER,WARMING GLOBAL 15
  LAUDATO SI 2A FRANCIS AG 2011
  LAUDATO SI 2B POPE FANCIS AG 15
  LAUDATO SI 1 AG 2011
  JADE HELM 15 AG MMXV
  NEW CEIL2014E.REPAGE2.DE AG 2015
  S STONE RE AG MMXV
  POET D THOMAS AG 2015
  +antipope 2 ag 2015
  +out of silver 15
  +jfk murder re 15
  +ukr melding 15
  +us police et boy 15
  +b sanders 15
  +cn, brics banks 15
  +us police quota sys 15
  +ital spyware 15
  +brics in c 21 ag mmxv
  +ai, prostitution re xv
  +london 777 re xv
  +ru media xv
  a merkel xv
  +gk tsa++kalotos ag mmxv
  +iran++us n deal xv
  +gks, hang bankers ag mmxv
  +gr, putsch xv
  +antipope 1 francis ag mmxv
  STUPIDITY AG MMXV
  COAL FLY ASH AG 15
  OPM HACK AG MMXV
  PRISON W/O BAR AG 15
  E PATRIOT ACT AG 15
  US POLICE KILLS MORE AG MMXV
  PACIFIC ISLANDS, R++ACTIVE WASTE AG 15
  H DOG AG 15
  JAILED OVER FBOOK POST AG MMXV
  OCEAN, G++HOUSE E++MISSIONS AG 15
  MONROE DEATH RE AG MMXV
  NATHANAEL ON TRUMP AG 15 SEOUL
  DESTROY EARTH AG MMXV S KOR
  +us danger gravest sp 2015 sel
  +stupid am sheeple sp mmxv s kor
  +kor quasi state of war sp 15 sel
  +kor border propaganda sp xv
  +a madison hack sp xv
  +isrl attack on w syria sp 15 sel
  +sk--us power show sp mmxv
  +radiation highs sp 15
  +modify hosts file sp 15 sel
  +kor war looms sp 15
  +via kor cn--us war sp xv
  COAL ET SOROS SP 15 SEL
  COAL FLY ASH RE SP XV
  GH GAS EMISSIONS RE SP MMXV
  DRS KILLED ET PHAGE THERAPY SP 15
  M ALLAN IN STRIKE GG ISRL SP XV
  PAL HUNGER STRIKER SP MMXV S KOR
  STEROIDS ET POLICE SP 15
  BANGKOK SP 15
  MH 17 RE GOVT ET MEDIA SP MMXV
  +g conventions 1 sp mmxv seoul
  +g conventions 2 sp mmxv seoul
  +nwo central banks sp 15
  +nwo habitat et un sp mmxv
  +nwo academia sp mmxv seoul
  +nwo vatican sp mmxv
  +nwo 1 world religion sp 15
  +nwo minions sp 15 seoul
  +nwo guideline of world pop 500 000 000 xv
  +refugee convention sp mmxv s kor
  +baby refugees heart++breaking sp 15
  +911 et a++sbestos so 15
  +fli++banserin for female sex sp mmxv
  +reagan last pres et ai++pac sp 15
  +n weapons sp mmxv
  +ukr olig++arch steals sp xv
  POLICE ET RACISM SP 15 SEOUL
  ATT ET NSA SP MMXV
  VATICAN ET GLOBAL WARMING 6 SEOUL 15
  VATICAN ET GLOBAL WARMING 5 SEOUL 15
  VATICAN ET GLOBAL WARMING 4 SEOUL 15
  VATICAN ET GLOBAL WARMING 3 SEOUL 15
  VATICAN ET GLOBAL WARMING 2 SEOUL 15
  VATICAN ET GLOBAL WARMING 1 SEOUL 15
  K SCHWARZ ON US SHEEPLE 1 SP MMXV
  TIAN++JIN RE SP 15
  HAGUE APOSTILLE CONVENTION SP XV
  HAGUE CONVENTIONS LAWS OF WAR SP 15
  DR YK PARK PUB LIST SP 2015 SEOUL
  REGUGEES ET ISIL SP MMXV
  J TISSOT SP 15 S KOR
  +task mgr header hijack sp 15 seoul
  +mil imf et world bank sp mmxv s kor
  msg to mil vid sp 15
  +ru et arctic sp mmxv s kor
  +mi++dan syr snipers sp 15
  +mai++dan kiev snipers sp mmxv seoul
  WW II ET JAPN SP MMXV SEOUL
  KATRINA 2005 ET 2015 S KOR SP 15
  TRUMP RE SP XV
  LIKE PRISONERS VID SP MMXV
  SYR GOVT VID SP 15
  FILM CHILDREN OF MEN YOUTUBE.COM 15
  FALSE FLAG TERROR BY GOVTS SP 15
  EARTH OVER++SHOOT ET 7.2 BI PEOPLE 15
  NWO IMF ET WORLD BANK RE SP 15
  AU VACCINATION SP XV
  EBOLA RE SP 15
  JADE HELM RE SP 15
  NWO THOUGHT++FORMS ET WARS SP XV
  CHILDREN OF MEN PREGNANCY DENIED 15
  +jamarat islam sp 15 seoul
  +dapa us sp mmxv
  +tian++jin re poison rain sp 15
  +brit 1st settlers in america sp mmxv s kor
  +mil et your diet sp 15
  +gwb quotes sp mmxv
  +ru et syr ob mmxv seoul
  +un and putin et al ob 15
  +t cruise et al ob xv
  +hamlet ob mmxv s kor
  +francis pope in us ob 15
  +lcd malwares ob xv
  +io migration ob xv seoul
  +nobel lit 2015 s kor ob 15
  +ws sonnets 1 seoul ob mmxv
  +kafka ver++wandlung ob 15
  +op 5015 us++s kor ob mmxv
  +rc++ep seoul ob 15
  +tpp 2015 s kor ob xv
  +parent++hood planned us ob 15
  +hamlet 2 seoul ob mmxv
  +kr hist 4 seoul ob 15
  +kr hist 3 seoul ob 15
  +kr hist 2 seoul ob 15
  +kr hist 1 seoul ob 15
  +hidden files ob 15 s kor
  +clintons 1 seoul ob 15
  +ws sonnets 2 s kor ob mmxv
  MAP OF THIS SITE OB 15 SEOUL
  DR YKP PUB LIST OB 2015
  HOMAN SQ OB MMXV
  JEW FUTURE? OB 15 S KOR
  ATTACK IN THAI OB XV
  PAL OF 20 FAMILIES OB XV SEOUL
  KIEV WAR CRIMES OB 15
  UKR 2ND CIVIL WAR? OB 15
  KEPLER++62 OB XV
  PE++GI++DA. REFUGEES OB 15 SEOUL
  CLINTONS 3 SEL OB XV
  CLINTONS 4 SK OB 15
  CLINTONS 2 SEOUL OB 15
  C MAR++LOWE ET WS OB MMXV SEL
  WS 3 SONNETS OB 15 S KOR
  +con++scription us ob 15
  +haa++rp 1 et tesla seoul ob xv
  +haa++rp 2 et tesla seoul ob xv
  +directed energy weapon 2 et tian++jin ob 15
  +directed energy weapon 1 et tian++jin ob 15
  +tian++jin et tesla coil seoul ob 15
  +saudi assassins ob 15
  +500 mi dollars et isil ob xv
  +freedom et jew tyranny ob 15
  ARCHAEO++LOGY NV 15 SEOUL
  CN AIR POLLUTION NV XV
  AI SELF++LEARNING NV 15 SEL
  GOLD PHYSICAL NV 15
  ROBOT HUMAN++OID NV XV
  ISP AS SPY NV 15 S KOR
  SPRATLY ISLDS CN NV 15
  TIAN++HE 1 CN SUPER++COM NV 15
  +motion sickness nv 15 seoul
  +mh 17 in++vestigator? nv xv
  +japn cp chair shii et abe nv 15
  +inet company as spy nv 15
  +huge bet on gold nv xv
  +ru jet downed nv 15 sel
  A NUR ET LAND NV 15 SEOUL
  T BUSH++BY ET CHURCH NV XV S KOR
  LAND ET CHURCH NV 15 SEL
  KBG 11 KILL BEST GENTILES NV 15
  PARIS ATTACK ET NWO NV 15 SEOUL
  ATTACK ON PARIS 1ST RPT NV XV
  SITE MAP.NEW CEIL2014F.REPAGE2.DE NV 15
  T BUSH++BY ET CHURCH NV XV
  K++BG 11 BRUNN KILL BEST GENTILES NV XV
  LAND ET CHURCH NV 15 S KOR
  A NUR ET LAND NV 15
  K++BG 1 BRUNN KILL BEST GENTILES NV XV
  K++BG 2 GEMAELDE NV 15
  K++BG 3 GEMAELDE NV 15
  K++BG 4 GEMAELDE NV 15
  K++BG 5 LIT NV XV S KOR
  K++BG 6 LIT NV XV S KOR
  K++BG 7 LIT NV XV S KOR
  K++BG 8 LIT NV XV S KOR
  K++BG 9 LIT NV XV S KOR
  K++BG 10 LIT NV XV S KOR
  FR ATTACK ON SYR NV 15
  US ATTACK ON SYR NV XV SEOUL
  MERCHANTS 3 IN TEMPLE NV 15
  MERCHANTS 2 IN TEMPLE NV 15
  MERCHANTS 1 IN TEMPLE NV 15
  +war gg roths++child++s nv 15 seoul
  +sl fr war et false flag paris attack nv xv
  +false flag paris attack 3 seoul nv 15
  +jk chaos emp et false flag paris attack nv 15
  +sl us schuld et false flag paris attack nv xv
  +trump re et isil nv 15 s kor
  +owen beaty et josephine beaty nv 15 n
  +owen beaty 2 jew takeover of us et ww iii nv 15
  ADMIN HIJACK NV 15 SEOUL
  US POLICE SHOOTING NV XV
  CL ENGINEERING ASSAULT NASA ET AL 15
  T BLAIR NV 15 SEOUL
  ASR DEL ERROR NV 15
  FROHE WEIHNACHTEN MMXV S KOR
  WORDS T BLAIR DC 15
  TOKYO TRIAL ET ABE DC 15
  FILE UPLOAD STOP DC XV SEL
  NDAA 2016 DC 15 SEOUL
  ABOUT YKP DC 15 SEOUL
  ON JUSTICE DC MMXV
  WINTER DECEPTION ++CL ENGINEERING 15
  FAC++IAL RECOG SW DC 15 S KOR
  PSYCHO++PATH, SENTENCE 1 XV
  PSYCHO++PATH, SENTENCE 2 XV
  +tiziano et time dc 15 seoul
  +s kor prisoner seok ki lee, hr committee 15
  +s kor ex++orcism death in germany 15
  +public phone gg ph hijack dc 15 s kor
  +1st jew president obama dc xv
  RIMBAUD I SEOUL DC 2015
  +
  RIMBAUD II SEOUL DC 2015
  RIMBAUD III SEOUL DC 2015
  YKP PUB LIST DC 2015
  PLUGIN CONTAINER DC 15 SEL
  KOR HIST SJW DIARY DC 2015 SEOUL
  HITLER DEATH DC MMXV S KOR
  BAUDELAIRE III SEOUL DC MMXV
  BAUDELAIRE II SEOUL DC MMXV
  BAUDELAIRE I SEOUL DC MMXV
  +happy new year 2016. c badi je viens du sud
  +asr 2nd scan dc 2015 seoul
  WAR REPARATION 5 KOR++JAPN AGREEM 16
  LOGIN HIJACK JA MMXVI SEOUL
  SS *SEX SLAVERY * WAR REPARATION 5B 16
  SS *SEX SLAVERY * WAR REPARATION 0 16
  SS *SEX SLAVERY * WAR REPARATION 1 16
  +sex slavery war rep 2 seoul ja mmxvi
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  +sex slavery war rep 3 seoul ja mmxvi
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  +sex slavery war rep 6 recap s kor ja 2016
  +sex slavery war rep 7 s kor ja 2016
  +sex slavery war rep 8 s kor ja 2016
  +sex slavery war rep 9 recap seoul ja mmxvi
  +sex slavery war rep 10 hague c seoul ja mmxvi
  +sex slavery war rep 11 geneva a seoul ja mmxvi
  +sex slavery war rep 12 geneva b seoul ja mmxvi
  +active server pages hijack ja mmxvi sel
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  +d bowie a' dieu s kor ja 2016
  N KOR N TEST JA 2016 SEOUL
  N KOR H BOMB TEST JA MMXVI S KOR
  B++52 ON KOR JA 2016 SEL
  T++HAAD ET KOR JA 2016 S KOR
  S KOR CASTRATION ACT JA MMXVI SEOUL
  MYSPACE USER ID HIJACK S KOR JA 2016
  S KOR ANTI++CORRUPTION CRC JA 3016 SEL
  S KOR ANTI++CORRUPTION CRC JA 2016 SEL
  +d bowie et pentagram a seoul ja mmxvi
  +d bowie et pentagram b seoul ja mmxvi
  +zika virus et n w o s kor ja mmxvi
  +hotmail session id hijack seoul ja mmxvi
  +d bowie et pentagram c ja mmxvi seoul
  OBAMA FOR UN? JA MMXVI S KOR
  DUAL EC RANDOM NR GENERATOR FB 2016
  OWENS ET FDR FB MMXVI SEOUL
  I REFUSE CELL++PHONE FB MMXVI S KOR
  RU SVP 24 SYS FB 2016 SEL
  BETA AMYLOID FB MMXVI SEOUL
  +us zika et nwo seoul fb mmxvi
  +eu zika et nwo s kor fb mmxvi
  +brazil zika et nwo fb mmxvi sel
  GLYPHOSATE ZIKA ET NWO FB MMXVI SEOUL
  FACEBOOK SOCIAL CONTROL FB MMXVI S KR
  MOSSAD BOWIE ET TRUMP FB MMXVI SEL
  FACEBOOK TRUMP ET JEWS FB MMXVI S KOR
  +madonna on d bowie fb mmxvi seoul
  +new gcpeil7.homepagestart.de fb mmxvi s kor
  + logon button stop fb mmxvi seoul
  + facebook.com/yongk.park.75 fb mmxvi s kor
  + facebook.com/yongk.park.39 fb mmxvi s kor
  +kabba++la quoi? fb mmxvi seoul
  +glyphosate et nwo fb mmxvi seoul
  +stop element+restart button fb mmxvi s kor
  +jews et nathanael fb mmxvi seoul
  +shima++tsu on zika et oxford 3 mh mmxvi seoul
  +shima++tsu on zika et oxford 2 mh mmxvi seoul
  +shima++tsu on zika et oxford 1 mh mmxvi seoul
  ADA PROGRAM TO STOP MH MMXVI S KOR
  UN SC N KOR RES NEW MH MMXVI SEOUL
  US SUPREME CT QUOI? MH MMXVI S KOR
  MONROE UN++HEARD OF MH MMMXVI SEOUL
  +monroe not heard of seoul mh mmxvi
  +monroe 1 to 2 repost s kor mh mmxvi
  +html tags.make web page dirty mh mmxvi
  +davos plan 2. smart s++grid mh mmxvi seoul
  +gangster++ism capital++ism mh mmxvi s kor
  +un sc nk resol c mh mmxvi s kor
  +zika et oxfd null mh mmxvi seoul
  isrl mass murder mh mmxvi seoul
  +jews election mh mmxvi seoul
  +refugees et sharia mh mmxvi s kor
  +j r matrix i mh mmxvi seoul
  +j r matrix ii mh mmxvi seoul
  S KOR NORTHERN INVASION? MH MMXVI
  +h intervention mh mmxvi seoul
  +rots
  +rots++child mh mmxvi
  +jesus et jews mh mmxvi seoul
  +hpv i re mh mmxvi
  +hpv ii re mh mmxvi
  +buddha re iii mh mmxvi
  +buddha re ii mh mmxvi
  +buddha re i mh mmxvi
  +un sc res nk a mh mmxvi seoul
  +hpv i cf nwo agenda to retard humanity mh mmxvi
  +henderson et jekyll creature mh mmxvi s kor
  RU WARNS N KOR MH MMXVI SEOUL
  +milosevic poisoned mh mmxvi seoul
  +brussels attack mh mmxvi
  BUDDHA DIAMOND S2 MH MMXVI
  LETTER RE++DOUBLING MH MMXVI SEOUL
  TATTOO BENEFIT MH MMXVI
  +rule of law torched ap mmxvi
  +last chance by n kor
  +last chance n kor ap mmxvi
  +brussels attack 3. weeping for eu ap mmxvi
  +syr shoa++h 2. plan yi++non ap mmxvi
  +brussels attack 4 ap mmxvi
  BRUSSELS ATTACK 5 AP MMXVI
  US CONST EXISTS? AP MMXVI
  DEEP STATE AP MMXVI SEOUL
  LEVIATHAN MIL AP MMXVI
  SYR SHOA++H 1 AP MMXVI
  CERVANTES DON QUI++XOTE AP MMXVI
  BRUSSELS ATTACK 1 RE AP MMXVI
  BRUSSELS ATTACK 2 AP MMXVI
  TRUMP FAM THREAT AP MMXVI
  TASK MGR HIJACK AP MMXVI
  CULT ET TECH A AP MMXVI
  CULT ET TECH B AP MMXVI
  BUDDHA DIA SS 4 MMXVI
  BUDDHA DIA SS 3 MMXVI
  BUDDHA DIA SS 1 MMXVI
  PAL TERR WATERS ET ISRL AP MMXVI
  +p papers et uk 2nd empire ap mmxiv
  +us jews et justice ap mmxvi seoul
  +windows 10 prob ap mmxvi
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  CLEO++PATRA AP MMXVI SEOUL
  RADIO++ACTIVITY SEOUL AP MMXVI
  SUPREME CT CASE 2 SEOUL AP MMXVI
  US CODE ET EO RE AP MMXVI
  FED RES ACT RE AP MMXVI
  +new ceil2014g.repage2.de
  +ykp pubs list my++ ap mmxvi seoul
  +gcci map my++ ap mmxvi s kor
  LAW OF SEA 1 MY++ AP MMXVI
  LAW OF SEA 2 MY++ AP MMXVI
  PAL TERR WATERS RE MY++ AP MMXVI
  OSLO ACCORDS A MY++AP MMXVI
  OSLO ACCORDS B MY++AP MMXVI
  SK PRES GH PARK MY MMXVI SEOUL
  SK KAIST ET MO++FCS MY MMXVI
  +annabelle lee sarah jarocz my mmxvi seoul
  +windows god mode seoul my mmxvi
  NWO ET MED I SEOUL MMXVI
  D BOWIE GIFT SEOUL MY MMXVI
  CHU++ANG TZU I SEOUL MMXVI
  REAL 911 TARGET YOU SEOUL MY MMXVI
  +chu++ang tzu ii seoul mmxvi
  +nwo et med ii seoul mmxvi
  +whether illegals vote my mmxvi
  NWO ET MED II RE AP MMXVI SEOUL
  NWO ET MED III RE AP MMXVI SEOUL
  UK HOME++LESS ET HIROSHIMA AP++MY XVI
  FUKUSHIMA AB 2011 SEOUL MY++AP MMXVI
  +trump quoi my mmxvi seoul
  +nwo et med 4 cf parasites my mmxvi
  +nwo et med 6 bio++engineering my mmxvi
  +nwo et med 5 nwo quoi my mmxvi
  +d bowie gift re youtube.com d bowie black star xvi
  +nwo et med 7 ga stones cf ttip gg eu my mmxvi
  CANNES 2016 A SEOUL MY MMXVI
  FUKUSHIMA ON++GOING MY MMXVI
  NWO ET MED WHITE GENOCIDE MY MMXVI
  UP++STREAM MY MMXVI S KOR
  INTERCEPT MY MMXVI SEOUL
  +t paine 4 cf nwo et med 10d seoul my mmxvi
  +t paine 3 cf nwo et med 10c seoul my mmxvi
  +t paine 2 cf nwo et med 10b seoul my mmxvi
  +t paine 1 cf nwo et med 10a seoul my mmxvi
  PHMG ET S KOR MY MMXVI SEOUL
  NWO ET MED 9-10 GA ET ILLUMINATI MMXVI
  D STGB SC 217 4 ET CH STGB SEOUL MY XVI
  D STGB SC 217 3 CF PR C ROXIN MY MMXVI
  D STGB SC 217 2 TODESCOCKTAIL MY MMXVI
  D STGB SC 217 1 ET CH STGB MY MMXVI
  CANNES 2016 B MY MMXVI
  ORIG SIN SEOUL MY MMXVI
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  +hiroshima 1945 b my mmxvi
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  +nk nucl nightmare seoul my mmxvi
  NWO ET MED 9--10 RE MY MMXVI SEOUL
  CANNES FILMS 16 C SEOUL MY MMXVI
  KI M BAN QUOI SEOUL MY MMXVI
  CANNES FILMS 16 D MY MMXVI
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  LADY JANE GREY JN MMXVI SEOUL
  NK NUCL NIGHTMARE 1 JN MMXVI
  HIROSHIMA 1945A JN MMXVI
  +vergil 2 re seoul jn mmxvi
  +vergil 1 et arcadia seoul jn mmxvi
  +fbi nsl++s et yahoo jn mmxvi
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  NOUBLIEZ JAMAIS J COCKER JN MMXVI
  CHILCOT RPT ET BLAIR JN MMXVI
  CLINTONS ET CIA JN MMXVI
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  EUPHORION/ROM POETS/ROM HIST 3B XVI
  ORLANDO,NWO++FORBIDDEN HIST JN XVI
  WINDOWS10 PROB SEOUL JN XVI
  H CLINTON JN MMXVI
  +euphorion/rom poets/cross 2 jn xvi

Hier entsteht die Seite "repost kor unification ++ii bb ++ 04 2014". KOR REơUNIFICATION II ̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡ %%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%% korean and german re--unification intro by dr yong k park ##################################################### 2013 seoul pppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppp part ii ############################################## appendix ooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooo ch i-- ch xvii KOR REơUNIFICATION II ̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡ %%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%% korean and german re--unification intro by dr yong k park ##################################################### 2013 seoul +++++++++++++++++++ pppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppp ̡ ttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttt ch i llllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllll kkk Problems with German Reunification - Center for Reformed Theology and ... Problems with German Reunification Following the Second World War, Germany was rebuilt out of practically nothing into one of the richest countries of the world. www.reformed.org/webfiles/antithesis/v2n3/ant_v2n3_curr3.html - Im Cache Yahoo Suche Web Suche Zur Suche gehen. Neuer Nutzer? Registrieren Anmelden Holen Sie sich die neuen Yahoo Mail-Apps Mail Mein Yahoo Yahoo Yahoo Suchbegriff SafeSearch On Optionen Web Bilder Video Nachrichten Lokale Suche Shopping Mehr Suche:Das WebSeiten auf DeutschSeiten aus Deutschland NACH ZEIT FILTERN Alle Treffer Letzter Tag Letzte Woche Letzen Monat Suchergebnisse Suchergebnisse aaa German reunification - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia Naming| Precursors to...| Process of...| Foreign support... The German reunification was the process in 1990 in which the German Democratic Republic (GDR/East Germany) joined the Federal Republic of Germany (FRG/West Germany ... en.wikipedia.org/wiki/German_reunification - Im Cache Weitere Ergebnisse von en.wikipedia.org bbb German reunification | Facebook German reunification. 608 likes 2 talking about this. The German reunification was the process in 1990 in which the German Democratic Republic (GDR/East Germany ... www.facebook.com/pages/German-reunification/114766685206619 - Im Cache Weitere Ergebnisse von facebook.com ccc German Reunification - Treffer in der Video Suche AbspielenGERMAN REUNIFICATION *LIVE* CNN,CBS 1990 AbspielenGerman reunification in Goodbye Lenin AbspielenThe reunification of Germany - 50 mins of BBC Breakfast News 3rd ... German Reunification: Thatcher and Kohl 'Quarreled Terribly' - SPIEGEL ... German Reunification: Thatcher and Kohl 'Quarreled Terribly' In a conversation with SPIEGEL, former French Foreign Minister Roland Dumas, 87, discusses Margaret ... www.spiegel.de/international/spiegel/german-reunification-thatcher... Weitere Ergebnisse von spiegel.de ddd Facts about Germany: 1990: Reunification > 1990 The website Facts about Germany invites you to get to know Germany. It offers profound basic knowledge and guidance ? especially designed for readers abroad whose ... www.tatsachen-ueber-deutschland.de/.../1990-reunification.html - Im Cache eee German Reunification - Treffer in der Bildersuche German re... german re... German re... Reunification Controversy: Was East Germany Really 'Annexed?' - SPIEGEL ... As Germany prepares to mark 20 years of unity, Matthias Platzeck, former head of the SPD, has set off a debate about German reunification after he referred to the ... www.spiegel.de/international/germany/reunification-controversy-was... fff October 3, 1990 : The Reunification of Germany - Nachrichten English ... On October 3 Germany will celebrate its 18th reunification day. WELT ONLINE takes a look at the historical events leading up to the reunification of Germany. On ... www.welt.de/english-news/article2522386 - Im Cache Weitere Ergebnisse von welt.de ggg The German Reunification, Die Deutsche Wiedervereinigung - YouTube Short Movie for Presentation at German Reunification Day Celebration @ LCC International University, Klaipeda, Oct 3rd 2009 Showing the development from ... www.youtube.com/watch?v=SS3sDVRGLtE - Im Cache .Abspielen Weitere Ergebnisse von youtube.com hhh German Reunification, CNN, 1990.10.3 - YouTube CNN's Bernard Shaw reports live on the ceremonies marking reunification between East and West Germany on October 3, 1990. www.youtube.com/watch?v=RVE6sjS2jGo - Im Cache .Abspielen jjj WHKMLA : History of Germany : Reunification 1989-1990 For earlier history, see History of the FRG, History of Berlin, History of the GDR Late in the 1980es, the GDR was technically broke. It's political leadership was ... www.zum.de/whkmla/region/germany/unif.html - Im Cache kkk Problems with German Reunification - Center for Reformed Theology and ... Problems with German Reunification Following the Second World War, Germany was rebuilt out of practically nothing into one of the richest countries of the world. www.reformed.org/webfiles/antithesis/v2n3/ant_v2n3_curr3.html - Im Cache Werbe-Links Machen Sie Yahoo zu Ihrer Startseite Sie erreichen Ihre Lieblings-Websites direkt von Ihrer Yahoo Startseite. de.yahoo.com Weitere Ergebnisse 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 Weitere > Suchbegriff 2013 Yahoo Alle Rechte vorbehalten. Datenschutz - Geschaftsbedingungen - Missbrauch melden - Webseite eintragen Powered by Bing sc http://de.search.yahoo.com/search;_ylt=Aokq6V6XUtiBZsSgP2z7DDAqrK5_;_ylc=X1MDMjE0MjE1Mzc3MARfcgMyBGZyA3lmcC10LTcwOARuX2dwcwMxBG9yaWdpbgNkZS55YWhvby5jb20EcXVlcnkDZ2VybWFuIHJldW5pZmljYXRpb24Ec2FvAzE-?p=german+reunification&toggle=1&cop=mss&ei=UTF-8&fr=yfp-t-708 KOR REơUNIFICATION II ̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡ %%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%% korean and german re--unification intro by dr yong k park ##################################################### 2013 seoul +++++++++++++++++++++++++++ pppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppp ̡ ttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttt ch ii llllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllll Go to Antithesis Root Page Problems with German Reunification Following the Second World War, Germany was rebuilt out of practically nothing into one of the richest countries of the world. This well-known transformation is known as the "Wirtschaftswunder" (wonder of economics). Go to Antithesis Root Page Problems with German Reunification Following the Second World War, Germany was rebuilt out of practically nothing into one of the richest countries of the world. This well-known transformation is known as the "Wirtschaftswunder" (wonder of economics). Yet in the recent reunification of West and East Germany, German leadership has ignored crucial lessons from this successful period of transformation. Three problems highlight this claim: 1. Reunification promised to quickly alleviate forty years of East German Socialism by means of tax money: Prior to and especially during the November 1990 reunification election, political parties and government leaders all agreed that East Germany could be raised to the West German standard of living within the time of one parliament (four years), largely by means of State funding, although much of the GDR remains in the same condition that Hitler left it in. Reunification advocates ignored the post-War lesson that the western parts of Germany were not rebuilt by means of tax-money but by hard work in a relatively free economy. The people of the Federal Republic of Germany had to work hard for years and years to rebuild their economy. However, most of the people of the former GDR still cling to the old socialist dream that poverty can only be overcome by the State, and the German government is extremely weak in arguing against this mentality. For the most part, the German government instead sends billions of Deutschmarks to the former GDR and promises wealth without hard work, since hard work is so unpopular. This attitude is reflected in a common jest concerning a former GDR citizen who, after reunification, starts to work at the Mercedes assembly line but at 10:00 am complains to his co-worker: "I am tired. We are already over the time, and the material usually runs out." 2. Reunification promised to bring "social freedom" by ignoring the crimes of former Socialist party leaders: In the "Entnazifizierung" following World War II, thousands of Nazi criminals were brought to American and, later, German law courts. Not all Nazi criminals were found or sentenced, but justice became a part of the common mentality, and former Nazis remained silently powerless for fear that common citizens could take them before the courts. In contrast, the German government has not attempted to restore this sort of criminal justice in the former GDR. Thousands of the leading members of the SED (the East German Socialist party) are criminals even by old GDR standards, but, as of yet, German citizens are not bringing lawsuits against such criminals like they did following World War II. Most former GDR citizens fear to talk about known crimes, because SED leaders still control most of the factories, city administrations, universities, and even courts of law so that SED leaders are still able to work against "capitalistic" citizens. Freedom cannot prosper without justice. 3. Reunification advocates condemn the statism of the former GDR but ignore the statism of the FRG: The German government holds numerous state monopolies, some of them official (post, telephone, railway, local transportation, public education), some of them by way of ownership (airlines, electricity), and some by strict regulation (long-distance transportation -- businesses need a government permit to transport goods further than fifty kilometers). Moreover, Germany has an extensive social welfare system in which citizens must contribute to state insurance for health, unemployment, and rent. Thus, former West German politicians have a difficult time explaining the difference between statist socialism and statist "capitalism". Of course, they refer to it as a "social market economy," but this is simply a euphemism for the old promise that the State will subsidize citizens that are poor, ill, unemployed, old, or just not willing to work. The former GDR promised this to its citizens, and this is what they still expect. The new government promised this to its citizens in order to win the election, but this promise and the others noted above will hinder a second "Wirtschaftswunder". Thomas Schirrmacher is a Contributing Editor of Antithesis, writing from Bonn, Germany, and editor-in-chief of the German theological journal Bibel und Gemeinde. Copyright by Covenant Community Church of Orange County 1991 Return to CRTA Root Page Return to CRTA ++++++++++++++++ CRTA Logo Online Resources: About CRTA & Search The Bible The Store Bible Study Tools Apologetics Antithesis Reformed/Presbyterian Thought and Practice Books Reformed books and commentaries. Calvinism / Soteriology Five Points of Calvinism, etc. Christianity and Science Evolution, creation, etc. Christian Education Ecclesiology & Worship Eschatology Ethics Christian approach to ethics. Historic Church Documents Creeds, confessions, catechisms and sermons. Links of Interest Misc. Old Quotes from CRTA from 1991-92 Sacramentology Baptism and the Lord's Supper. Social Issues From a Biblical perspective. Copyright 1996-2012, Center for Reformed Theology and Apologetics, All Rights Reserved sc http://www.reformed.org/webfiles/antithesis/index.html?mainframe=/webfiles/antithesis/v2n3/ant_v2n3_curr3.html KOR REơUNIFICATION II ̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡ %%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%% korean and german re--unification intro by dr yong k park ##################################################### 2013 seoul zzzzzzzzzzzzzzzz pppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppp ̡ ttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttt ch iii llllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllll Late in the 1980es, the GDR was technically broke. + pppppppppppppppppp It's political leadership was aging, there was talk of a gerontocracy of CONCRETE HEADS. Meanwhile, the wind of change was blowing from the east, where the Soviet government under MICHAIL GORBACHEV advocated reforms; ppppppppppppppppppppppppppp the East German government, however, was sceptical, preferring the Brezhnev style policy. +broke. adj m e broke alter of broken, penni--less ncoll 1975. pppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppp +broke. past of break ncoll 1975. ggggggggggggggggggggggggggggggggggggggg FRG since 1990 The Collapse of Communism and German Reunification For earlier history, see History of the FRG, History of Berlin, History of the GDR Late in the 1980es, the GDR was technically broke. It's political leadership was aging, there was talk of a gerontocracy of CONCRETE HEADS. Meanwhile, the wind of change was blowing from the east, where the Soviet government under MICHAIL GORBACHEV advocated reforms; the East German government, however, was sceptical, preferring the Brezhnev style policy. In East Berlin and East Germany there were some signs of strong discontent with the political situation. When a rock group, the EURYTHMICS, staged an open-air concert in West Berlin, not too far from the wall, musiv fans from East Berlin approached to wall. Pushed away by secret police, they chanted "Die Mauer muss weg" (the wall has to be removed). Ronald Reagan, on a visit to Berlin, publicly called on Mr. Gorbachev to "tear down this wall". All over East Germany, civic groups advocating peace promotion (going so far as to refuse military service) and the protection of the environment were founded, tolerated, but closely observed by the East German secret service, as were activities of groups under the umbrella of the Lutheran church. In 1989, the year the GDR celebrated it's 40th anniversary, events unfolded with a breathtaking speed. Early in the year Hungary symbolically removed parts of the iron curtain. That summer, ca. 25.000 East German tourists staying in Hungary declared their will not to return to East Germany, but to West Germany instead; for them, a refugee camp was organized by the Red Cross. In Prague, Czechoslovakia, hundreds of East Germans climbed over the fence of the West German embassy, demanding to be permitted to move into West Germany. Both the governments of Czechoslovakia and Hungary were embarassed, because they were obliged by treaty with East Germany not to let their citizens go west. It has to be pointed out that Every citizen of Germany within it's borders of 1937, by that time, was, by the authorities of the Federal Republic, regarded a citizen of the Federal Republic of Germany, that included the entire population of East Germany. Thus the embassy campers in Prague were welcomed by the West German embassy, and West German media were euphoric in their coverage of these events. Back in East Germany everybody was aware of what was going on, as the vast majority regularly watched West German news broadcasts. There was a sense of last-minute panic. In the industrial city of LEIPZIG, concerned citizens met in the NICOLAI CHURCH every Monday afternoon, to peacefully demonstrate after service. These demonstrations quickly grew in size. They carried banners articulating a variety of political topics, many of them focussing on the demand of the removal of travel restrictions. Meanwhile the GDR officially celebrated it's 40th anniversary. State guest Michail Gorbachev received more applause than host Erich Honecker; Gorbachev warned the GDR leadership : Who comes too late is punished by life. On the evening of November 9th 1989, 70.000 demonstrators marched from the Nikolaikirche through the streets of Leipzig. Honecker had ordered the CHINESE SOLUTION (i.e. violent clampdown), but the armed forces refused. Honecker stepped down, succeeded by EGON KRENZ. The SED central committee held an emergency meeting, after which speaker GUENTER SCHABOWSKI announced on East German TV : from tomorrow, everybody will be permitted to freely travel out of the country and back in, providing a minimum of identification. The message was heard, the phrase "from tomorrow" overheard. The very same night, tenthousands of East Berlinners approached the wall at BRANDENBURG GATE, the most symbolic point along the inner-German border. Customs officials were at a loss, as they had no instructions. After a couple of hours, the border was opened and thousands of East Berlinners poured into West Berlin, most of them strolling down Kurfuerstendamm Avenue for the first time in their life. Meanwhile West Berlinners had gathered on the western side of the wall, and Berlin celebrated a wild spontaneous party, broadcast by TV, a number of adventurous young men had scaled the wall, some of them had brought hammer and chisel and began immediately with dismantling it. The opening of the wall, although somehow accidental, marked a point of no return. The new administration had to cooperate with representatives of civic organizations and take on drastic reforms. All interestic political groups were invited to join the ROUND TABLE TALKS. HANNS MODROW was appointed head of the government. He immediately visited Bonn, asking for vital credits. Helmut Kohl refused such credits, arguing that the East German government was not democratically elected and thus not legitimate. The East German round table planned elections for may, which were then rescheduled for March 18th. Meanwhile, Helmut Kohl, invited to speak in East Germany, publicly talked of the possibility of reunification and offered West Germany's entire trade surplus to fix East Germany's economic integration. Among the new political groups at the round table, many had dreamt of a reformed East Germany; the organizations now lacked manpower and finances to properly compete in an election with established parties, be it party organizations which for decades had been tools of the SED political system. The elections were easily won by the Eastern CDU, the sister party of Helmut Kohl's CDU. Unification now seemed to be on track in Germany, but there were diplomatic obstacles to be overcome. US president Bush was cautiously positive about the project, as it would free US troops still stationed in Germany. British prime minister Margaret Thatcher and French president Francois Mitterand actually were against it, but could not say so in public, had their governments been allies of the Federal Republic for decades. The deciding hurdle was the Soviet Union. Gorbachev was not principally against unification, but objected to East Germany thus becoming a part of the NATO organization. Finally a solution was found : unified Germany would remain a part of NATO, but NATO troops would not be stationed on East German soil. Unified Germany would reduce it's troops to a total strength of 370.000 men, indicating that Germany had peaceful intentions. And Germany provided the ailing USSR with credits. Further, West Germany signed a treaty with Poland, accepting the present borders (thus giving up the claim on provinces lost in 1945). On July 1st 1990, the West German DM was introduced in East Germany. In East Germany, 5 Bundeslaender (states) were reintroduced, which in turn applied to be accepted as member states of the Federal Republic. On October 3rd 1990, the parliaments of both East and West Germany celbrated unification. In December, unified Germany held a parliamentary election so that the country had a government elected by the entire nation. Within roughly one year, unification had been achieved. During the campaign (which Helmut Kohl's CDU won handily), opposition candidate Oskar Lafontaine (SPD) argued that unification should be approached much more cautiously, as it would result in much higher costs, which at that time could not even be calculated. The voters did not want to listen to a Cassandra. The political act of unification was one thing, the merger of two segments of a nation which had been separated into two states based on different ideologies another. In East Germany, many office holders (judges, administrative staff, professors, teachers) had to be replaced or retrained. The entire infrastructure - streets, highways, telephone lines (hopelessly inadequate) had to be modernized. East Berlin, for the next decade, turned into the continent's biggest construction site. The decision was taken to move Germany's state administration to Berlin (a move that took almost 10 years to accomplish, as Bonn resisted it). East Germany's economy had to be adapted to the market economy, which meant that many enterprises were shut down, the remainder privatized. The ecological damages had to be addressed. It turned out that many East Germans had cultivated too rosy a picture of the Golden West. Unemployment reached double the figures in the east as compared to the west, although workers in the east received only 80 % of the wages of their western colleagues - the eastern industry was much less productive. So, after some time, a sense of nostalgia - OSTALGIE (Eastalgia) appeared. The old SED, renamed PdS, cashed in on protest votes which missed the social security provided by the East German state and increased it's share among East German voters, becoming a stable factor in German politics. EXTERNAL FILES This page is part of World History at KMLA First posted in 2000, last revised on November 12th 2004 Click here to go Home Click here to go to Information about KMLA, WHKMLA, the author and webmaster Click here to go to Statistics visitors, total: 9,955,485 today: 725 yesterday: 966 max. daily: 9,382 online: 4 max. online: 250 page views, total: 19,177,732 this page: 22,234 Statistics Statistics sc http://www.zum.de/whkmla/region/germany/unif.html KOR REơUNIFICATION II ̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡ %%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%% korean and german re--unification intro by dr yong k park ##################################################### 2013 seoul zzzzzzzzzzzzzzzzzzzzzz pppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppp ̡ ttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttt ch iv llllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllll German Reunification, CNN, 1990.10.3 Jeff Boyd Jeff Boyd 26 17 46,766 ƿ 129 Ⱦ 4 ε ¥: 2009. 01. 6. CNN's Bernard Shaw reports live on the ceremonies marking reunification between East and West Germany on October 3, 1990. YouTube ȨKR ε ˸ ⺻  Ǿϴ. ѱ Ǿ ֽϴ. Ʒ Ʈ ֽϴ. Learn more View this message in English ̵ German Reunification, CNN, 1990.10.3 Jeff Boyd Jeff Boyd 26 17 46,766 ƿ 129 Ⱦ 4 ε ¥: 2009. 01. 6. CNN's Bernard Shaw reports live on the ceremonies marking reunification between East and West Germany on October 3, 1990. YouTube ȶ ƴ ǥõ˴ϴ. ǹ ִ ȭ ο ȭ İ + մϴ. ǥ YouTube Google+ ǥõ˴ϴ. ο ۿ ڼ ˾ƺ. 9:29 Countdown zur Einheit 03.10.1990 Teil 9/13ۼ: Dokufraggleȸ 36,942ȸ 13:51 Deutsche Einheit 1990 (Tagesschau 3.10.1990)ۼ: Geschichtsstundeȸ 14,985ȸ 9:46 Deutsche Einheit 1990 (Tagesschau 1.+2.10.1990)ۼ: Geschichtsstundeȸ 33,096ȸ 9:16 The fall of GDR - East Germanyۼ: childseastgermanyȸ 65,491ȸ 6:26 The Fall of the Berlin Wall (PART 1) - East Germany opens the gates (BBC News 9th November 1989 )ۼ: RobLittleukȸ 76,845ȸ 6:23 The Berlin Wall Falls 1989 NBC Coverage Pt1ۼ: TooleMan87ȸ 209,883ȸ 4:09 From the Fall of the Berlin Wall to German Unityۼ: GermanyInfoȸ 20,911ȸ ̸ ̹ 25 ̸ ̹ ̸ ̹ ̸ ̹ unification of germanyԽ: MrMcGarrie 9:38 Can the US learn from Germany?ۼ: RT Americaȸ 110,812ȸ 10:40 "Walled In!" Germany's inner borderۼ: DW (English)ȸ 280,951ȸ 3:54 German reunification in Goodbye Leninۼ: Clagnarȸ 8,074ȸ 10:37 ZDF heute 03.10.1990 Teil 1/2ۼ: Dokufraggleȸ 9,541ȸ 2:19 1958 East Germany Commercialۼ: paulpembrokeȸ 113,069ȸ 1:44 Deutsche Nationalhymne - Festakt zum Tag der Deutschen Einheit 2011ۼ: 19nrw86ȸ 106,948ȸ 9:41 Countdown zur Einheit 03.10.1990 Teil 8/13ۼ: Dokufraggleȸ 10,073ȸ 6:01 ABC's Primetime Live November 9, 1989 Berlin Wall Fallsۼ: grahambrunkȸ 42,323ȸ 5:22 Tagesschau vom 9. November 1989ۼ: Klaus Dreikopfȸ 347,587ȸ 10:22 GERMAN REUNIFICATION *LIVE* CNN,CBS 1990ۼ: fairmount1935ȸ 58,309ȸ 9:48 East Germany - Sky newsline - Fall of the GDR (DDR)ۼ: childseastgermanyȸ 7,391ȸ 5:13 The Wall...Berlin...Germany 1989....Revolution...without blood...ۼ: SirTarabasȸ 239,450ȸ YouTube Ȩ ڷ & α ۱ Ʈ ̿ ȣ å ǰ ο sc http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=RVE6sjS2jGo KOR REơUNIFICATION II ̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡ %%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%% korean and german re--unification intro by dr yong k park ##################################################### 2013 seoul zzzzzzzzzzzzzzzzzzz pppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppp ̡ ttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttt ch v llllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllll From the Fall of the Berlin Wall to German Unity GermanyInfo GermanyInfo 2 16 21,389 ƿ 45 Ⱦ 1 ε ¥: 2009. 04. 2. This video was produced by Deutsche Welle in Cooperation with the German Information Center. It recounts the events that led up to the fall of the Berlin Wall in November 9, 1989 and German reunification on October 3, 1990. YouTube ȨKR ε ̵ From the Fall of the Berlin Wall to German Unity GermanyInfo GermanyInfo 2 16 21,389 ƿ 45 Ⱦ 1 ε ¥: 2009. 04. 2. This video was produced by Deutsche Welle in Cooperation with the German Information Center. It recounts the events that led up to the fall of the Berlin Wall in November 9, 1989 and German reunification on October 3, 1990. Twenty years ago, on November 9, 1989, the world watched in amazement as jubilant crowds gathered on both sides of the Berlin Wall around midnight to celebrate the opening of the border crossings between the eastern and western parts of the city. A peaceful revolution in East Germany had finally cracked this grim symbol of Cold War and political oppression. It signaled the beginning of the end of Germanys postwar division and national unity came less than a year later on October 3, 1990. For more information: www.Germany.info/withoutwalls YouTube ȶ ƴ ǥõ˴ϴ. ǹ ִ ȭ ο ȭ İ + մϴ. ǥ YouTube Google+ ǥõ˴ϴ. ο ۿ ڼ ˾ƺ. 10:01 Fall of the Berlin Wall / Berliner Mauerfall 1989 - US American Forces Networkۼ: ehrentitleȸ 16,387ȸ 5:57 Moments in History - The Fall of the Berlin Wallۼ: turnbeutelvergesserBȸ 382,991ȸ 7:45 Nov. 9, 1989: Beyond the Brandenburg Gateۼ: ABC Newsȸ 23,685ȸ 26:43 "Berlin Wall" Speech - President Reagan's Address at the Brandenburg Gate - 6/12/87ۼ: ReaganFoundationȸ 279,354ȸ 5:36 Berlin - 9.11.1989 Grenzoffnungۼ: schuette64128ȸ 117,258ȸ 6:26 The Fall of the Berlin Wall (PART 1) - East Germany opens the gates (BBC News 9th November 1989 )ۼ: RobLittleukȸ 76,845ȸ ̸ ̹ 200 ̸ ̹ ̸ ̹ ̸ ̹ "Memories 5"Խ: mysticmagic4760 5:00 THE RISE AND FALL OF THE BERLIN WALLۼ: Cornishpastyman1ȸ 51,287ȸ 7:41 The Fall of the Berlin Wall (PART 2) - East Germany opens the gates (BBC News 9th November 1989 )ۼ: RobLittleukȸ 19,547ȸ 9:16 The fall of GDR - East Germanyۼ: childseastgermanyȸ 65,491ȸ 5:22 Tagesschau vom 9. November 1989ۼ: Klaus Dreikopfȸ 347,587ȸ 9:31 Fall of the Berlin Wallۼ: dabell43ȸ 5,248ȸ 4:41 Kennedy - I am a Berliner - Ich Bin Ein Berlinerۼ: forquignonȸ 1,330,943ȸ 0:25 Announcement that DDR border will openۼ: alanheath3ȸ 10,399ȸ 10:58 JUST A DAY: The Fall of the Berlin Wallۼ: AlainaMackȸ 26,260ȸ 10:22 GERMAN REUNIFICATION *LIVE* CNN,CBS 1990ۼ: fairmount1935ȸ 58,309ȸ 4:01 Nov. 10, 1989: A Crack in the Berlin Wallۼ: ABC Newsȸ 59,809ȸ 3:52 Ronald Reagan Celebrates Fall of Berlin Wall, November 9, 1989ۼ: Mcbogstersȸ 16,295ȸ 2:57 Germany marks 20 years since fall of Berlin Wallۼ: timesofearthȸ 9,038ȸ 1:44 Reagan at Brandenburg Gate - "tear down this wall"ۼ: forquignonȸ 483,501ȸ YouTube Ȩ ڷ & α ۱ Ʈ ̿ ȣ å ǰ ο sc http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=mBux1hXaR5w KOR REơUNIFICATION II ̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡ %%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%% korean and german re--unification intro by dr yong k park ##################################################### 2013 seoul zzzzzzzzzzzzzzzz pppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppp ̡ ttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttt ch vi llllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllll all of the Berlin Wall / Berliner Mauerfall 1989 - US American Forces Network ehrentitle ehrentitle 8 26 16,530 ƿ 23 Ⱦ 0 ε ¥: 2009. 10. 11. AFN Europe news report produced the day after the Fall of the Berlin Wall, November 10, 1989 / AFN Europe news report produziert am Tag nach dem Fall der Berliner Mauer, 10. November 1989 YouTube ȨKR ε ̵ Fall of the Berlin Wall / Berliner Mauerfall 1989 - US American Forces Network ehrentitle ehrentitle 8 26 16,530 ƿ 23 Ⱦ 0 ε ¥: 2009. 10. 11. AFN Europe news report produced the day after the Fall of the Berlin Wall, November 10, 1989 / AFN Europe news report produziert am Tag nach dem Fall der Berliner Mauer, 10. November 1989 YouTube ȶ ƴ ǥõ˴ϴ. ǹ ִ ȭ ο ȭ İ + մϴ. ǥ YouTube Google+ ǥõ˴ϴ. ο ۿ ڼ ˾ƺ. 1:10:46 Ѭլ֬߬ڬ ֬ݬڬ߬ 1 ֬ڬ / The Fall of Berlin film 1ۼ: mosfilmõ291,861 10:28 The fall of the wall part two of fiveۼ: alanheath3ȸ 3,473ȸ 5:38 Mauerfall am Brandenburger Tor - Fernsehbeitrag (10.11.1989)ۼ: VintageVideo2000ȸ 6,674ȸ 14:51 heute-journal vom 9.11.1989 Mauerfallۼ: kn3v3ȸ 29,871ȸ 8:41 The fall of the wall part one of fiveۼ: alanheath3ȸ 4,653ȸ ̸ ̹ 47 ̸ ̹ ̸ ̹ ̸ ̹ Mauerfall Berlin - Berlin Wall FallsԽ: missrobinson1 10:00 Die letzten Stunden der Berliner Mauer 1/5ۼ: Papillon0966ȸ 44,124ȸ 8:39 Der Fall der Mauer 1989ۼ: bildungskanalȸ 21,838ȸ 5:57 Moments in History - The Fall of the Berlin Wallۼ: turnbeutelvergesserBȸ 382,991ȸ 4:18 DDR Tag der Republik Ehrenparade 7 Oktober 1988, Berlinۼ: ehrentitleȸ 6,798ȸ 9:28 Life behind the Berlin Wallۼ: The Economistȸ 103,704ȸ 10:22 "Emmures", la reconstitution 3D du mur de Berlinۼ: Guillaume TRANQUARDȸ 92,923ȸ 5:13 AFN Radio (RIAS-TV)ۼ: Bill Petersonȸ 4,981ȸ 7:07 German Reunification, CNN, 1990.10.3ۼ: Jeff Boydȸ 46,138ȸ 0:38 DDR-Grenzer protestieren an der Mauerۼ: WESTALLIIERTERȸ 252,036ȸ 10:57 Berlin History 13 of 15 - The Fall of the Wall 1 of 3 - BBC Our World Documentaryۼ: RuniTravelȸ 10,004ȸ 5:21 Bernauer Strasse - Berliner Mauerۼ: realitymapsȸ 114,000ȸ 10:40 "Walled In!" Germany's inner borderۼ: DW (English)ȸ 280,951ȸ 6:01 ABC's Primetime Live November 9, 1989 Berlin Wall Fallsۼ: grahambrunkȸ 42,323ȸ 5:13 The Wall...Berlin...Germany 1989....Revolution...without blood...ۼ: SirTarabasȸ 239,450ȸ YouTube Ȩ ڷ & α ۱ Ʈ ̿ ȣ å ǰ ο sc http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=vK5ASqizJ9E KOR REơUNIFICATION II ̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡ %%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%% korean and german re--unification intro by dr yong k park ##################################################### 2013 seoul zzzzzzzzzzzzzzzz pppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppp ̡ ttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttt ch vii llllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllll Stream X2808 2 .... doch sie wissen nicht was sie tun ?! 9 % der Bundesburger wahlen mit der Linken eine Partei, die die deutsche Teilung "nun mal das Ergebnis des 2. Weltkrieges" sieht. Ist das so verstehen, dass die DDR "nun mal" am Mauer--bau gar nicht vorbei kam? 1989 wurde mit einem gigantischen Paukenschlag bewiesen, ++++++++++++++++++++++++++ dass es die Menschen sind, die Geschichte machten und --die--nicht "nun mal" mit den Entscheidungen der DDr-Fuhrung leben wollten. 9 % haben das noch nicht verstanden. Zeigt ihnen dieses Video. SirTarabas 2 (585) ǰ Stream X2808 2 .... doch sie wissen nicht was sie tun ?! 9 % der Bundesburger wahlen mit der Linken eine Partei, die die deutsche Teilung "nun mal das Ergebnis des 2. Weltkrieges" sieht. Ist das so verstehen, dass die DDR "nun mal" am Mauerbau gar nicht vorbei kam? 1989 wurde mit einem gigantischen Paukenschlag bewiesen, dass es die Menschen sind, die Geschichte machten und nicht "nun mal" mit den Entscheidungen der DDr-Fuhrung leben wollten. 9 % haben das noch nicht verstanden. Zeigt ihnen dieses Video. SirTarabas 2 Fur unsere Jugend...Eine Banane essen...ganz normal fur dich. Das kannten die nicht.Orangen,oder so...purer Luxus.Gab es nicht. Die haben die Pommes-Buden gesturmt, weil es sowas nicht gab.Verruckt sagt ihr...Tatsachen.Jahrelang warten auf einen Trabbi...JAHRE....Es war nicht alles schlecht in der DDR... aber warum laufen die alle so schnell.Warum wollten so viele da raus??? Wit ihr es eigentlich zu schatzen wie gut es euch geht??? Die tanzen nicht alle umsonst in den Strassen. SirTarabas 2 Was sind das fur Gefuhle??? Wenn ich mir vorstelle da ich heute (37 Jahre alt) das erste mal richtig frei sein konnte??? Mein ganzes Leben eingesperrt und plotzlich kann ich hingehen wohin ich will.Keiner halt dich auf...Einfach mal durchs Brandenburger Tor,heute kein Ding, damals ein Grund erschossen zu werden.Wer es nicht erlebt hat kann es sich nicht vorstellen. SirTarabas 2 Also ich mu eingestehen, da ich (damals 15 Jahre alt), keinen aus der DDR kannte und mir das ganze am Arsch vorbeigegangen ist. Man hat zwar nix anderes mehr auf den 5 Fernsehkanalen gesehen die man so hatte (1,2,3,sat1 und RTL ja Kinders wir hatten nur diese) aber wer interessiert sich schon in den Alter fur Politik??? Wir haben Klammerblues zu dem Lied getanzt...Das war schon :o) Aber mit dem Alter kam die Reife... und heute denk ich da ganz anders druber. Monika9Monika9 1 Schade, dass sie ein so schones Video gesperrt haben! ATZE985 2 Als die Mauer gefallen ist, war ich grad mal 4 Jahre alt. Meine Familie kommt aus der DDR. Meine Oma hat mir oft von dem Mauerfall erzahlt und wie sich die Menschen gefreut haben. Ich war damals noch zu klein um zu realisieren was geschehen ist. Aber eins ist Fakt...egal ob West oder Ost. Wir sind ein Land und sollten uns gegenseitig helfen und aufbauen. MFG SirTarabas 2 Ich bin ein sehr empathischer Mensch...Heute, wenn ich diese Bilder sehe, kommen mir die Tranen, weil ich mich einfach in diese Menschen hineinversetzen kann. Der Mensch ist nicht gemacht um eingesperrt zu sein...Er brauch seine Freiheit. Warum wohl erheben sich gerade alle Volker??? Sie wollen alle frei sein. Und nicht unterdruckt werden...Der Mann, den man nie vergessen sollte...Michail Gorbatschow... Er wute damals, da man das nicht mehr stoppen kann.ER lie es geschehen...FRIEDLICH. SirTarabas 1 Monika9Monika9Կ Ja ist wirklich schade....Ist ein bichen Geschichte gewesen... lolaldente 2 Ich mit meinen 16 Jahren kann naturlich nicht gro mitreden.. aber wenn ich dieses video und das dazu gehorige lied von den scorpions anschaue.... spure ich formlich diese freudige energie ..die dort gewesen sein muss..und wie leute drum gekampft haben das es endlich wieda ein Deutschland gibt. und jetz?....sitzen ganz viele auf der couch und schaun sich son mull wie "mitten im leben " an... anstatt etwas zu machen ..aus dieser freiheit die sie geschenkt bekomen haben... Zuk Djordje 1 Svaka cast narode Evrope ! ovo ce se pamtiti za vijek vijekova ! posle poraza nacista vi ste uspjeli da se 1000% promjenite i da se spojite dok se moja drzava SFRJ raspadala ! Zelim da se zahvalim narodima zapadne Evrope sto su najvise doprineli raspadu moje drzave i pomaganju pojedinim nacijama u naoruzavanju ! Huntikfanful 2 Ich habe am 9. November 1989 Geburtstag gehabt ^_^ mein geburtstag ist ein bedeutendet tag <333 Zuk Djordje 1 sada imate vecinu drzava bivse Jugoslavije ispod sebe , ali znajte da Srbiju nikada necete imati ! vremena se menjaju ! do 1990 godine bili smo kao sfrj jaci od nemacke , medjutim vi ste morali da se umesate i spustite nas na dno ! zadnje 22 godine jaci ste od nas ! Verujte da to nece jos dugo trajati ! Zuk Djordje 1 das ist Serbisch !!!! only for Deutschland ! Zuk Djordje 1 juce je bila godisnjica streljanja 8000 djaka i profesora u sumaricama u Kragujevcu ! mislim da 95% nemaca ne zna za to ! niko nije bio u stanju da napise neki kometar o tome ! nije lepo ! ali opet kazem vremena se menjaju ! wind of change !!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!! Ichdoofatoja 2 gibt ein paar lieder, bei denen ich eine gansehaut bekomme dies ist eins davon samuel cicero 1 Josep-Lluis BiarnesԿ viaja nao cara Josep-Lluis Biarnes 1 Catalonia next State of Europe. Metin Tuchen 2 Gaensehaut.......mehr kann ich dazu nicht sagen! danielsunner 1 damals ging noch etwas und heute....was ist geblieben?! Sonya Todorova 1 Bulgaria lived 45 years under communist rule! That was a black period in Bulgarian history! sc http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=6jPQM4o21aM KOR REơUNIFICATION II ̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡ %%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%% korean and german re--unification intro by dr yong k park ##################################################### 2013 seoul zzzzzzzzzzzzzzzz pppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppp ̡ ttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttt ch viii llllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllll Stream g1a1r1y3 1 RuniTravelԿ The British were just one of the "world powers" at the time that were worried about re-unification-including France, the US, Russia, etc. - As for it --re-unification--working well, it --re-unification--has prevented war, but German economic domination, albeit within Europe, still worries many. +++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++ In any case, I am glad it --re-unification--happened. +++++++++++++++++ Germany has been "divided" for too long. It will only find itself as a whole. johmarsch 2 (3) ǰ Stream g1a1r1y3 1 RuniTravelԿ The British were just one of the "world powers" at the time that were worried about re-unification-including France, the US, Russia, etc. As for it working well, it has prevented war, but German economic domination, albeit within Europe, still worries many. In any case, I am glad it happened. Germany has been "divided" for too long. It will only find itself as a whole. johmarsch 2 I never thought, I would live to see the fall of the Berlin wall, and so surprised that it happened so fast. RuniTravel 2 johmarschԿ @johmarsch > We were all "thaugh-struck" ... It seems to have worked well. despite worries by British Diplomats ... YouTube ȨKR ε ˸ ⺻  Ǿϴ. ѱ Ǿ ֽϴ. Ʒ Ʈ ֽϴ. Learn more View this message in English ̵ Berlin History 13 of 15 - The Fall of the Wall 1 of 3 - BBC Our World Documentary RuniTravel RuniTravel 268 3,704 10,477 ƿ 14 Ⱦ 0 ε ¥: 2011. 01. 27. Berlin History 13 of 15 - The Fall of the Wall 1 of 3 - BBC Our World Documentary, recorded 04.11. & 09.11.2009 An eyewitness to history, Brian Hanrahan was in Berlin the night the Wall fell. Twenty years ago he watched the guards open the gates and joined the crowds as they climbed the hated barrier that marked the dividing line between East and West, capitalism and communism. He returns to unravel the story of what happened that night, and how it touched people's lives. For more information, see http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/8351673.stm . To learn more aboiut President Gorbachev, see http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Mikhail_... . 10:56 Berlin History 14 of 15 - The Fall of the Wall 2 of 3 - BBC Our World Documentaryۼ: RuniTravelȸ 5,476ȸ 1:41:53 The Berlin Wall : Documentary on the Berlin Wall from Construction to Destructionۼ: productofitȸ 9,655ȸ 10:54 Berlin History 11 of 15 - Ich Bin Ein Berliner 3 of 4 - Matt Frei BBC Culture Documentaryۼ: RuniTravelȸ 7,848ȸ 9:20 The Building of the Berlin Wall in 1961 - Propaganda Documentary (1962)ۼ: documentariesfootageȸ 12,724ȸ 48:50 The reunification of Germany - 50 mins of BBC Breakfast News 3rd October 1990ۼ: RobLittleukȸ 36,283ȸ 10:52 Berlin History 12 of 15 - Ich Bin Ein Berliner 4 of 4 - Matt Frei BBC Culture Documentaryۼ: RuniTravelȸ 8,435ȸ 8:38 Berlin History 15 of 15 - The Fall of the Wall 3 of 3 - BBC Our World Documentaryۼ: RuniTravelȸ 6,126ȸ ̸ ̹ 5 ̸ ̹ ̸ ̹ ̸ ̹ The Fall of the Berlin WallԽ: alanheath3 5:00 THE RISE AND FALL OF THE BERLIN WALLۼ: Cornishpastyman1ȸ 51,287ȸ 33:11 Road to the Wall (1962)ۼ: nuclearvaultȸ 2,347ȸ 59:26 The Lost World of Communism (Part 1)ۼ: hauntingeuropeȸ 459,875ȸ 10:55 Berlin History 3 of 15 - Dangerous Ideas 3 of 4 - Matt Frei BBC Culture Documentaryۼ: RuniTravelȸ 23,179ȸ 10:02 The Fall of the Berlin Wall- A Turning Point for Freedom NHDۼ: Christian Gallegos-Alarconȸ 838ȸ 9:37 Declassified: Rise and Fall of the Wall (Part 1/5)ۼ: MrPatȸ 71,083ȸ 5:12 The History of Berlin | Euromaxxۼ: DW (English)ȸ 2,259ȸ 13:31 Gorbachev: The Great Dissident, Programme One, Part 1ۼ: TheUrbanoidȸ 10,760ȸ 46:20 Cold War 23/24 full length documentary - The Wall Comes Down 1989ۼ: patacasȸ 42,559ȸ 10:55 Berlin History 2 of 15 - Dangerous Ideas 2 of 4 - Matt Frei BBC Culture Documentaryۼ: RuniTravelȸ 23,788ȸ 10:57 Berlin History 6 of 15 - Ruined Visions 2 of 4 - Matt Frei BBC Culture Documentaryۼ: RuniTravelȸ 13,551ȸ 10:52 Iran & Persia - The Fall of a Shah 6 of 10 - BBC History Documentaryۼ: RuniTravelȸ 8,894ȸ YouTube Ȩ ڷ & α ۱ Ʈ ̿ ȣ å ǰ ο sc http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=3BglwsaYPfk KOR REơUNIFICATION II ̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡ %%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%% korean and german re--unification intro by dr yong k park ##################################################### 2013 seoul zzzzzzzzzzzz pppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppp ̡ ttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttt ch ix llllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllll The German Reunification, Die Deutsche Wiedervereinigung Matzuviskai Matzuviskai 9 10 10,509 ƿ 19 Ⱦ 1 ε ¥: 2009. 10. 8. Short Movie for Presentation at German Reunification Day Celebration @ LCC International University, Klaipeda, Oct 3rd 2009 Showing the development from WW2 to Reunification YouTube ȨKR ε ̵ The German Reunification, Die Deutsche Wiedervereinigung Matzuviskai Matzuviskai 9 10 10,509 ƿ 19 Ⱦ 1 ε ¥: 2009. 10. 8. Short Movie for Presentation at German Reunification Day Celebration @ LCC International University, Klaipeda, Oct 3rd 2009 Showing the development from WW2 to Reunification 'Das Lied der Deutschen (The Song of the German), "Einigkeit und Recht und Freheit" (Unity and Justice and Freedom) (Germany)' : eMusic ε ε ... 14:31 Reportage von 1990 "Deutschland erwache! Die Wiedervereinigung der Neo-Nazis" 1/3ۼ: kameradschaft73ȸ 10,188ȸ 10:22 GERMAN REUNIFICATION *LIVE* CNN,CBS 1990ۼ: fairmount1935ȸ 58,309ȸ 9:46 Deutsche Einheit 1990 (Tagesschau 1.+2.10.1990)ۼ: Geschichtsstundeȸ 33,096ȸ 4:26 21 Years After German Reunification - the State of Saxony is Doing Well | People & Politicsۼ: DW (English)ȸ 1,702ȸ 1:41 Berlin 1990 und 2010: Potsdamer Platz | 20 Jahre Deutsche Einheitۼ: DW (Deutsch)ȸ 39,974ȸ 9:29 Countdown zur Einheit 03.10.1990 Teil 9/13ۼ: Dokufraggleȸ 36,942ȸ 3:09 ARD Nachrichten Oktober 1989 (Mauerfall)ۼ: histotuberȸ 328,031ȸ German Unity Day German Unity Day 360 3 4:11 Germany facts Deutschland in Fakten (English) for Presentationۼ: Matzuviskaiȸ 13,669ȸ 1:44 Deutsche Nationalhymne - Festakt zum Tag der Deutschen Einheit 2011ۼ: 19nrw86ȸ 106,948ȸ 7:54 Countdown zur Einheit 03.10.1990 Teil 1/13ۼ: Dokufraggleȸ 6,570ȸ 2:48 Europe re-united - Fall of Berlin Wallۼ: addyson99ȸ 3,182ȸ 6:14 Architects of Unification - Helmut Kohl | 20 years after the fall of the wallۼ: DW (English)ȸ 1,400ȸ 1:40 German National Anthem - Gerhard Schroder Farewellۼ: RichardDavidPrechtȸ 162,330ȸ 10:00 Condoleezza Rice und deutsche Wiedervereinigung / and German reunificationۼ: Rice for Presidentȸ 2,865ȸ 5:52 Die Mauer fallt - The Fall of the Berlin Wall (20th jubilee)ۼ: Tore231ȸ 36,067ȸ 4:19 Helmut Kohl zur Wiedereroffnung des Brandenburger Tores am 22.12.1989ۼ: AlexanderHeberȸ 11,794ȸ 3:24 The Truth about Germany: Unityۼ: DW (English)ȸ 15,102ȸ 4:13 Deutsche Wiedervereinigung (Deutschland-Momente)ۼ: zmaryanȸ 21,753ȸ 3:17 German History from 1990 - 2010 | 20 Years of German Unityۼ: DW (English)ȸ 7,603ȸ YouTube Ȩ ڷ & α ۱ Ʈ ̿ ȣ å ǰ ο sc http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=SS3sDVRGLtE KOR REơUNIFICATION II ̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡ %%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%% korean and german re--unification intro by dr yong k park ##################################################### 2013 seoul zzzzzzzzzzzzzzzzzzzzz pppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppp ̡ ttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttt ch x llllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllll 8. Nov. 2013, 3:46 aaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaa Home The Reunification of Germany 02.10.08 October 3, 1990 +++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++ The Reunification of Germany aaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaa On October 3 Germany will celebrate its 18th reunification day. WELT ONLINE takes a look at the historical events leading up to the reunification of Germany. zur Startseite machen DIE WELT Abo Shop TV-Programm Wetter Anmelden Registrieren Home Politik Wirtschaft Geld Sport Wissen Panorama Kultur ICON Reise Motor Regional Meinung Videos Markt In den Nachrichten: EZB Twitter Jassir Arafat Koalitionsverhandlungen 8. Nov. 2013, 3:46 Home The Reunification of Germany 02.10.08 October 3, 1990 The Reunification of Germany On October 3 Germany will celebrate its 18th reunification day. WELT ONLINE takes a look at the historical events leading up to the reunification of Germany. Weiterfuhrende Links World War II: Dutch citizens honor a Wehrmacht soldier Germany: German parliament approves financial bailout Parliamentary Prostitution: MEPs demand hooker-free hotels On October 3, 1990 East and West Germany were reunified after the country was divided for 45 years. The German states of Brandenburg, Saxony, Saxony-Anhalt, Mecklenburg-Vorpommern and Thuringia were a part of soviet-controlled East Germany but officially joined the Federal Republic of Germany after it became clear a communist existence separated from West Germany wasn't working anymore. Germany was divided by the allied forces after surrendering in World War II. Click through the photo gallery to learn more about German Reunification. Back to English News homepage CWT Axel Springer AG 2013. 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Weitere Hinweise sc http://www.welt.de/english-news/article2522386/The-Reunification-of-Germany.html KOR REơUNIFICATION II ̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡ %%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%% korean and german re--unification intro by dr yong k park ##################################################### 2013 seoul zzzzzzzzzzzzzzzzzzz pppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppp ̡ ttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttt ch xi llllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllll English Site >Germany > Reunification Controversy: Was East Germany Really 'Annexed?' Reunification Controversy: Was East Germany Really 'Annexed?' Home Video Themen Forum English DER SPIEGEL SPIEGEL TV Abo Shop RSS Mobile Newsletter SPIEGEL ONLINE International Sign in| Register Front Page World Europe Germany Business Zeitgeist Newsletter English Site >Germany > Reunification Controversy: Was East Germany Really 'Annexed?' Reunification Controversy: Was East Germany Really 'Annexed?' As Germany prepares to mark 20 years of unity, Matthias Platzeck, former head of the SPD, has set off a debate about German reunification after he referred to the event as an "annexation," the same word used to describe the Nazi takeover of Austria in World War II. "I don't know what there is to celebrate," Platzeck said in an interview with SPIEGEL. Matthias Platzeck, the SPD governor of the eastern German state of Brandenburg, has kicked off a reunification debate. Zoom dpa Matthias Platzeck, the SPD governor of the eastern German state of Brandenburg, has kicked off a reunification debate. The collapse of the Berlin Wall was one thing. Immediately, millions of people on either side of the border dividing West Germany and East Germany erupted in celebration. Finally Germany could be reunited as a single nation. But the euphoria triggered by the events of Nov. 9, 1989 didn't last long. Soon it became clear just how difficult reunification would be, economically, socially and psychologically. Indeed, by the time the reunification treaty was signed on Aug. 31, 1990 -- exactly 20 years ago on Tuesday -- much of the elation had evaporated and many in former East Germany had begun to feel steamrolled by their new compatriots from the West. In SPIEGEL this week, Brandenburg Governor Matthias Platzeck, from the center-left Social Democrats, made clear that many of those resentments still remain. And his comments have kicked off yet another debate over reunification as the country prepares for the 20th anniversary on Oct. 3. "I don't know what there is to celebrate," Platzeck said in the interview when asked about the treaty signing. "We didn't want an accession; we wanted a cooperation of equals with a new constitution and a new anthem. We wanted symbols of a real, collective new beginning. But others got their way." Vehement Criticism Platzeck's interview has generated particularly vehement criticism for his use of the term "Anschluss" (annexation) in describing East Germany's reunification with West Germany. The term recalls Nazi Germany's annexation of Austria in 1938. "The day of our accession is one that many of us (former East Germans) do not see only in a positive light," said Platzeck, who was briefly the national head of the SPD from 2005 to 2006. "The 'Anschluss' attitude is responsible for much societal dislocation in eastern Germany after 1990." Several eastern German politicians have taken Platzeck to task. It is clear that mistakes were made during the reunification process, said Andreas Buttner, a member of the opposition in the Brandenburg state parliament, but "at a moment when the divisions still haven't been totally healed, Platzeck is ripping them open again." Richard Schroder, a member of Platzeck's SPD who was part of the East German parliament when the reunification treaty was signed, called Platzeck's comments "well off the mark." He told the Berlin paper Morgenpost that "we need to avoid using Nazi comparisons in our political discourse." Axel Vogel, Green Party floor leader in the Brandenburg parliament, said "I expect more historical knowledge from a head of government." Platzeck's comments, though, hint at a level of dissatisfaction among eastern Germans that still exists two decades after reunification. A survey in 2009 found that less than half of eastern Germans felt that their standard of living had improved since before the fall of the wall. In 2008, a survey found that over 80 percent of eastern Germans feel like they are second-class citizens. 'Familiar with Unemployment' In his interview with SPIEGEL, Platzeck emphasized that "unification is a great achievement," but added that "many East Germans were made to feel as though their entire lives to that point had been senseless. They had to throw everything away; it was all contaminated by ideology and the (East German secret police) Stasi. I am not nostalgic, but as far as I can remember we didn't go to work every day with our heads hanging low." Platzeck also said that the day of German reunification marked the beginning of a "merciless deindustrialization" of East Germany. "Almost every family became familiar with unemployment." Still, recent years have seen the employment situation improve in eastern Germany. While much of that is no doubt due to the fact that many have chosen to leave the region for greener employment fields in western Germany, industry, particularly in the renewable energies sector, has begun to pick up. Recent statistics show that unemployment in former East Germany is lower now than at any time since 1991. When asked about the positive numbers, Platzeck was cautiously optimistic. "We are two-thirds of the way there," he said. cgh Article... Print E-Mail Feedback Info Post to other social networks Keep track of the news Stay informed with our free news services: All news from SPIEGEL International Twitter | RSS All news from Germany section RSS SPIEGEL ONLINE 2010 All Rights Reserved Reproduction only allowed with the permission of SPIEGELnet GmbH August 31, 2010 ? 12:58 PM Print Send Feedback Reprints Find out how you can reprint this SPIEGEL ONLINE article. Photo Gallery Photo Gallery: The Day the Berlin Wall Fell Photo Gallery Photo Gallery: The Berlin Wall, Then and Now Related SPIEGEL ONLINE links GDP Surges 2.2 Percent: Greatest Economic Boom Since German Reunification (08/13/2010) Ostpolitik: How East Germany Tried to Undermine Willy Brandt (07/08/2010) Germany's Disappointing Reunification: How the East Was Lost (07/01/2010) Get Mobile with Our New App Download It Today: 'DER SPIEGEL in English' Now Available for iPhone European Partners Presseurop University: Erasmus strikes back and gets a plus Bulgaria: Expelling illegal immigrants Politiken Press record Chinese film subdued by censorship Corriere della Sera A Handy Guide to IMU, TARES and Other Taxes Napolitano's Recipe to Avert Crisis - Confidence Vote and Support till 2015 Newsletter SPIEGEL ONLINE Sign up for Spiegel Online's daily newsletter - and get the best of Der Spiegel's and Spiegel Online's international coverage in your In-Box everyday. Facebook Twitter MORE FROM SPIEGEL INTERNATIONAL German Politics Merkel's Moves: Power Struggles in Berlin World War II Truth and Reconciliation: Why the War Still Haunts Europe Energy Green Power: The Future of Energy European Union United Europe: A Continental Project Climate Change Global Warming: Curbing Carbon Before It's Too Late Overview International TOP Home Politik Wirtschaft Panorama Sport Kultur Netzwelt Wissenschaft Gesundheit Uni Schule Reise Auto Wetter DIENSTE Schlagzeilen RSS Newsletter Mobil VIDEO Nachrichten Videos SPIEGEL TV Magazin SPIEGEL TV Programm SPIEGEL Geschichte SPIEGEL TV Wissen MEDIA SPIEGEL QC Mediadaten Selbstbuchungstool weitere Zeitschriften MAGAZINE DER SPIEGEL Dein SPIEGEL SPIEGEL GESCHICHTE SPIEGEL WISSEN KulturSPIEGEL UniSPIEGEL SPIEGEL GRUPPE Abo Shop SPIEGEL TV manager magazin Harvard Business Man. buchreport buch aktuell SPIEGEL-Gruppe WEITERE Hilfe Kontakt Nutzungsrechte Datenschutz Impressum TOP sc http://www.spiegel.de/international/germany/reunification-controversy-was-east-germany-really-annexed-a-714826.html KOR REơUNIFICATION II ̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡ %%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%% korean and german re--unification intro by dr yong k park ##################################################### 2013 seoul zzzzzzzzzzzzzzzzzzz pppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppp ̡ ttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttt ch xii llllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllll German Unity Day (i.e. Reunification Day) german reunification day ... 300 x 225 | 21.8KB www.makingthishome.com Yahoo Ergebnisseite Bilder-Suche Titel Universal Header Willkommen, Gast Anmelden Hilfe Mail Yahoo Yahoo Suchbox Suchanfrage Familienfilter an Optionen Optionen Web Bilder Video Nachrichten Lokale Suche Shopping Mehr >> Trefferliste PAGE 2 PAGE 3 PAGE 4 Footer 2013 Yahoo - Hilfe - Datenschutz (Neu) - Geschaftsbedingungen - Webseite eintragen Powered by Bing German Unity Day (i.e. Reunification Day) german reunification day ... 300 x 225 | 21.8KB www.makingthishome.com sc http://de.images.search.yahoo.com/search/images?_adv_prop=image&fr=yfp-t-708&va=german+reunification KOR REơUNIFICATION II ̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡ %%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%% korean and german re--unification intro by dr yong k park ##################################################### 2013 seoul pppppppppppppppp pppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppp ̡ ttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttt ch xiii llllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllll Reunification With the Wall having fallen in 1989, it was to be another 11 months before Germany was reunited. ++++++++++++++++++++ Germans in both German states welcomed it. +++++++++++++++ In the first (and last) free elections to East Germanys Volkskammer (parliament) on March 18, 1990 +++++++++++++ the East German electorate voted by an overwhelming majority for those parties that demanded swift accession to West Germany. November 07, 2013 Home Imprint Contact About us Newsletter History HISTORY Farewell to the German question 1830?1848: The Vormarz 1871: Founding of the German Reich 1914?1918: The First World War 1919?1933: The Weimar Republic 1933?1945: The era of National Socialism 1949?1990: The two German states 1990: Reunification Reunification With the Wall having fallen in 1989, it was to be another 11 months before Germany was reunited. Germans in both German states welcomed it. In the first (and last) free elections to East Germanys Volkskammer (parliament) on March 18, 1990 the East German electorate voted by an overwhelming majority for those parties that demanded swift accession to West Germany. In summer 1990 a treaty to this effect was negotiated by the two Germanies, as had the treaty concerning the German-German currency union. Parallel to this in the Two-plus-Four-TreatyWest and East Germany reached agreement with the four powers responsible for Berlin and Germany as a whole, i.e., the United States, the Soviet Union, Great Britain and France on the conditions with regard to foreign and security policy determining German unity. In terms of the old demand for unity in freedom the German Question was finally solved in 1990. It could only be solved with the approval of all the countrys neighbors, which also meant: with the solution at the same time of another problem that had dominated the century: the Polish Question. The final recognition, binding under international law, of the fact that the Oder and Neisse Rivers formed the western border of Poland was a precondition of the reunification of Germany in the borders of 1945. Post-reunification Germany sees itself not as a postnational democracy among nation states, as the political scientist Karl Dietrich Bracher once termed the old Federal Republic in 1976, but rather a post-classical democratic national state among others ? firmly embedded in the Atlantic Alliance and in the supranational confederation of states that is the European Union (EU), in which certain aspects of national sovereignty are pursued jointly with other member states. There is much here that distinguishes the second German state from the first ? namely everything that had made Bismarcks Reich a military and authoritarian state. There is, however, also some form of continuity between the first and the second nation state. As a democratic constitutional state, a federal and welfare state the reunited Federal Republic of Germany very much follows traditions that date well back to the 19th century. The same applies to the universal, equal suffrage and the parliamentary culture, which had emerged in the Reichstag during the German Reich. A certain geographical continuity is also clearly evident: The Two-plus- Four-Treaty, the constitutional founding document of the reunited Federal Republic of Germany, once again outlined in writing the smaller German solution, the existence of the separate states of Germany and Austria. The German Question has been resolved since 1990, but the European Question remains open. Since the expansions to the EU in 2004 and 2007, the EU has included 12 additional nations, of which ten were under Communist rule until the dawn of the new epoch between 1989 and 1991. They are all states that belong to the former Occident ? and which have been defined by a largely shared legal tradition, the early separation of religious and state powers, princely and civil powers, not to forget by the experience of the murderous consequences of religious and national enmity, and racial hatred. It will take time for those parts of Europe that were once divided to grow closer together. This will only succeed if European unity develops at the same pace as the Union has expanded. This development requires more than institutional reforms. It hinges on joint deliberation on European history and its consequences. The one consequence that is more important than all others is an appreciation of the overall binding nature of Western values, first and foremost inalienable human rights. These are the values that Europe and America have created together, which they uphold, and by which they must at all times be measured. back print top tell a friend Picture gallery Background The Middle Ages Late Middle Ages to early modern times Age of religious schisms The Bismarck Reich World War I The Weimar Republic The National Socialist dictatorship World War II The zero hour Background The Cold War Founding of the Federal Republic of Germany Founding of the GDR New Ostpolitik Decline of the GDR The peaceful revolution Free elections in the GDR Compact German History 800 - 1499 1500 - 1899 1900 - 1949 1950 - present Glossary Keywords covering individual aspects and detailed information about the chapter History Links A link collection with brief information about the chapter History sc http://www.tatsachen-ueber-deutschland.de/en/history/main-content-03/1990-reunification.html KOR REơUNIFICATION II ̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡ %%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%% korean and german re--unification intro by dr yong k park ##################################################### 2013 seoul pppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppp ̡ ttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttt ch xiv llllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllll English Site >SPIEGEL Magazine >Berlin Wall > German Reunification: Thatcher and Kohl 'Quarreled Terribly' Home Video Themen Forum English DER SPIEGEL SPIEGEL TV Abo Shop RSS Mobile Newsletter SPIEGEL ONLINE International Sign in| Register Front Page World Europe Germany Business Zeitgeist Newsletter English Site >SPIEGEL Magazine >Berlin Wall > German Reunification: Thatcher and Kohl 'Quarreled Terribly' AUS DEM SPIEGEL Ausgabe 38/2009 German Reunification: Thatcher and Kohl 'Quarreled Terribly' In a conversation with SPIEGEL, former French Foreign Minister Roland Dumas, 87, discusses Margaret Thatcher's resistance to German reunification and initial misgivings of his own boss, French President Francois Mitterand. Editor's note: Documents released Thursday by the British Foreign and Commonwealth Office illustrate how Prime Minister Margaret Thatcher, a bitter opponent of German reunification, insisted that her government resist the historic development. The 500-page collection of long-secret letters and memos about the reunification process date to between April 1989 and November 1990. They show that the British government played a far more constructive role in German reunification than had been previously thought. Only Thatcher had serious doubts about the change. You can also read an interview with Sir Christopher Mallaby, Britain's ambassador to Germany from 1988 to 1992 about Thatcher's role in reunification and her tense relationship with Chancellor Helmut Kohl. SPIEGEL: In his notes and protocols, Charles Powell, former foreign policy advisor to British Prime Minister Margaret Thatcher, relates a meeting with Francois Mitterrand on Jan. 20, 1990. The French president supposedly said during this encounter that if East and West Germany were to reunite, Germans could "win more territory than they ever had under Hitler." Is the quotation a real one? Dumas: I myself wasn't present at the Elysee (Palace). But as far as President Mitterrand's fundamental position is concerned, I can officially rebut this -- it doesn't fit at all to his atttitude to reunification as I observed it. The quotation seems to me exaggerated, crude and unlikely. That's my word against Mr. Powell's. SPIEGEL: He describes Mitterrand, in light of the approaching German reunification, as "a person in a state of panic." Dumas: There wasn't any panic. But the discussions with (then German Chancellor) Helmut Kohl were open, direct and sometimes brutal, especially from Madame Thatcher's side -- but the German chancellor wasn't easy either. Even if Mitterrand fostered a certain degree of mistrust, it was at most a 100th of what Thatcher was saying about Kohl. At the December 1989 European Union summit in Strasbourg, Mitterrand had to draw on all his abilities to mediate between the British prime minister and the chancellor. I observed incredibly inappropriate comments toward the German chancellor on Thatcher's part. They quarreled terribly. SPIEGEL: Mitterrand is said even to have offered a new "entente cordiale," an alliance to keep the Germans in check. Dumas: The president always told me that for him it was about one thing: Would Germany return to its role from before the war and a policy of pushing its borders outward? Or would Kohl include his newly reunified country in the structure of Europe? To allay Mitterrand's misgivings, (West German)Foreign Minister Hans-Dietrich Genscher made a special trip to Paris, at my request. Photo Gallery 8 Photos Photo Gallery: Thatcher's Mistrust SPIEGEL: Mitterrand spoke o trains arriving at their destination at the same time" -- meaning German reunification and Europe. Dumas: That was Kohl's attitude as well. He was representing German interests first and foremost, but he certainly also thought on a Europe-wide level. Perhaps both of them had misgivings, but all emotions aside, Kohl and Mitterrand shared the same position. SPIEGEL: Did that eliminate fears of a "Fourth Reich"? Dumas: Any comparisons with Hitler and the Nazi regime are insulting and historically inaccurate. No, that feeling wasn't there. SPIEGEL: Should German reunification have happened more slowly? Dumas: A reunited Germany became possible only with Mikhail Gorbachev's endorsement. The moment Kohl got Moscow's approval, reunification could no longer be stopped. Translated from the German by Ella Ornstein. Article... Print E-Mail Feedback Info Post to other social networks Keep track of the news Stay informed with our free news services: All news from SPIEGEL International Twitter | RSS All news from SPIEGEL Magazine section RSS DER SPIEGEL 38/2009 All Rights Reserved Reproduction only allowed with the permission of SPIEGELnet GmbH September 14, 2009 ? 12:00 AM Print Send Feedback Former French Foreign Minister Roland Dumas says President Francois Mitterrand "had to draw on all his abilities to mediate between Kohl and the British prime minister." Zoom REUTERS Former French Foreign Minister Roland Dumas says President Francois Mitterrand "had to draw on all his abilities to mediate between Kohl and the British prime minister." Related SPIEGEL ONLINE links The Iron Lady's Views on German Reunification: 'The Germans Are Back!' (09/11/2009) Thatcher versus Kohl: 'They Didn't Naturally Enjoy Each Other's Company' (09/14/2009) Get Mobile with Our New App Download It Today: 'DER SPIEGEL in English' Now Available for iPhone European Partners Presseurop University: Erasmus strikes back and gets a plus Bulgaria: Expelling illegal immigrants Politiken Press record Chinese film subdued by censorship Corriere della Sera A Handy Guide to IMU, TARES and Other Taxes Napolitano's Recipe to Avert Crisis - Confidence Vote and Support till 2015 Newsletter SPIEGEL ONLINE Sign up for Spiegel Online's daily newsletter - and get the best of Der Spiegel's and Spiegel Online's international coverage in your In-Box everyday. Facebook Twitter MORE FROM SPIEGEL INTERNATIONAL German Politics Merkel's Moves: Power Struggles in Berlin World War II Truth and Reconciliation: Why the War Still Haunts Europe Energy Green Power: The Future of Energy European Union United Europe: A Continental Project Climate Change Global Warming: Curbing Carbon Before It's Too Late Overview International TOP Home Politik Wirtschaft Panorama Sport Kultur Netzwelt Wissenschaft Gesundheit Uni Schule Reise Auto Wetter DIENSTE Schlagzeilen RSS Newsletter Mobil VIDEO Nachrichten Videos SPIEGEL TV Magazin SPIEGEL TV Programm SPIEGEL Geschichte SPIEGEL TV Wissen MEDIA SPIEGEL QC Mediadaten Selbstbuchungstool weitere Zeitschriften MAGAZINE DER SPIEGEL Dein SPIEGEL SPIEGEL GESCHICHTE SPIEGEL WISSEN KulturSPIEGEL UniSPIEGEL SPIEGEL GRUPPE Abo Shop SPIEGEL TV manager magazin Harvard Business Man. buchreport buch aktuell SPIEGEL-Gruppe WEITERE Hilfe Kontakt Nutzungsrechte Datenschutz Impressum TOP sc http://www.spiegel.de/international/spiegel/german-reunification-thatcher-and-kohl-quarreled-terribly-a-648927.html KOR REơUNIFICATION II ̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡ %%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%% korean and german re--unification intro by dr yong k park ##################################################### 2013 seoul 777777777777777777777 pppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppp ̡ ttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttt ch xv llllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllll German Reunification Weekend In Berlin 2:52 Willkommen Gast Anmelden Hilfe Mail Yahoo Yahoo! Familienfilter an Optionen Web BILDER VIDEOS NACHRICHTEN LOKALE SUCHE Shopping MEHR Alle Quellen Yahoo HQ Irgendwann Neueste Alle Wiedergabezeiten Kurz (--less than -- 5 Min.) +++++++++++++++++++++++++ Mittel (5 bis 20 Min.) +++++++++++++++++++++++ Lang (--more than-- 20 Min.) ++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++ FILTER GERMAN REUNIFICATION *LIVE* CNN,CBS 1990 10:22 German reunification in Goodbye Lenin 3:54 The reunification of Germany - 50 mins of BBC Breakfast News 3rd ... 48:50 German Reunification, CNN, 1990.10.3 7:07 German Reunification and Dealing with Allied and Soviet Objections 4:45 The Unification of Germany 6:26 The German Reunification, Die Deutsche Wiedervereinigung 10:14 German Reunification Lecture 38:39 Prelude to German reunification 3:45 21 Years After German Reunification - the State of Saxony is Doing ... 4:26 German Reunification Day - Google Doodle 00:57 Douglas Hurd, Mediator among Opponents 3:30 German Reunification within NATO and Triangle Relations between ... 7:21 From Kaiser Wilhelm to Chancellor Merkel. The German Question on ... 1:31:10 German Reunification Video 3:00 1990: German Reunification 3:37 Thatcher VS Hattersly on German Reunification Seminar 3:42 Condoleezza Rice und deutsche Wiedervereinigung / and German ... 10:00 German Reunification: a success story? 8:27 1990: German Reunification Mercedes-Benz - 20th Anniversary of the German Reunification 1:37 German Reunification 2:06 Germany Unity Day Celebrations - Munich 2012 9:38 Deutsche Nationalhymne - Festakt zum Tag der Deutschen Einheit 2011 1:44 The Presidency: George H.W. Bush and German Reunification 3:26 Mark Patrick - Angels Above Berlin - German Reunification Day 4:22 The German Reunification (Fall of the Berlin wall) 4:28 German reunification - Wiki Article 38:00 Giants re-enact German reunification 1:45 German Reunification Weekend In Berlin 2:52 Copyright 2013 Yahoo Alle Rechte vorbehalten. Datenschutz (Neu) - Geschaftsbedingungen Mogelijk gemaakt door Bing sc http://de.video.search.yahoo.com/search/video?p=german+reunification KOR REơUNIFICATION II ̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡ %%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%% korean and german re--unification intro by dr yong k park ##################################################### 2013 seoul zzzzzzzzzzzzzz pppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppp ̡ ttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttt ch xvi llllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllll Vergangenheitsbewaltigung Vergangenheitsbewaltigung Facebook ΰ ̸ Ǵ ޴ йȣ α α ̳? wikipedia.org Ұ: German reunification ɻ 977 մϴ. ̿ ȭ Go Trabi Go Go Trabi Go Removal of Hungary's border fence Removal of Hungary's border fence Capital of Germany Capital of Germany Deindustrialisation Deindustrialisation Federal Commissioner for the Stasi Archives Federal Commissioner for the Stasi Archives Mass migration Mass migration East German general election, 1990 East German general election, 1990 Vergangenheitsbewaltigung Vergangenheitsbewaltigung German Unity Day German Unity Day Ostalgie Ostalgie Ÿ Ÿ (106) Wikipedia Content from the Wikipedia article (ۼ) licensed under CC-BY-SA Freebase CC-BY 㰡 Freebase ƿ並 Ŭϰ ? Ϸ Facebook ϼ. ϱ ֽϴ. ̹ ȸ̼? α. Facebook ɻ翡 ڵ Ǿ, õ Ǵ Ǿ ְų ƴմϴ. ģ ã ȸҰ ä ȣ Ű ̿ Facebook 2013 ѱ sc https://www.facebook.com/pages/%EB%8F%85%EC%9D%BC%EC%9D%98-%EC%9E%AC%ED%86%B5%EC%9D%BC/114766685206619 KOR REơUNIFICATION II ̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡ %%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%% korean and german re--unification intro by dr yong k park ##################################################### 2013 seoul zzzzzzzzzzzzzz pppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppp ̡ ttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttt ch xvii llllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllll sc http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/German_reunification hhhhhhhhhhh German reunification From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia Jump to: navigation, search This article is about the 1990 German reunification. For the 1871 unification of the German Empire, see Unification of Germany. sc http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/German_reunification hhhhhhhhhhh German reunification From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia Contents ############################################## 1 Naming 2 Precursors to reunification 3 Process of reunification ################################ 3.1 Cooperation 3.2 Economic merger 3.3 German Reunification Treaty 3.4 Constitutional merger 3.5 International effects 3.6 Day of German Unity 4 Foreign support and opposition 4.1 Britain and France 4.2 The rest of Europe 4.3 The four powers 4.4 Conclusion 5 Aftermath ##################### 5.1 Cost of reunification 5.2 Inner reunification 6 Reunified Berlin from an Urban Planning Perspective 6.1 Planning issues facing reunification 6.2 Policy for Reunification 6.3 After the Fall of the Wall 6.4 Comparison 7 See also 8 References 9 Further reading 9.1 Primary sources 10 External links References 1 ^ Jump up to: a b c Vertrag zwischen der Bundesrepublik Deutschland und der Deutschen Demokratischen Republik uber die Herstellung der Einheit Deutschlands (Einigungsvertrag) Unification Treaty signed by the Federal Republic of Germany and the German Democratic Republic in Berlin on 31 August 1990 (official text, in German). Jump up ^ Krenz speech of 18 October 1989 in the German radio archive Jump up ^ Helmut Kohl's 10-Point Plan for German Unity Jump up ^ "Vertrag uber die Schaffung einer Wahrungs-, Wirtschafts- und Sozialunion zwischen der Deutschen Demokratischen Republik und der Bundesrepublik Deutschland". Die Verfassungen in Deutschland. Retrieved 2013-03-22. 5 Jump up ^ German Unification Monetary union. Cepr.org (1 July 1990). Retrieved on 19 October 2010. 6 ^ Jump up to: a b c Embassy of the Federal Republic of Germany London ? A short history of German reunification. London.diplo.de. Retrieved on 19 October 2010. Jump up ^ "United States and Soviet Union Sign German Reunification Treaty". NBC Learn. Retrieved 2013-03-22. Jump up ^ "Merkel to mark 20th anniversary of German reunification treaty". Deutschland.de. Retrieved 2013-03-22. Jump up ^ "Soviet Legislature Ratifies German Reunification Treaty". AP News Archive. Retrieved 2013-03-22. 10 Jump up ^ Opening of the Berlin Wall and Unification: German History. Germanculture.com.ua. Retrieved on 19 October 2010. 11 Jump up ^ http://www.gesetze-im-internet.de/einigvtr/art_45.html Jump up ^ Germany Today ? The German Unification Treaty ? travel and tourist information, flight reservations, travel bargains, hotels, resorts, car hire. Europe-today.com. Retrieved on 19 October 2010. Jump up ^ "File:Zwei-Plus-Vier-Vertrag.pdf". ^ Jump up to: a b c d e f g h i j k l Wiegrefe, Klaus (29 September 2010). "An Inside Look at the Reunification Negotiations". Der Spiegel. Retrieved 4 October 2010. 15 Jump up ^ Skelton, George (26 January 1990). "THE TIMES POLL : One Germany: U.S. Unfazed, Europeans Fret". Los Angeles Times. Retrieved 16 June 2012. 16 ^ Jump up to: a b "Thatcher told Gorbachev Britain did not want German reunification". The Times (London). 11 September 2009. Retrieved 8 November 2009. ^ Jump up to: a b c d e f g Kundnani, Hans (28 October 2009). "Margaret Thatcher's German war". The Times. Retrieved 5 October 2010. ^ Jump up to: a b c d e Volkery, Carsten (9 November 2009). "The Iron Lady's Views on German Reunification/'The Germans Are Back!'". Der Spiegel. Retrieved 5 October 2010. ^ Jump up to: a b Anne-Laure Mondesert (AFP) (31 October 2009). "London and Paris were shocked by German reunification". Calgary Herald. Retrieved 9 November 2009. 20 Jump up ^ Peter Allen (2 November 2009). "Margaret Thatcher was 'horrified' by the prospect of a reunited Germany". Telegraph (London). Retrieved 9 November 2009. 21 Jump up ^ Knight, Ben (8 November 2009). "Germany's neighbors try to redeem their 1989 negativity". Deutsche Welle. Retrieved 9 November 2009. Jump up ^ "'I Preferred To See It as an Acquisition'". Der Spiegel. September 29, 2010. Retrieved 7 October 2010. Jump up ^ Kohl, Helmut; Riemer, Jeremiah (translator). "Helmut Kohl's Ten-Point Plan for German Unity (November 28, 1989)". German History in Documents and Images. Retrieved 16 June 2012. Jump up ^ The territory of the League of Nations mandate of the Free City of Danzig, annexed by Poland in 1945 and comprising the city of Gda?sk (Danzig) and a number of neighbouring cities and municipalities, had never been claimed by any official side, because West Germany followed the legal position of Germany in its borders of 1937, thus before any Nazi annexations. 25 Jump up ^ Poland Germany border ? Oder Neisse. Polandpoland.com (14 November 1990). Retrieved on 19 October 2010. 26 Jump up ^ www.brainyquote.com/quotes/authors/p/peer_steinbruck.html#RHFr76ihwcp9E02L.99 Jump up ^ "Underestimating East Germany". The Atlantic. 6 November 2009. Retrieved 25 October 2013. Jump up ^ After the fall 20 years ago this week the crumbling of the Berlin Wall began an empire s end. Anniston Star. Retrieved on 19 October 2010. Jump up ^ National identity in eastern Germany ... .Google Books (30 October 1990). Retrieved on 19 October 2010. 30 ^ Jump up to: a b (German) Umfrage: Ost- und Westdeutsche entfernen sich voneinander ? Nachrichten Politik ? WELT ONLINE. Welt.de. Retrieved on 19 October 2010. 31 Jump up ^ (German) Partei des Demokratischen Sozialismus ? Wikipedia. De.wikipedia.org. Retrieved on 19 October 2010. Jump up ^ In fact, a new constitution was drafted by a "round table" of dissidents and delegates from East German civil society only to be discarded later, a fact that upset many East German intellectuals. See Volkmar Schoneburg: Vom Ludergeruch der Basisdemokratie. Geschichte und Schicksal des Verfassungsentwurfes des Runden Tisches der DDR, in: Jahrbuch fur Forschungen zur Geschichte der Arbeiterbewegung, No. II/2010. Jump up ^ Gastbeitrag: Nicht fur die Ewigkeit ? Staat und Recht ? Politik. Faz.Net. Retrieved on 19 October 2010. Jump up ^ Aus Politik und Zeitgeschichte, Nr. 18 2009, 27 April 2009 ? Das Grundgesetz ? eine Verfassung auf Abruf?. Das-parlament.de. Retrieved on 19 October 2010. 35 Jump up ^ DDR-Geschichte: Merkel will Birthler-Behorde noch lange erhalten. Spiegel.de (15 January 2009). Retrieved 19 October 2010. 36 Jump up ^ Facts about Germany: Society. Tatsachen-ueber-deutschland.de. Retrieved on 19 October 2010. Jump up ^ For example the economist Jorg Roesler - see: Jorg Roesler: Ein Anderes Deutschland war moglich. Alternative Programme fur das wirtschaftliche Zusammengehen beider deutscher Staaten, in: Jahrbuch fur Forschungen zur Geschichte der Arbeiterbewegung, No. II/2010, pp.34-46. The historian Ulrich Busch pointed out that the currency union as such had come to early- see Ulrich Busch: Die Wahrungsunion am 1. Juli 1990: Wirtschaftspolitische Fehlleistung mit Folgen, in: Jahrbuch fur Forschungen zur Geschichte der Arbeiterbewegung, No. II/2010, pp.5-24. Jump up ^ Sauga, Michael (September 6, 2011). "Designing a Transfer Union to Save the Euro". Der Spiegel. Jump up ^ Parkes, K. Stuart (1997). Understanding contemporary Germany. Taylor & Francis. ISBN 0-415-14124-9. 40 Jump up ^ (German) Ostdeutschland: Das verschmahte Paradies | Campus | ZEIT ONLINE. Zeit.de (29 September 2008). Retrieved on 19 October 2010. 41 Jump up ^ (German) Partnerschaft: Der Mythos von den Ost-West-Ehepaaren ? Nachrichten Panorama ? WELT ONLINE. Welt.de. Retrieved on 19 October 2010. Jump up ^ Politics and History ? German-German History ? Goethe-Institut. Goethe.de. Retrieved on 19 October 2010. Jump up ^ Zeitchik, Steven (7 October 2003). "German Ostalgie: Fondly recalling the bad old days". The New York Times. Retrieved 25 October 2013. Jump up ^ Gresillon, B (April 1999). "Berlin, cultural metropolis: Changes in the cultural geography of Berlin since reunification". ECUMENE 6: 284?294. 45 ^ Jump up to: a b c Gresillon, B (April 1999). "Berlin, cultural metropolis: Changes in the cultural geography of Berlin since reunification". ECUMENE: 284. 46 ^ Jump up to: a b c d e f g Tolle, A (2010). "Urban identity policies in Berlin: From critical reconstruction to reconstructing the Wall.". Institute of Socio-Economic Geography and Spatial Management 27: 348?357. Jump up ^ Hartwich, O. M. (2010). After the Wall: 20 years on. Policy 25 (4). pp. 8?11. ^ Jump up to: a b c Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (2003). Urban renaissance [electronic resource]: Berlin: Towards an integrated strategy for social cohesion and economic development / organisation for economic co-operation and development. Paris: OECD Publishing. Jump up ^ Schwedler, Hanns-Uve. "Divided cities - planning for unification.". European Academy of the Urban Environment. Retrieved 14 May 2012. 50 ^ Jump up to: a b c d e f g h i j Loeb, Carolyn (January 2006). "Planning reunification: the planning history of the fall of the Berlin Wall". Planning Perspectives 21: 67?87. Retrieved 14 May 2012. 51 Jump up ^ MacDonogh, G (1997). Berlin. Great Britain: Sinclair-Stevenson. pp. 456?457. ^ Jump up to: a b c d e Schwedler, Hanns-Uve (2001). Urban Planning and Cultural Inclusion Lessons from Belfast and Berlin. Palgrave Macmillan. ISBN 978-0-333-79368-8. ^ Jump up to: a b Urban, F (2007). "Designing the past in East Berlin before and after the German Reunification.". Progress in Planning 68: 1?55. ^ Jump up to: a b c Frank, D. H. (13). "The Effect of Migration on Natives' Employment Outcomes: Evidence from the Fall of the Berlin Wall.". INSEAD Working Papers Selection. 55 ^ Jump up to: a b Kratke, S (2004). "City of talents? Berlin's regional economy, socio-spatial fabric and "worst practice" urban governance". International Journal of Urban and Regional Research 28 (3): 511?529. 56 ^ Jump up to: a b Hauermann, H; Kapphan (2005). "Berlin: from divided to fragmented city. Transformation of Cities in Central and Eastern Europe. Towards Globalization". United Nations University Press: 189?222. Jump up ^ Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development. (2003). Urban renaissance [electronic resource]: Berlin: Towards an integrated strategy for social cohesion and economic development / organisation for economic co-operation and development. Paris: OECD Publishing. Jump up ^ Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development. (2003). Urban renaissance [electronic resource]: Berlin: Towards an integrated strategy for social cohesion and economic development / organisation for economic co-operation and development. Paris: OECD Publishing. p. 20. Jump up ^ Hartwich, O. M. (2010). After the Wall: 20 years on. Policy 25 (4). p. 8. 60 Jump up ^ Tolle, A (2010). "Urban identity policies in Berlin: From critical reconstruction to reconstructing the Wall.". Institute of Socio-Economic Geography and Spatial Management 27: 352. 61 Jump up ^ Smith, E. O. (1994). The German Economy. London: Routledge. p. 266. Jump up ^ Jakob, D., 2010. Constructing the creative neighbourhood: hopes and limitations of creative city policies in Berlin. City, Culture and Society, 1, 4, December 2011, 193-198., D (December 2010). "Constructing the creative neighbourhood: hopes and limitations of creative city policies in Berlin". City, Culture and Society 1 (4): 193?198. Jump up ^ Jakob, D. (December 2010). "Constructing the creative neighbourhood: hopes and limitations of creative city policies in Berlin.". City, Culture and Society 1 (4): 193?198. Jump up ^ Presse- und Informationsamt des Landes Berlin Berlin: Pressemitteilung, Presse- und Informationsamt des Landes. (2007). Wowereit prasentierte den "Berlin Day" in New York. 65 Jump up ^ Florida, R. L. (2005). Cities and the creative class. New York: Routledge. p. 99. Jump up ^ Senatsverwaltung fur Wirtschaft Arbeit und Frauen in Berlin (2009). Kulturwirtschaft in Berlin. Entwicklungen und Potenziale. Berlin: Senatsverwaltung fur Wirtschaft Arbeit und Frauen in Berlin. Jump up ^ https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Korean_War 68 Jump up ^ https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Vietnam_War German reunification From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia Contents ############################################## 1 Naming 2 Precursors to reunification 3 Process of reunification ################################ 3.1 Cooperation 3.2 Economic merger 3.3 German Reunification Treaty 3.4 Constitutional merger 3.5 International effects 3.6 Day of German Unity 4 Foreign support and opposition 4.1 Britain and France 4.2 The rest of Europe 4.3 The four powers 4.4 Conclusion 5 Aftermath ##################### 5.1 Cost of reunification 5.2 Inner reunification 6 Reunified Berlin from an Urban Planning Perspective 6.1 Planning issues facing reunification 6.2 Policy for Reunification 6.3 After the Fall of the Wall 6.4 Comparison 7 See also 8 References 9 Further reading 9.1 Primary sources 10 External links German reunification From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia Jump to: navigation, search This article is about the 1990 German reunification. For the 1871 unification of the German Empire, see Unification of Germany. Map showing the division of East and West Germany until 1990, with West Berlin in yellow. Brandenburg Gate in Berlin, national symbol of today's Germany and its reunification in 1990. The German reunification (German: Deutsche Wiedervereinigung) was the process in 1990 in which the German Democratic Republic (GDR/East Germany) joined the Federal Republic of Germany (FRG/West Germany), and when Berlin reunited into a single city, as provided by its then Grundgesetz constitution Article 23. The end of the unification process is officially referred to as German unity (German: Deutsche Einheit), celebrated on 3 October (German Unity Day).[1] The East German regime started to falter in May 1989, when the removal of Hungary's border fence opened a hole in the Iron Curtain. It caused an exodus of thousands of East Germans fleeing to West Germany and Austria via Hungary. The Peaceful Revolution, a series of protests by East Germans, led to the GDR's first free elections on 18 March 1990, and to the negotiations between the GDR and FRG that culminated in a Unification Treaty,[1] while negotiations between the GDR and FRG and the four occupying powers produced the so-called "Two Plus Four Treaty" (Treaty on the Final Settlement with Respect to Germany) granting full sovereignty to a unified German state, whose two parts had previously still been bound by a number of limitations stemming from their post-World War II status as occupied regions. The united Germany remained a member of the European Community (later the European Union) and of NATO. German reunification From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia Contents ############################################## 1 Naming 2 Precursors to reunification 3 Process of reunification ################################ 3.1 Cooperation 3.2 Economic merger 3.3 German Reunification Treaty 3.4 Constitutional merger 3.5 International effects 3.6 Day of German Unity 4 Foreign support and opposition 4.1 Britain and France 4.2 The rest of Europe 4.3 The four powers 4.4 Conclusion 5 Aftermath ##################### 5.1 Cost of reunification 5.2 Inner reunification 6 Reunified Berlin from an Urban Planning Perspective 6.1 Planning issues facing reunification 6.2 Policy for Reunification 6.3 After the Fall of the Wall 6.4 Comparison 7 See also 8 References 9 Further reading 9.1 Primary sources 10 External links Naming There is debate as to whether the events of 1990 should be properly referred to as a "reunification" or a "unification". Proponents of the former use the term in contrast with the initial unification of Germany in 1871. Also when the Saarland joined the West German Federal Republic of Germany on 1 January 1957, this was termed the Small Reunification. Popular parlance, which uses "reunification", is deeply affected by the 1989 opening of the Berlin Wall (and the rest of the inner German border) and the physical reunification of the city of Berlin (itself divided only since 1945). Others,[who?] however, argue that 1990 represented a "unification" of two German states into a larger entity which, in its resulting form, had never before existed (see History of Germany). For political and diplomatic reasons, West German politicians carefully avoided the term "reunification" during the run-up to what Germans frequently refer to as die Wende. The official[1] and most common term in German is "Deutsche Einheit" (in English "German unity"). German unity is the term that Hans-Dietrich Genscher used in front of international journalists to correct them when they asked him about "reunification" in 1990. After 1990, the term "die Wende" became more common. The term generally refers to the events (mostly in Eastern Europe) that led up to the actual reunification; in its usual context, this term loosely translates to "the turning point", without any further meaning. When referring to the events surrounding unification, however, it carries the cultural connotation of the time and the events in the GDR that brought about this "turnaround" in German history. However, civil rights activists from Eastern Germany rejected the term Wende as it was introduced by SED's Secretary General Egon Krenz.[2] German reunification From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia Contents ############################################## 1 Naming 2 Precursors to reunification 3 Process of reunification ################################ 3.1 Cooperation 3.2 Economic merger 3.3 German Reunification Treaty 3.4 Constitutional merger 3.5 International effects 3.6 Day of German Unity 4 Foreign support and opposition 4.1 Britain and France 4.2 The rest of Europe 4.3 The four powers 4.4 Conclusion 5 Aftermath ##################### 5.1 Cost of reunification 5.2 Inner reunification 6 Reunified Berlin from an Urban Planning Perspective 6.1 Planning issues facing reunification 6.2 Policy for Reunification 6.3 After the Fall of the Wall 6.4 Comparison 7 See also 8 References 9 Further reading 9.1 Primary sources 10 External links Precursors to reunification Further information: Iron Curtain#Fall of the Iron Curtain, Revolutions of 1989, Dissolution of the Soviet Union, and European integration In 1945, the Third Reich ended in defeat and Germany was divided into two separate areas, with the east controlled as part of the Communist Soviet Bloc and the west aligned to Capitalist Europe (which formed into the European Community), including a division in military alliance that formed into the Warsaw Pact and NATO, respectively. The capital city of Berlin was divided into four occupied sectors of control, under the Soviet Union, the United States, the United Kingdom and France. Germans lived under such imposed divisions throughout the ensuing Cold War. Into the 1980s, the Soviet Union experienced a period of economic and political stagnation, and they correspondingly decreased intervention in Eastern Bloc politics. In 1987, US President Ronald Reagan gave a speech at Brandenburg Gate challenging Soviet leader Mikhail Gorbachev to "tear down this wall" that had separated Berlin. The wall had stood as an icon for the political and economic division between East and West, a division that Churchill had referred to as the "Iron Curtain". In early 1989, under a new era of Soviet policies of glasnost (openness), perestroika (economic restructuring) and taken to even more progressive levels by Gorbachev, the Solidarity movement took hold in Poland. Further inspired by other images of brave defiance, a wave of revolutions swept throughout the Eastern Bloc that year. In May 1989, Hungary removed their border fence and thousands of East Germans escaped to the West. The turning point in Germany, called "Die Wende", was marked by the "Peaceful Revolution" leading to the removal of the Berlin Wall with East and West Germany subsequently entering into negotiations toward eliminating the division that had been imposed upon Germans more than four decades earlier. German reunification From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia Contents ############################################## 1 Naming 2 Precursors to reunification 3 Process of reunification ################################ 3.1 Cooperation 3.2 Economic merger 3.3 German Reunification Treaty 3.4 Constitutional merger 3.5 International effects 3.6 Day of German Unity 4 Foreign support and opposition 4.1 Britain and France 4.2 The rest of Europe 4.3 The four powers 4.4 Conclusion 5 Aftermath ##################### 5.1 Cost of reunification 5.2 Inner reunification 6 Reunified Berlin from an Urban Planning Perspective 6.1 Planning issues facing reunification 6.2 Policy for Reunification 6.3 After the Fall of the Wall 6.4 Comparison 7 See also 8 References 9 Further reading 9.1 Primary sources 10 External links Process of reunification Police officers of the East German Volkspolizei wait for the official opening of the Brandenburg Gate on 22 December 1989. German reunification From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia Contents ############################################## 1 Naming 2 Precursors to reunification 3 Process of reunification ################################ 3.1 Cooperation 3.2 Economic merger 3.3 German Reunification Treaty 3.4 Constitutional merger 3.5 International effects 3.6 Day of German Unity 4 Foreign support and opposition 4.1 Britain and France 4.2 The rest of Europe 4.3 The four powers 4.4 Conclusion 5 Aftermath ##################### 5.1 Cost of reunification 5.2 Inner reunification 6 Reunified Berlin from an Urban Planning Perspective 6.1 Planning issues facing reunification 6.2 Policy for Reunification 6.3 After the Fall of the Wall 6.4 Comparison 7 See also 8 References 9 Further reading 9.1 Primary sources 10 External links Cooperation On 28 November 1989?two weeks after the fall of the Berlin Wall?West German Chancellor Helmut Kohl announced a 10-point program calling for the two Germanies to expand their cooperation with the view toward eventual reunification.[3] Initially, no timetable was proposed. However, events rapidly came to a head in early 1990. First, in March, the Party of Democratic Socialism?the former Socialist Unity Party of Germany?was heavily defeated in East Germany's first free elections. A grand coalition was formed under Lothar de Maiziere, leader of the East German wing of Kohl's Christian Democratic Union, on a platform of speedy reunification. Second, East Germany's economy and infrastructure underwent a swift and near-total collapse. While East Germany had long been reckoned as having the most robust economy in the Soviet bloc, the removal of Communist hegemony revealed the ramshackle foundations of that system. The East German mark had been practically worthless outside of East Germany for some time before the events of 1989?90, further magnifying the problem. German reunification From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia Contents ############################################## 1 Naming 2 Precursors to reunification 3 Process of reunification ################################ 3.1 Cooperation 3.2 Economic merger 3.3 German Reunification Treaty 3.4 Constitutional merger 3.5 International effects 3.6 Day of German Unity 4 Foreign support and opposition 4.1 Britain and France 4.2 The rest of Europe 4.3 The four powers 4.4 Conclusion 5 Aftermath ##################### 5.1 Cost of reunification 5.2 Inner reunification 6 Reunified Berlin from an Urban Planning Perspective 6.1 Planning issues facing reunification 6.2 Policy for Reunification 6.3 After the Fall of the Wall 6.4 Comparison 7 See also 8 References 9 Further reading 9.1 Primary sources 10 External links Economic merger Discussions immediately began for an emergency merger of the Germanies' economies. On 18 May 1990, the two German states signed a treaty agreeing on monetary, economic and social union. This treaty is called "Vertrag uber die Schaffung einer Wahrungs-, Wirtschafts- und Sozialunion zwischen der Deutschen Demokratischen Republik und der Bundesrepublik Deutschland"[4] in German and came into force on 1 July 1990, with the Deutsche Mark replacing the East German mark as the official currency of East Germany. The Deutsche Mark had a very high reputation among the East Germans and was considered stable.[5] While the GDR transferred its financial policy sovereignty to West Germany, the West started granting subsidies for the GDR budget and social security system.[6] At the same time many West German laws came into force in the GDR. This created a suitable framework for a political union by diminishing the huge gap between the two existing political, social, and economic systems.[6] German reunification From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia Contents ############################################## 1 Naming 2 Precursors to reunification 3 Process of reunification ################################ 3.1 Cooperation 3.2 Economic merger 3.3 German Reunification Treaty 3.4 Constitutional merger 3.5 International effects 3.6 Day of German Unity 4 Foreign support and opposition 4.1 Britain and France 4.2 The rest of Europe 4.3 The four powers 4.4 Conclusion 5 Aftermath ##################### 5.1 Cost of reunification 5.2 Inner reunification 6 Reunified Berlin from an Urban Planning Perspective 6.1 Planning issues facing reunification 6.2 Policy for Reunification 6.3 After the Fall of the Wall 6.4 Comparison 7 See also 8 References 9 Further reading 9.1 Primary sources 10 External links German Reunification Treaty Berlin Wall, October 1990 The "German reunification treaty",[7][8][9] called "Einigungsvertrag" or "Wiedervereinigungsvertrag" in German, had been negotiated between the two Germanies since 2 July 1990, signed on 31 August of that year and finally approved by large majorities in the legislative chambers of both countries on 20 September 1990.[10] The amendments to the Federal Republic's Basic Law that were foreseen in the Unification Treaty or necessary for its implementation were adopted by the Federal Statute of 23 September 1990. Under article 45 of the Treaty,[11] it entered into force in international Law on 29 September 1990, upon the exchange of notices regarding the completion of the respective internal constitutional requirements for the adoption of the treaty in both East Germany and West Germany. With that last step, and in accordance with article 1 of the Treaty, Germany was officially reunited at 00:00 CET on 3 October 1990. East Germany joined the Federal Republic as the five Lander (states) of Brandenburg, Mecklenburg-Vorpommern, Saxony, Saxony-Anhalt and Thuringia. These states had been the five original states of East Germany, but had been abolished in 1952 in favour of a centralised system. As part of the 18 May treaty, the five East German states had been reconstituted on 23 August. At the same time, East and West Berlin reunited into one city, which became a city-state along the lines of the existing city-states of Bremen and Hamburg. In an emotional ceremony, at the stroke of midnight the black-red-gold flag of West Germany?now the flag of a reunited Germany?was raised above the Brandenburg Gate. German reunification From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia Contents ############################################## 1 Naming 2 Precursors to reunification 3 Process of reunification ################################ 3.1 Cooperation 3.2 Economic merger 3.3 German Reunification Treaty 3.4 Constitutional merger 3.5 International effects 3.6 Day of German Unity 4 Foreign support and opposition 4.1 Britain and France 4.2 The rest of Europe 4.3 The four powers 4.4 Conclusion 5 Aftermath ##################### 5.1 Cost of reunification 5.2 Inner reunification 6 Reunified Berlin from an Urban Planning Perspective 6.1 Planning issues facing reunification 6.2 Policy for Reunification 6.3 After the Fall of the Wall 6.4 Comparison 7 See also 8 References 9 Further reading 9.1 Primary sources 10 External links Constitutional merger The process chosen was one of two options implemented in the West German constitution (Basic Law) of 1949 to facilitate eventual reunification. Via that document's (then-existing) Article 23, any new prospective Lander could adhere to the Basic Law by a simple majority vote. The initial eleven joining states of 1949 constituted the Trizone. West Berlin had been proposed as the 12th state, but was legally inhibited by Allied objections since Berlin as a whole was legally a quadripartite occupied area. Despite this, West Berlin's political affiliation was with West Germany, and in many fields it functioned de facto as if it were a component state of West Germany. In 1957 the Saar Protectorate joined West Germany under the Article 23 procedure as Saarland. The other option was Article 146, which stated that the Basic Law was only intended for temporary use until a permanent constitution could be adopted by the German people as a whole. This route would have entailed a formal union between two German states that then would have had to, amongst other things, create a new constitution for the newly established country. However, by the spring of 1990 it was apparent that drafting a new constitution would require protracted negotiations that would open up numerous issues in West Germany. Even without this to consider, by the start of 1990 East Germany was in a state of utter collapse. In contrast, reunification under Article 23 could be implemented in as little as six months. Ultimately, when the treaty on monetary, economic and social union was signed, it was decided to use the quicker process of Article 23. By this process, the five reconstituted states of East Germany voted to join West Germany, and the area in which the Basic Law was in force simply extended to include them.[12] Thus, the reunification was not a merger that created a third state out of the two, but an incorporation, by which West Germany effectively absorbed East Germany. Accordingly, on Unification Day, 3 October 1990, the German Democratic Republic ceased to exist, and its territory joined the Federal Republic of Germany as five new Federal States. East and West Berlin were reunited, and joined the Federal Republic as a full-fledged Federal City-State. Under this model, the Federal Republic of Germany, now enlarged to include the five states of the former German Democratic Republic plus the reunified Berlin, continued legally to exist under the same legal personality that was founded in May 1949. German reunification From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia Contents ############################################## 1 Naming 2 Precursors to reunification 3 Process of reunification ################################ 3.1 Cooperation 3.2 Economic merger 3.3 German Reunification Treaty 3.4 Constitutional merger 3.5 International effects 3.6 Day of German Unity 4 Foreign support and opposition 4.1 Britain and France 4.2 The rest of Europe 4.3 The four powers 4.4 Conclusion 5 Aftermath ##################### 5.1 Cost of reunification 5.2 Inner reunification 6 Reunified Berlin from an Urban Planning Perspective 6.1 Planning issues facing reunification 6.2 Policy for Reunification 6.3 After the Fall of the Wall 6.4 Comparison 7 See also 8 References 9 Further reading 9.1 Primary sources 10 External links International effects The practical result of that model is that the now expanded Federal Republic of Germany continued to be a party to all the treaties it had signed prior to the moment of reunification, and thus inherited the old West Germany's seats at the UN, NATO, the European Communities, etc.; also, the same Basic Law and the same laws that were in force in the Federal Republic continued automatically in force, but now applied to the expanded territory. To facilitate this process and to reassure other countries, some changes were made to the "Basic Law" (constitution). Article 146 was amended so that Article 23 of the current constitution could be used for reunification. After the five "New Lander" of East Germany had joined, the constitution was amended again to indicate that all parts of Germany are now unified. Article 23 was rewritten and it can still be understood as an invitation to others (e.g. Austria) to join, although the main idea of the change was to calm fears in (for example) Poland, that Germany would later try to rejoin with former eastern territories of Germany that were now Polish or parts of other countries in the East. The changes effectively formalised the Oder-Neisse line as Germany's permanent eastern border. These amendments to the Basic Law were mandated by Article I, section 4 of the Two Plus Four Treaty.[13] German people in front of the Reichstag building, 1990 German reunification From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia Contents ############################################## 1 Naming 2 Precursors to reunification 3 Process of reunification ################################ 3.1 Cooperation 3.2 Economic merger 3.3 German Reunification Treaty 3.4 Constitutional merger 3.5 International effects 3.6 Day of German Unity 4 Foreign support and opposition 4.1 Britain and France 4.2 The rest of Europe 4.3 The four powers 4.4 Conclusion 5 Aftermath ##################### 5.1 Cost of reunification 5.2 Inner reunification 6 Reunified Berlin from an Urban Planning Perspective 6.1 Planning issues facing reunification 6.2 Policy for Reunification 6.3 After the Fall of the Wall 6.4 Comparison 7 See also 8 References 9 Further reading 9.1 Primary sources 10 External links Day of German Unity While the Basic Law was modified rather than replaced by a constitution as such, it still permits the adoption of a formal constitution by the German people at some time in the future. To commemorate the day that marks the official unification of the former East and West Germany in 1990, 3 October has since then been the official German national holiday, the Day of German Unity (Tag der deutschen Einheit). It replaced the previous national holiday held in West Germany on 17 June commemorating the Uprising of 1953 in East Germany and the national holiday on 7 October in the GDR.[6] German reunification From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia Contents ############################################## 1 Naming 2 Precursors to reunification 3 Process of reunification ################################ 3.1 Cooperation 3.2 Economic merger 3.3 German Reunification Treaty 3.4 Constitutional merger 3.5 International effects 3.6 Day of German Unity 4 Foreign support and opposition 4.1 Britain and France 4.2 The rest of Europe 4.3 The four powers 4.4 Conclusion 5 Aftermath ##################### 5.1 Cost of reunification 5.2 Inner reunification 6 Reunified Berlin from an Urban Planning Perspective 6.1 Planning issues facing reunification 6.2 Policy for Reunification 6.3 After the Fall of the Wall 6.4 Comparison 7 See also 8 References 9 Further reading 9.1 Primary sources 10 External links Foreign support and opposition For decades, Germany's allies had stated their support for reunification; Israeli Prime Minister Yitzhak Shamir, who speculated that a country that "decided to kill millions of Jewish people" in the Holocaust "will try to do it again", was one of the few world leaders to publicly oppose it. As reunification became a realistic possibility, however, significant NATO and European opposition emerged in private.[14] A poll of four countries in January 1990 found that a majority of surveyed Americans and French supported reunification, while British and Poles were more divided. 69% of Poles and 50% of French and British stated that they worried about a reunified Germany becoming "the dominant power in Europe". Those surveyed stated several concerns, including Germany again attempting to expand its territory, a revival of Nazism, and the German economy becoming too powerful. While Britons, French and Americans favored Germany remaining a member of NATO, a majority of Poles supported neutrality for the reunified nation.[15] German reunification From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia Contents ############################################## 1 Naming 2 Precursors to reunification 3 Process of reunification ################################ 3.1 Cooperation 3.2 Economic merger 3.3 German Reunification Treaty 3.4 Constitutional merger 3.5 International effects 3.6 Day of German Unity 4 Foreign support and opposition 4.1 Britain and France 4.2 The rest of Europe 4.3 The four powers 4.4 Conclusion 5 Aftermath ##################### 5.1 Cost of reunification 5.2 Inner reunification 6 Reunified Berlin from an Urban Planning Perspective 6.1 Planning issues facing reunification 6.2 Policy for Reunification 6.3 After the Fall of the Wall 6.4 Comparison 7 See also 8 References 9 Further reading 9.1 Primary sources 10 External links Britain and France Before the fall of the Berlin Wall, British Prime Minister Margaret Thatcher told Soviet President Mikhail Gorbachev that neither the United Kingdom nor Western Europe wanted the reunification of Germany. Thatcher also clarified that she wanted the Soviet leader to do what he could to stop it, telling Gorbachev "We do not want a united Germany".[16] Although she welcomed East German democracy, Thatcher worried that a rapid reunification might weaken Gorbachev,[17] and favoured Soviet troops staying in East Germany as long as possible to act as a counterweight to a united Germany.[14] We defeated the Germans twice! And now they're back! ?Margaret Thatcher, December 1989[18] Thatcher, who carried in her handbag a map of Germany's 1937 borders to show others the "German problem", feared that its "national character", size and central location in Europe would cause the nation to be a "destabilizing rather than a stabilizing force in Europe".[17] In December 1989, she warned fellow European Community leaders at a Strasbourg summit that Kohl attended, "We defeated the Germans twice! And now they're back!"[18][14] Although Thatcher had stated her support for German self-determination in 1985,[17] she now argued that Germany's allies had only supported reunification because they had not believed it would ever happen.[14] Thatcher favoured a transition period of five years for reunification, during which the two Germanies would remain separate states. Although she gradually softened her opposition, as late as March 1990 Thatcher summoned historians and diplomats to a seminar at Chequers[17] to ask "How dangerous are the Germans?"[18] and the French ambassador in London reported that Thatcher had told him, "France and Great Britain should pull together today in the face of the German threat."[19][20] The pace of events surprised the French, whose Foreign Ministry had concluded in October 1989 that reunification "does not appear realistic at this moment".[21] A representative of French President Francois Mitterrand reportedly told an aide to Gorbachev, "France by no means wants German reunification, although it realises that in the end it is inevitable."[16] At the Strasbourg summit, Mitterrand and Thatcher discussed the fluidity of Germany's historical borders.[14] On 20 January 1990, Mitterrand told Thatcher that a unified Germany could "make more ground than even Hitler had".[19] He predicted that "bad" Germans would reemerge,[18] who might seek to regain former German territory lost after World War II[17] and would likely dominate Hungary, Poland, and Czechoslovakia, leaving "only Romania and Bulgaria for the rest of us". The two leaders saw no way to prevent reunification, however, as "None of us was going to declare war on Germany".[14] Mitterrand recognized before Thatcher that reunification was inevitable and adjusted his views accordingly; unlike her, he was hopeful that participation in a single currency[17] and other European institutions could control a united Germany. Mitterrand still wanted Thatcher to publicly oppose unification, however, to obtain more concessions from Germany.[18] German reunification From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia Contents ############################################## 1 Naming 2 Precursors to reunification 3 Process of reunification ################################ 3.1 Cooperation 3.2 Economic merger 3.3 German Reunification Treaty 3.4 Constitutional merger 3.5 International effects 3.6 Day of German Unity 4 Foreign support and opposition 4.1 Britain and France 4.2 The rest of Europe 4.3 The four powers 4.4 Conclusion 5 Aftermath ##################### 5.1 Cost of reunification 5.2 Inner reunification 6 Reunified Berlin from an Urban Planning Perspective 6.1 Planning issues facing reunification 6.2 Policy for Reunification 6.3 After the Fall of the Wall 6.4 Comparison 7 See also 8 References 9 Further reading 9.1 Primary sources 10 External links The rest of Europe Other European leaders' opinion of reunification was "icy". Italy's Giulio Andreotti warned against a revival of "pan-Germanism", and the Netherlands' Ruud Lubbers questioned the German right to self-determination. They shared Britain and France's concerns over a return to German militarism and the economic power of a reunified nation. The consensus opinion was that reunification, if it must occur, should not occur until at least 1995 and preferably much later.[14] German reunification From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia Contents ############################################## 1 Naming 2 Precursors to reunification 3 Process of reunification ################################ 3.1 Cooperation 3.2 Economic merger 3.3 German Reunification Treaty 3.4 Constitutional merger 3.5 International effects 3.6 Day of German Unity 4 Foreign support and opposition 4.1 Britain and France 4.2 The rest of Europe 4.3 The four powers 4.4 Conclusion 5 Aftermath ##################### 5.1 Cost of reunification 5.2 Inner reunification 6 Reunified Berlin from an Urban Planning Perspective 6.1 Planning issues facing reunification 6.2 Policy for Reunification 6.3 After the Fall of the Wall 6.4 Comparison 7 See also 8 References 9 Further reading 9.1 Primary sources 10 External links The four powers The United States ? and President George H. W. Bush ? recognized that Germany had gone through a long democratic transition. It had been a good friend, it was a member of NATO. Any issues that had existed in 1945, it seemed perfectly reasonable to lay them to rest. For us, the question wasn't should Germany unify? It was how and under what circumstances? We had no concern about a resurgent Germany... ?Condoleezza Rice, Special Assistant to the President for National Security Affairs[22] The victors of World War II?the United States, the Soviet Union, the United Kingdom, and France, comprising the Four-Power Authorities?retained authority over Berlin, such as control over air travel and its political status. The Soviet Union sought early to use reunification as a way to push Germany out of NATO into neutrality, removing nuclear weapons from its territory. West Germany interpreted a 21 November 1989 diplomatic message on the topic, however, as meaning that only two weeks after the Wall's collapse the Soviet leadership already anticipated reunification. This belief, and the worry that his rival Genscher might act first, encouraged Kohl on 28 November to announce a detailed "Ten Point Program for Overcoming the Division of Germany and Europe". While his speech was very popular within West Germany Kohl's speech caused concern among other European governments, with whom he had not discussed the plan.[14][23] The Americans did not share the Europeans' and Russians' historical fears over German expansionism, but wished to ensure that Germany would stay within NATO. In December 1989, the administration of President George H. W. Bush made a united Germany's continued NATO membership a requirement for supporting reunification. Kohl agreed, although less than 20% of West Germans supported remaining within NATO; he also wished to avoid a neutral Germany, as he believed that would destroy NATO, cause the United States and Canada to leave Europe, and Britain and France would form an alliance. The United States increased its support of Kohl's policies, as it feared that otherwise Oskar Lafontaine, a critic of NATO, might become Chancellor.[14] Helmut Kohl became first chancellor of a reunified Germany. Horst Teltschik, Kohl's foreign policy advisor, later recalled that Germany would have paid "100 billion deutschmarks" had the Soviets demanded it. The USSR did not make such great demands, however, with Gorbachev stating in February 1990 that "The Germans must decide for themselves what path they choose to follow". In May 1990 he repeated his remark in the context of NATO membership while meeting Bush, amazing both the Americans and Germans.[14] German reunification From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia Contents ############################################## 1 Naming 2 Precursors to reunification 3 Process of reunification ################################ 3.1 Cooperation 3.2 Economic merger 3.3 German Reunification Treaty 3.4 Constitutional merger 3.5 International effects 3.6 Day of German Unity 4 Foreign support and opposition 4.1 Britain and France 4.2 The rest of Europe 4.3 The four powers 4.4 Conclusion 5 Aftermath ##################### 5.1 Cost of reunification 5.2 Inner reunification 6 Reunified Berlin from an Urban Planning Perspective 6.1 Planning issues facing reunification 6.2 Policy for Reunification 6.3 After the Fall of the Wall 6.4 Comparison 7 See also 8 References 9 Further reading 9.1 Primary sources 10 External links Conclusion During a NATO-Warsaw Pact conference in Ottawa, Canada, Genscher persuaded the four powers to treat the two Germanys as equals instead of defeated junior partners, and for the six nations to negotiate alone. Although the Dutch, Italians, Spanish, and other NATO powers opposed such a structure, which meant that the alliance's boundaries would change without their participation, the six nations began negotiations in March 1990. After Gorbachev's May agreement on German NATO membership, the Soviets further agreed that Germany would be treated as an ordinary NATO country, with the exception that former East German territory would not have foreign NATO troops or nuclear weapons. In exchange, Kohl agreed to reduce the sizes of both Germanies' militaries, renounce weapons of mass destruction, and accept the postwar Oder-Neisse line as Germany's eastern border. In addition, Germany agreed to pay about 55 billion deutschmarks to the Soviet Union in gifts and loans, the equivalent of eight days of the West German GDP.[14] The British insisted to the end, against Soviet opposition, that NATO be allowed to hold maneuvers in the former East Germany. After the Americans intervened,[14] both the UK and France ratified the Treaty on the Final Settlement with Respect to Germany in September 1990, thus finalizing the reunification for purposes of international law. Thatcher later wrote that her opposition to reunification had been an "unambiguous failure".[17] German reunification From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia Contents ############################################## 1 Naming 2 Precursors to reunification 3 Process of reunification ################################ 3.1 Cooperation 3.2 Economic merger 3.3 German Reunification Treaty 3.4 Constitutional merger 3.5 International effects 3.6 Day of German Unity 4 Foreign support and opposition 4.1 Britain and France 4.2 The rest of Europe 4.3 The four powers 4.4 Conclusion 5 Aftermath ##################### 5.1 Cost of reunification 5.2 Inner reunification 6 Reunified Berlin from an Urban Planning Perspective 6.1 Planning issues facing reunification 6.2 Policy for Reunification 6.3 After the Fall of the Wall 6.4 Comparison 7 See also 8 References 9 Further reading 9.1 Primary sources 10 External links Aftermath Many Trabants were abandoned after 1989 (this one photographed in Leipzig, 1990) On 14 November 1990, the united Germany and Poland signed the German?Polish Border Treaty, finalizing Germany's boundaries as permanent along the Oder-Neisse line, and thus, renouncing any claims to Silesia, East Brandenburg, Farther Pomerania, and the southern area of the former province of East Prussia.[24] The treaty also granted certain rights for political minorities on either side of the border.[25] The following month, the first all-German free elections since 1932 were held, resulting in an increased majority for the coalition government of Chancellor Helmut Kohl. On 15 March 1991, the Treaty on the Final Settlement with Respect to Germany - that had been signed in Moscow back on 12 September 1990 by the two German States that then existed (East and West Germany) on one side, and by the four principal Allied Powers (the United Kingdom, France, the Soviet Union and the United States) on the other - entered into force, having been ratified by the Federal Republic of Germany (after the unification, as the united Germany) and by the four Allied Nations. The entry into force of that Treaty (also known as the "Two Plus Four Treaty", in reference to the two German States and four Allied Nations that signed it) put an end to the remaining limitations on German sovereignty that resulted from the post World War II arrangements. Under that Treaty (that should not be confused with the Unification Treaty that was signed only between the two German States), the last Allied Forces still present in Germany left in 1994, when the Russian presence was terminated. German reunification From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia Contents ############################################## 1 Naming 2 Precursors to reunification 3 Process of reunification ################################ 3.1 Cooperation 3.2 Economic merger 3.3 German Reunification Treaty 3.4 Constitutional merger 3.5 International effects 3.6 Day of German Unity 4 Foreign support and opposition 4.1 Britain and France 4.2 The rest of Europe 4.3 The four powers 4.4 Conclusion 5 Aftermath ##################### 5.1 Cost of reunification 5.2 Inner reunification 6 Reunified Berlin from an Urban Planning Perspective 6.1 Planning issues facing reunification 6.2 Policy for Reunification 6.3 After the Fall of the Wall 6.4 Comparison 7 See also 8 References 9 Further reading 9.1 Primary sources 10 External links Cost of reunification The subsequent economic restructuring and reconstruction of eastern Germany resulted in significant costs, especially for western Germany, which paid large sums of money in the form of the Solidaritatszuschlag (Solidarity Surcharge) in order to rebuild the east German infrastructure. Peer Steinbruck, the SPD candidate for the chancellorship, is quoted as saying in a speech to the German parliament, "Over a period of 20 years, German reunification has cost 2 trillion euros, or an average of 100 billion euros a year. So, we have to ask ourselves 'Aren't we willing to pay a tenth of that over several years for Europe's unity?'"[26][better source needed] German reunification From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia Contents ############################################## 1 Naming 2 Precursors to reunification 3 Process of reunification ################################ 3.1 Cooperation 3.2 Economic merger 3.3 German Reunification Treaty 3.4 Constitutional merger 3.5 International effects 3.6 Day of German Unity 4 Foreign support and opposition 4.1 Britain and France 4.2 The rest of Europe 4.3 The four powers 4.4 Conclusion 5 Aftermath ##################### 5.1 Cost of reunification 5.2 Inner reunification 6 Reunified Berlin from an Urban Planning Perspective 6.1 Planning issues facing reunification 6.2 Policy for Reunification 6.3 After the Fall of the Wall 6.4 Comparison 7 See also 8 References 9 Further reading 9.1 Primary sources 10 External links Inner reunification Main article: New federal states Vast differences between the former East Germany and West Germany (for example, in lifestyle, wealth, political beliefs and other matters) remain, and it is therefore still common to speak of eastern and western Germany distinctly. The eastern German economy has struggled since unification, and large subsidies are still transferred from west to east. The former East Germany area has often been compared to the underdeveloped Southern Italy and the Southern United States during Reconstruction after the American Civil War. While the East German economy has recovered recently, the differences between East and West remain present.[27][28] Reenacting noted Alfred Eisenstaedt V-J Day photo at 12:01 am on Reunification night in Cologne, Germany. Berlin Wall at the Brandenburg Gate, 10 November 1989 Placard found in all roads between Western and Eastern Germany that were blocked during division. Text reads: "Here, Germany and Europe were divided until 10 December 1989 at 10:15 am". The date and time vary according to the actual moment when a particular crossing was opened. Politicians and scholars have frequently called for a process of "inner reunification" of the two countries and asked whether there is "inner unification or continued separation".[29] "The process of German unity has not ended yet", proclaimed Chancellor Angela Merkel, who grew up in East Germany, in 2009.[30] Nevertheless, the question of this "inner reunification" has been widely discussed in the German public, politically, economically, culturally, and also constitutionally since 1989. Politically, since the fall of the Wall, the successor party of the former East German socialist state party has become a major force in German politics. It was renamed PDS, and, later, merged with the Western leftist party WASG to form the party The Left (Die Linke).[31] Constitutionally, the Basic Law (Grundgesetz), the West German constitution, provided two pathways for a unification. The first was the implementation of a new all-German constitution, safeguarded by a popular referendum. Actually, this was the original idea of the "Grundgesetz" in 1949 - it was named a "basic law" instead of a "constitution" because it was considered provisional.[32] The second way was more technical: the implementation of the constitution in the East, using a paragraph originally designed for the West German states (Bundeslander) in case of internal re-organization like the merger of two states. While this latter option was chosen as the most feasible one, the first option was partly regarded as a means to foster the "inner reunification".[33][34] A public manifestation of coming to terms with the past (Vergangenheitsbewaltigung) is the existence of the so-called Birthler-Behorde, the Federal Commissioner for the Stasi Archives, which collects and maintains the files of the East German security apparatus.[35] The economic reconstruction of former Eastern Germany following the reunification required large amounts of public funding which turned some areas into boom regions, although overall unemployment remains higher than in the former West.[36] Unemployment was part of a process of deindustrialization starting rapidly after 1990. Causes for this process are disputed in political conflicts up to the present day. Most times bureaucracy and lack of efficiency of the East German Economy are highlighted and the de-industrialization seen as inevitable outcome of the "Wende". But many East German critics point out that it was the shock-therapy style of privatization which did not leave room for east German Enterprises to adapt and that alternatives like a slow transition had been possible.[37] Reunification did, however, lead to a large rise in the average standard of living in former Eastern Germany and a stagnation in the West as $2 trillion in public spending was transferred East.[38] Between 1990 and 1995, gross wages in the east rose from 35% to 74% of western levels, while pensions rose from 40% to 79%.[39]:209 Unemployment reached double the western level as well. In terms of media usage and reception, the country remains partially divided especially among the older generations. Mentality gaps between East and West persist, but so does sympathy.[30] Additionally, the daily-life exchange of Easterners and Westerners is not so large as expected.[40][41] Young people's knowledge of the former East Germany is very low.[42] Some people in Eastern Germany engage in "Ostalgie", which is a certain nostalgia for the time before the wall came down.[43] Today, there are several prominent East Germans shaping the image of Germany at home and abroad, including Kurt Masur, Michael Ballack, Katarina Witt, and Angela Merkel. German reunification From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia Contents ############################################## 1 Naming 2 Precursors to reunification 3 Process of reunification ################################ 3.1 Cooperation 3.2 Economic merger 3.3 German Reunification Treaty 3.4 Constitutional merger 3.5 International effects 3.6 Day of German Unity 4 Foreign support and opposition 4.1 Britain and France 4.2 The rest of Europe 4.3 The four powers 4.4 Conclusion 5 Aftermath ##################### 5.1 Cost of reunification 5.2 Inner reunification 6 Reunified Berlin from an Urban Planning Perspective 6.1 Planning issues facing reunification 6.2 Policy for Reunification 6.3 After the Fall of the Wall 6.4 Comparison 7 See also 8 References 9 Further reading 9.1 Primary sources 10 External links Reunified Berlin from an Urban Planning Perspective Ambox question.svg This article or section may contain previously unpublished synthesis of published material that conveys ideas not attributable to the original sources. Relevant discussion may be found on the talk page. (October 2012) While the fall of the Berlin Wall had broad economic, political and social impacts globally, it also had significant consequence for the local urban environment. In fact, the events of 9 November 1989 saw East Berlin and West Berlin, two halves of a single city that had ignored one another for the better part of 40 years, finally "in confrontation with one another".[44] As expressed by Gresillon[45] "the fall of the Berlin Wall [marked] the end of 40 years of divided political, economic and cultural histories" and was "accompanied by a strong belief that [the city] was now back on its 'natural' way to become again a major metropolis"[46] In the context of urban planning, in addition to a wealth of new opportunity and the symbolism of two former independent nations being re-joined, the reunification of Berlin presented numerous challenges. The city underwent massive redevelopment, involving the political, economic and cultural environment of both East and West Berlin. However, the "scar" left by the Wall, which ran directly through the very heart of the city[47] had consequences for the urban environment that planning still needs to address. Despite planning efforts, significant disparity between East and West remain. German reunification From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia Contents ############################################## 1 Naming 2 Precursors to reunification 3 Process of reunification ################################ 3.1 Cooperation 3.2 Economic merger 3.3 German Reunification Treaty 3.4 Constitutional merger 3.5 International effects 3.6 Day of German Unity 4 Foreign support and opposition 4.1 Britain and France 4.2 The rest of Europe 4.3 The four powers 4.4 Conclusion 5 Aftermath ##################### 5.1 Cost of reunification 5.2 Inner reunification 6 Reunified Berlin from an Urban Planning Perspective 6.1 Planning issues facing reunification 6.2 Policy for Reunification 6.3 After the Fall of the Wall 6.4 Comparison 7 See also 8 References 9 Further reading 9.1 Primary sources 10 External links Planning issues facing reunification The reunification of Berlin presented legal, political and technical challenges for the urban environment. The political division and physical separation of the city for more than 30 years saw the East and the West develop their own distinct urban forms, with many of these differences still visible to this day.[48] East and West Berlin were directed by two separate political and urban agendas. East Berlin developed a mono-centric structure with lower level density and a functional mix in the city's core, while West Berlin was poly-centric in nature, with a high-density, multi functional city centre.[49] The two political systems allocated funds differently to post-war reconstruction, based on political priorities,[50] and this had consequences for the reunification of the city. West Berlin had received considerably more financial assistance for reconstruction and refurbishment.[50] There was considerable disparity in the general condition of many of the buildings; at the time of reunification, East Berlin still contained many leveled areas, which were previous sites of destroyed buildings from World War II, as well as damaged buildings that had not been repaired.[50] An immediate challenge facing the reunified city was the need for physical connectivity between the East and the West, specifically the organisation of infrastructure.[50] In the period following World War II, approximately half of the railway lines were removed in East Berlin.[51] German reunification From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia Contents ############################################## 1 Naming 2 Precursors to reunification 3 Process of reunification ################################ 3.1 Cooperation 3.2 Economic merger 3.3 German Reunification Treaty 3.4 Constitutional merger 3.5 International effects 3.6 Day of German Unity 4 Foreign support and opposition 4.1 Britain and France 4.2 The rest of Europe 4.3 The four powers 4.4 Conclusion 5 Aftermath ##################### 5.1 Cost of reunification 5.2 Inner reunification 6 Reunified Berlin from an Urban Planning Perspective 6.1 Planning issues facing reunification 6.2 Policy for Reunification 6.3 After the Fall of the Wall 6.4 Comparison 7 See also 8 References 9 Further reading 9.1 Primary sources 10 External links Policy for Reunification As urban planning in Germany is the responsibility of city government,[50] the integration of East and West Berlin was in part complicated by the fact that the existing planning frameworks became obsolete with the fall of the Wall.[52] Prior to the reunification of the city, the Land Use Plan of 1988 and General Development Plan of 1980 defined the spatial planning criteria for West and East Berlin, respectively.[52] Although these existing frameworks were in place before reunification, after the fall of the Wall there was a need to develop new instruments in order to facilitate the spatial and economic development of the re-unified city. The first Land Use Plan following reunification was ultimately enacted in 1994.[52] The urban development policy of reunified Berlin, termed "Critical Reconstruction", aimed to facilitate urban diversity by supporting a mixture of land functions.[46] This policy directed the urban planning strategy for the reunified city. A "Critical Reconstruction" policy agenda was to redefine Berlin's urban identity through its pre-war and pre-Nazi legacy. Elements of "Critical Reconstruction" were also reflected in the overall strategic planning document for downtown Berlin, entitled "Inner City Planning Framework".[46] Reunification policy emphasised restoration of the traditional Berlin landscape. To this effect, the policy excluded the "legacy of socialist East Berlin and notably of divided Berlin from the new urban identity".[46] Ultimately, following the collapse of the German Democratic Republic on 3 October 1990, all planning projects under the socialist regime were abandoned.[53] Vacant lots, open areas and empty fields in East Berlin were subject to redevelopment, in addition to space previously occupied by the Wall and associated buffering zone.[50] Many of these sites were positioned in central, strategic locations of the reunified city. The removal of the Wall saw the city's spatial structure reoriented.[52] German reunification From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia Contents ############################################## 1 Naming 2 Precursors to reunification 3 Process of reunification ################################ 3.1 Cooperation 3.2 Economic merger 3.3 German Reunification Treaty 3.4 Constitutional merger 3.5 International effects 3.6 Day of German Unity 4 Foreign support and opposition 4.1 Britain and France 4.2 The rest of Europe 4.3 The four powers 4.4 Conclusion 5 Aftermath ##################### 5.1 Cost of reunification 5.2 Inner reunification 6 Reunified Berlin from an Urban Planning Perspective 6.1 Planning issues facing reunification 6.2 Policy for Reunification 6.3 After the Fall of the Wall 6.4 Comparison 7 See also 8 References 9 Further reading 9.1 Primary sources 10 External links After the Fall of the Wall Berlin's urban organisation experienced significant upheaval following the physical and metaphorical collapse of the Wall, as the city sought to "re-invent itself as a 'Western' metropolis".[46] Redevelopment of vacant lots, open areas and empty fields as well as space previously occupied by the Wall and associated buffering zone[50] were based on land use priorities as reflected in "Critical Reconstruction" policies. Green space and recreational areas were allocated 38% of freed land; 6% of freed land was dedicated to mass-transit systems to address transport inadequacies.[50] Reunification initiatives also included construction of major office and commercial projects, as well as the renovation of housing estates in East Berlin. Another key priority was reestablishing Berlin as the capital of Germany, and this required buildings to serve government needs, including the "redevelopment of sites for scores of foreign embassies".[50] With respect to redefining the city's identity, emphasis was placed on restoring Berlin's traditional landscape. "Critical Reconstruction" policies sought to disassociate the city's identity from its Nazi and socialist legacy, though some remnants were preserved, with walkways and bicycle paths established along the border strip to preserve the memory of the Wall.[50] In the centre of East Berlin much of the modernist heritage of the East German state was gradually removed.[53] Reunification saw the removal of politically motivated street names and monuments in the East (Large 2001) in an attempt to reduce the socialist legacy from the face of East Berlin.[46] Immediately following the fall of the Wall, Berlin experienced a boom in the construction industry.[48] Redevelopment initiatives saw Berlin turn into one of the largest construction sites in the world through the 1990s and early 2000s.[52] The fall of the Berlin Wall also had economic consequences. Two German systems covering distinctly divergent degrees of economic opportunity suddenly came into intimate contact.[54] Despite development of sites for commercial purposes, Berlin struggled to compete in economic terms with key West German centres such as Stuttgart and Dusseldorf.[55][56] The intensive building activity directed by planning policy resulted in the over-expansion of office space, "with a high level of vacancies in spite of the move of most administrations and government agencies from Bonn"[57][58] Berlin was marred by disjointed economic restructuring, associated with massive deindustrialisation.[55][56] Economist Hartwich asserts that while the East undoubtedly improved economically, it was "at a much slower pace than [then Chancellor Helmut] Kohl had predicted".[59] Facilitation of economic development through planning measures failed to close the disparity between East and West, not only in terms of the economic opportunity but also housing conditions and transport options.[48] Tolle states that "the initial euphoria about having become one unified people again was increasingly replaced by a growing sense of difference between Easterners ("Ossis") and Westerners ("Wessis")"[60] The fall of the Wall also instigated immediate cultural change.[45] The first consequence was the closure in East Berlin of politically oriented cultural institutions.[45] The fall of the Berlin Wall and the factors descibed above led to mass migration from East Berlin and East Germany, producing a large labour supply shock in the West.[54] Emigration from the East, totaling 870,000 people between 1989 and 1992 alone,[61] led to worse employment outcomes for the least-educated workers, for blue-collar workers, for men and for foreign nationals[54] At the close of the century, it became evident that despite significant investment and planning, Berlin was yet to retake "its seat between the European Global Cities of London and Paris."[46] Yet ultimately, the disparity between East and West portions of Berlin has led to the city achieving a new urban identity. A number of locales of East Berlin, characterised by dwellings of in-between use of abandoned space for little to no rent, have become the focal point and foundation of Berlin's burgeoning creative activities.[62] According to Berlin Mayor Klaus Wowereit, "the best that Berlin has to offer, its unique creativity. Creativity is Berlin's future."[63] Overall, the Berlin government's engagement in creativity is strongly centered on marketing and promotional initiatives instead of creative production.[64] Creativity has been the catalyst for the city's "thriving music scene, active nightlife, and bustling street scene"[65] all of which have become important attractions for the German capital. The industry is a key component of the city's economic make-up with more than 10% of all Berlin residents employed in cultural sectors.[66] German reunification From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia Contents ############################################## 1 Naming 2 Precursors to reunification 3 Process of reunification ################################ 3.1 Cooperation 3.2 Economic merger 3.3 German Reunification Treaty 3.4 Constitutional merger 3.5 International effects 3.6 Day of German Unity 4 Foreign support and opposition 4.1 Britain and France 4.2 The rest of Europe 4.3 The four powers 4.4 Conclusion 5 Aftermath ##################### 5.1 Cost of reunification 5.2 Inner reunification 6 Reunified Berlin from an Urban Planning Perspective 6.1 Planning issues facing reunification 6.2 Policy for Reunification 6.3 After the Fall of the Wall 6.4 Comparison 7 See also 8 References 9 Further reading 9.1 Primary sources 10 External links Comparison Germany was not the only state that had been separated through the aftermaths of World War II. For example, Korea as well as Vietnam have been separated through the occupation of "Western-Capitalistic" and "Eastern-Communistic" forces, after the defeat of the Japanese Empire. Both countries severely suffered from this separation through the Korean War (1950 - 1953) and the Vietnam War (1955 - 1975), which both caused heavy economic and civilian damage.[67][68] However, German separation did not result in another war. Moreover, Germany is hereby the only of these countries that managed to achieve a peaceful reunification. For instance, Vietnam achieved reunification at the end of the Vietnam War in 1975 through the occupation of Saigon on April 30, and North and South Korea still struggle with high political tensions, making a reunification highly improbable. German reunification From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia Contents ############################################## 1 Naming 2 Precursors to reunification 3 Process of reunification ################################ 3.1 Cooperation 3.2 Economic merger 3.3 German Reunification Treaty 3.4 Constitutional merger 3.5 International effects 3.6 Day of German Unity 4 Foreign support and opposition 4.1 Britain and France 4.2 The rest of Europe 4.3 The four powers 4.4 Conclusion 5 Aftermath ##################### 5.1 Cost of reunification 5.2 Inner reunification 6 Reunified Berlin from an Urban Planning Perspective 6.1 Planning issues facing reunification 6.2 Policy for Reunification 6.3 After the Fall of the Wall 6.4 Comparison 7 See also 8 References 9 Further reading 9.1 Primary sources 10 External links See also Portal icon Germany portal Portal icon History portal Portal icon 1980s portal History of Germany since 1945 Reunification Stalin Note ? 1952 German reunification proposal Transitology Good Bye, Lenin! Chinese reunification Cypriot reunification Irish reunification Korean reunification Yemeni unification KOR REơUNIFICATION II ̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡ %%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%% korean and german re--unification intro by dr yong k park ##################################################### 2013 seoul zzzzzzzzzzzzzz pppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppp ̡ ttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttt ch xvii llllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllll sc http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/German_reunification hhhhhhhhhhh German reunification From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia Jump to: navigation, search This article is about the 1990 German reunification. For the 1871 unification of the German Empire, see Unification of Germany. German reunification From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia Contents ############################################## 1 Naming 2 Precursors to reunification 3 Process of reunification ################################ 3.1 Cooperation 3.2 Economic merger 3.3 German Reunification Treaty 3.4 Constitutional merger 3.5 International effects 3.6 Day of German Unity 4 Foreign support and opposition 4.1 Britain and France 4.2 The rest of Europe 4.3 The four powers 4.4 Conclusion 5 Aftermath ##################### 5.1 Cost of reunification 5.2 Inner reunification 6 Reunified Berlin from an Urban Planning Perspective 6.1 Planning issues facing reunification 6.2 Policy for Reunification 6.3 After the Fall of the Wall 6.4 Comparison 7 See also 8 References 9 Further reading 9.1 Primary sources 10 External links References 1 ^ Jump up to: a b c Vertrag zwischen der Bundesrepublik Deutschland und der Deutschen Demokratischen Republik uber die Herstellung der Einheit Deutschlands (Einigungsvertrag) Unification Treaty signed by the Federal Republic of Germany and the German Democratic Republic in Berlin on 31 August 1990 (official text, in German). Jump up ^ Krenz speech of 18 October 1989 in the German radio archive Jump up ^ Helmut Kohl's 10-Point Plan for German Unity Jump up ^ "Vertrag uber die Schaffung einer Wahrungs-, Wirtschafts- und Sozialunion zwischen der Deutschen Demokratischen Republik und der Bundesrepublik Deutschland". Die Verfassungen in Deutschland. Retrieved 2013-03-22. 5 Jump up ^ German Unification Monetary union. Cepr.org (1 July 1990). Retrieved on 19 October 2010. 6 ^ Jump up to: a b c Embassy of the Federal Republic of Germany London ? A short history of German reunification. London.diplo.de. Retrieved on 19 October 2010. Jump up ^ "United States and Soviet Union Sign German Reunification Treaty". NBC Learn. Retrieved 2013-03-22. Jump up ^ "Merkel to mark 20th anniversary of German reunification treaty". Deutschland.de. Retrieved 2013-03-22. Jump up ^ "Soviet Legislature Ratifies German Reunification Treaty". AP News Archive. Retrieved 2013-03-22. 10 Jump up ^ Opening of the Berlin Wall and Unification: German History. Germanculture.com.ua. Retrieved on 19 October 2010. 11 Jump up ^ http://www.gesetze-im-internet.de/einigvtr/art_45.html Jump up ^ Germany Today ? The German Unification Treaty ? travel and tourist information, flight reservations, travel bargains, hotels, resorts, car hire. Europe-today.com. Retrieved on 19 October 2010. Jump up ^ "File:Zwei-Plus-Vier-Vertrag.pdf". ^ Jump up to: a b c d e f g h i j k l Wiegrefe, Klaus (29 September 2010). "An Inside Look at the Reunification Negotiations". Der Spiegel. Retrieved 4 October 2010. 15 Jump up ^ Skelton, George (26 January 1990). "THE TIMES POLL : One Germany: U.S. Unfazed, Europeans Fret". Los Angeles Times. Retrieved 16 June 2012. 16 ^ Jump up to: a b "Thatcher told Gorbachev Britain did not want German reunification". The Times (London). 11 September 2009. Retrieved 8 November 2009. ^ Jump up to: a b c d e f g Kundnani, Hans (28 October 2009). "Margaret Thatcher's German war". The Times. Retrieved 5 October 2010. ^ Jump up to: a b c d e Volkery, Carsten (9 November 2009). "The Iron Lady's Views on German Reunification/'The Germans Are Back!'". Der Spiegel. Retrieved 5 October 2010. ^ Jump up to: a b Anne-Laure Mondesert (AFP) (31 October 2009). "London and Paris were shocked by German reunification". Calgary Herald. Retrieved 9 November 2009. 20 Jump up ^ Peter Allen (2 November 2009). "Margaret Thatcher was 'horrified' by the prospect of a reunited Germany". Telegraph (London). Retrieved 9 November 2009. 21 Jump up ^ Knight, Ben (8 November 2009). "Germany's neighbors try to redeem their 1989 negativity". Deutsche Welle. Retrieved 9 November 2009. Jump up ^ "'I Preferred To See It as an Acquisition'". Der Spiegel. September 29, 2010. Retrieved 7 October 2010. Jump up ^ Kohl, Helmut; Riemer, Jeremiah (translator). "Helmut Kohl's Ten-Point Plan for German Unity (November 28, 1989)". German History in Documents and Images. Retrieved 16 June 2012. Jump up ^ The territory of the League of Nations mandate of the Free City of Danzig, annexed by Poland in 1945 and comprising the city of Gda?sk (Danzig) and a number of neighbouring cities and municipalities, had never been claimed by any official side, because West Germany followed the legal position of Germany in its borders of 1937, thus before any Nazi annexations. 25 Jump up ^ Poland Germany border ? Oder Neisse. Polandpoland.com (14 November 1990). Retrieved on 19 October 2010. 26 Jump up ^ www.brainyquote.com/quotes/authors/p/peer_steinbruck.html#RHFr76ihwcp9E02L.99 Jump up ^ "Underestimating East Germany". The Atlantic. 6 November 2009. Retrieved 25 October 2013. Jump up ^ After the fall 20 years ago this week the crumbling of the Berlin Wall began an empire s end. Anniston Star. Retrieved on 19 October 2010. Jump up ^ National identity in eastern Germany ... .Google Books (30 October 1990). Retrieved on 19 October 2010. 30 ^ Jump up to: a b (German) Umfrage: Ost- und Westdeutsche entfernen sich voneinander ? Nachrichten Politik ? WELT ONLINE. Welt.de. Retrieved on 19 October 2010. 31 Jump up ^ (German) Partei des Demokratischen Sozialismus ? Wikipedia. De.wikipedia.org. Retrieved on 19 October 2010. Jump up ^ In fact, a new constitution was drafted by a "round table" of dissidents and delegates from East German civil society only to be discarded later, a fact that upset many East German intellectuals. See Volkmar Schoneburg: Vom Ludergeruch der Basisdemokratie. Geschichte und Schicksal des Verfassungsentwurfes des Runden Tisches der DDR, in: Jahrbuch fur Forschungen zur Geschichte der Arbeiterbewegung, No. II/2010. Jump up ^ Gastbeitrag: Nicht fur die Ewigkeit ? Staat und Recht ? Politik. Faz.Net. Retrieved on 19 October 2010. Jump up ^ Aus Politik und Zeitgeschichte, Nr. 18 2009, 27 April 2009 ? Das Grundgesetz ? eine Verfassung auf Abruf?. Das-parlament.de. Retrieved on 19 October 2010. 35 Jump up ^ DDR-Geschichte: Merkel will Birthler-Behorde noch lange erhalten. Spiegel.de (15 January 2009). Retrieved 19 October 2010. 36 Jump up ^ Facts about Germany: Society. Tatsachen-ueber-deutschland.de. Retrieved on 19 October 2010. Jump up ^ For example the economist Jorg Roesler - see: Jorg Roesler: Ein Anderes Deutschland war moglich. Alternative Programme fur das wirtschaftliche Zusammengehen beider deutscher Staaten, in: Jahrbuch fur Forschungen zur Geschichte der Arbeiterbewegung, No. II/2010, pp.34-46. The historian Ulrich Busch pointed out that the currency union as such had come to early- see Ulrich Busch: Die Wahrungsunion am 1. Juli 1990: Wirtschaftspolitische Fehlleistung mit Folgen, in: Jahrbuch fur Forschungen zur Geschichte der Arbeiterbewegung, No. II/2010, pp.5-24. Jump up ^ Sauga, Michael (September 6, 2011). "Designing a Transfer Union to Save the Euro". Der Spiegel. Jump up ^ Parkes, K. Stuart (1997). Understanding contemporary Germany. Taylor & Francis. ISBN 0-415-14124-9. 40 Jump up ^ (German) Ostdeutschland: Das verschmahte Paradies | Campus | ZEIT ONLINE. Zeit.de (29 September 2008). Retrieved on 19 October 2010. 41 Jump up ^ (German) Partnerschaft: Der Mythos von den Ost-West-Ehepaaren ? Nachrichten Panorama ? WELT ONLINE. Welt.de. Retrieved on 19 October 2010. Jump up ^ Politics and History ? German-German History ? Goethe-Institut. Goethe.de. Retrieved on 19 October 2010. Jump up ^ Zeitchik, Steven (7 October 2003). "German Ostalgie: Fondly recalling the bad old days". The New York Times. Retrieved 25 October 2013. Jump up ^ Gresillon, B (April 1999). "Berlin, cultural metropolis: Changes in the cultural geography of Berlin since reunification". ECUMENE 6: 284?294. 45 ^ Jump up to: a b c Gresillon, B (April 1999). "Berlin, cultural metropolis: Changes in the cultural geography of Berlin since reunification". ECUMENE: 284. 46 ^ Jump up to: a b c d e f g Tolle, A (2010). "Urban identity policies in Berlin: From critical reconstruction to reconstructing the Wall.". Institute of Socio-Economic Geography and Spatial Management 27: 348?357. Jump up ^ Hartwich, O. M. (2010). After the Wall: 20 years on. Policy 25 (4). pp. 8?11. ^ Jump up to: a b c Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (2003). Urban renaissance [electronic resource]: Berlin: Towards an integrated strategy for social cohesion and economic development / organisation for economic co-operation and development. Paris: OECD Publishing. Jump up ^ Schwedler, Hanns-Uve. "Divided cities - planning for unification.". European Academy of the Urban Environment. Retrieved 14 May 2012. 50 ^ Jump up to: a b c d e f g h i j Loeb, Carolyn (January 2006). "Planning reunification: the planning history of the fall of the Berlin Wall". Planning Perspectives 21: 67?87. Retrieved 14 May 2012. 51 Jump up ^ MacDonogh, G (1997). Berlin. Great Britain: Sinclair-Stevenson. pp. 456?457. ^ Jump up to: a b c d e Schwedler, Hanns-Uve (2001). Urban Planning and Cultural Inclusion Lessons from Belfast and Berlin. Palgrave Macmillan. ISBN 978-0-333-79368-8. ^ Jump up to: a b Urban, F (2007). "Designing the past in East Berlin before and after the German Reunification.". Progress in Planning 68: 1?55. ^ Jump up to: a b c Frank, D. H. (13). "The Effect of Migration on Natives' Employment Outcomes: Evidence from the Fall of the Berlin Wall.". INSEAD Working Papers Selection. 55 ^ Jump up to: a b Kratke, S (2004). "City of talents? Berlin's regional economy, socio-spatial fabric and "worst practice" urban governance". International Journal of Urban and Regional Research 28 (3): 511?529. 56 ^ Jump up to: a b Hauermann, H; Kapphan (2005). "Berlin: from divided to fragmented city. Transformation of Cities in Central and Eastern Europe. Towards Globalization". United Nations University Press: 189?222. Jump up ^ Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development. (2003). Urban renaissance [electronic resource]: Berlin: Towards an integrated strategy for social cohesion and economic development / organisation for economic co-operation and development. Paris: OECD Publishing. Jump up ^ Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development. (2003). Urban renaissance [electronic resource]: Berlin: Towards an integrated strategy for social cohesion and economic development / organisation for economic co-operation and development. Paris: OECD Publishing. p. 20. Jump up ^ Hartwich, O. M. (2010). After the Wall: 20 years on. Policy 25 (4). p. 8. 60 Jump up ^ Tolle, A (2010). "Urban identity policies in Berlin: From critical reconstruction to reconstructing the Wall.". Institute of Socio-Economic Geography and Spatial Management 27: 352. 61 Jump up ^ Smith, E. O. (1994). The German Economy. London: Routledge. p. 266. Jump up ^ Jakob, D., 2010. Constructing the creative neighbourhood: hopes and limitations of creative city policies in Berlin. City, Culture and Society, 1, 4, December 2011, 193-198., D (December 2010). "Constructing the creative neighbourhood: hopes and limitations of creative city policies in Berlin". City, Culture and Society 1 (4): 193?198. Jump up ^ Jakob, D. (December 2010). "Constructing the creative neighbourhood: hopes and limitations of creative city policies in Berlin.". City, Culture and Society 1 (4): 193?198. Jump up ^ Presse- und Informationsamt des Landes Berlin Berlin: Pressemitteilung, Presse- und Informationsamt des Landes. (2007). Wowereit prasentierte den "Berlin Day" in New York. 65 Jump up ^ Florida, R. L. (2005). Cities and the creative class. New York: Routledge. p. 99. Jump up ^ Senatsverwaltung fur Wirtschaft Arbeit und Frauen in Berlin (2009). Kulturwirtschaft in Berlin. Entwicklungen und Potenziale. Berlin: Senatsverwaltung fur Wirtschaft Arbeit und Frauen in Berlin. Jump up ^ https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Korean_War 68 Jump up ^ https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Vietnam_War German reunification From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia Contents ############################################## 1 Naming 2 Precursors to reunification 3 Process of reunification ################################ 3.1 Cooperation 3.2 Economic merger 3.3 German Reunification Treaty 3.4 Constitutional merger 3.5 International effects 3.6 Day of German Unity 4 Foreign support and opposition 4.1 Britain and France 4.2 The rest of Europe 4.3 The four powers 4.4 Conclusion 5 Aftermath ##################### 5.1 Cost of reunification 5.2 Inner reunification 6 Reunified Berlin from an Urban Planning Perspective 6.1 Planning issues facing reunification 6.2 Policy for Reunification 6.3 After the Fall of the Wall 6.4 Comparison 7 See also 8 References 9 Further reading 9.1 Primary sources 10 External links Further reading Maier, Charles S., Dissolution: The Crisis of Communism and the End of East Germany (Princeton University Press, 1997). Zelikow, Philip and Condoleezza Rice, Germany Unified and Europe Transformed: A Study in Statecraft (Harvard University Press, 1995 & 1997). German reunification From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia Contents ############################################## 1 Naming 2 Precursors to reunification 3 Process of reunification ################################ 3.1 Cooperation 3.2 Economic merger 3.3 German Reunification Treaty 3.4 Constitutional merger 3.5 International effects 3.6 Day of German Unity 4 Foreign support and opposition 4.1 Britain and France 4.2 The rest of Europe 4.3 The four powers 4.4 Conclusion 5 Aftermath ##################### 5.1 Cost of reunification 5.2 Inner reunification 6 Reunified Berlin from an Urban Planning Perspective 6.1 Planning issues facing reunification 6.2 Policy for Reunification 6.3 After the Fall of the Wall 6.4 Comparison 7 See also 8 References 9 Further reading 9.1 Primary sources 10 External links Primary sources Jarausch, Konrad H., and Volker Gransow, eds. Uniting Germany: Documents and Debates, 1944?1993 (1994), primary sources in English translation German reunification From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia Contents ############################################## 1 Naming 2 Precursors to reunification 3 Process of reunification ################################ 3.1 Cooperation 3.2 Economic merger 3.3 German Reunification Treaty 3.4 Constitutional merger 3.5 International effects 3.6 Day of German Unity 4 Foreign support and opposition 4.1 Britain and France 4.2 The rest of Europe 4.3 The four powers 4.4 Conclusion 5 Aftermath ##################### 5.1 Cost of reunification 5.2 Inner reunification 6 Reunified Berlin from an Urban Planning Perspective 6.1 Planning issues facing reunification 6.2 Policy for Reunification 6.3 After the Fall of the Wall 6.4 Comparison 7 See also 8 References 9 Further reading 9.1 Primary sources 10 External links External links Wikimedia Commons has media related to German reunification. The Unification Treaty (Berlin, 31 August 1990) website of CVCE (Centre of European Studies) Hessler, Uwe, "The End of East Germany", dw-world.de, August 23, 2005. Berg, Stefan, Steffen Winter and Andreas Wassermann, "Germany's Eastern Burden: The Price of a Failed Reunification", Der Spiegel, September 5, 2005. Wiegrefe, Klaus, "An Inside Look at the Reunification Negotiations"Der Spiegel, September 29, 2010. German Embassy Publication, Infocus: German Unity Day Problems with Reunification from the Dean Peter Krogh Foreign Affairs Digital Archives [show] v t e Revolutions of 1989 [show] v t e Germany topics German reunification From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia Contents ############################################## 1 Naming 2 Precursors to reunification 3 Process of reunification ################################ 3.1 Cooperation 3.2 Economic merger 3.3 German Reunification Treaty 3.4 Constitutional merger 3.5 International effects 3.6 Day of German Unity 4 Foreign support and opposition 4.1 Britain and France 4.2 The rest of Europe 4.3 The four powers 4.4 Conclusion 5 Aftermath ##################### 5.1 Cost of reunification 5.2 Inner reunification 6 Reunified Berlin from an Urban Planning Perspective 6.1 Planning issues facing reunification 6.2 Policy for Reunification 6.3 After the Fall of the Wall 6.4 Comparison 7 See also 8 References 9 Further reading 9.1 Primary sources 10 External links Categories: National unifications 20th century in Germany Germany?Soviet Union relations Revolutions of 1989 1990 in Germany German reunification 1990 in East Germany 1990 in politics Navigation menu Create account Log in Article Talk Read Edit View history Main page Contents Featured content Current events Random article Donate to Wikipedia Interaction Help About Wikipedia Community portal Recent changes Contact page Tools Print/export German reunification From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia Contents ############################################## 1 Naming 2 Precursors to reunification 3 Process of reunification ################################ 3.1 Cooperation 3.2 Economic merger 3.3 German Reunification Treaty 3.4 Constitutional merger 3.5 International effects 3.6 Day of German Unity 4 Foreign support and opposition 4.1 Britain and France 4.2 The rest of Europe 4.3 The four powers 4.4 Conclusion 5 Aftermath ##################### 5.1 Cost of reunification 5.2 Inner reunification 6 Reunified Berlin from an Urban Planning Perspective 6.1 Planning issues facing reunification 6.2 Policy for Reunification 6.3 After the Fall of the Wall 6.4 Comparison 7 See also 8 References 9 Further reading 9.1 Primary sources 10 External links Languages ???? ??????? ????? ֬ݬѬܬѬ ݬԬѬܬ Bosanski Catala ?esky Dansk Deutsch Eesti ť? 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Ti?ng Vi?t Voro Winaray German reunification From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia Contents ############################################## 1 Naming 2 Precursors to reunification 3 Process of reunification ################################ 3.1 Cooperation 3.2 Economic merger 3.3 German Reunification Treaty 3.4 Constitutional merger 3.5 International effects 3.6 Day of German Unity 4 Foreign support and opposition 4.1 Britain and France 4.2 The rest of Europe 4.3 The four powers 4.4 Conclusion 5 Aftermath ##################### 5.1 Cost of reunification 5.2 Inner reunification 6 Reunified Berlin from an Urban Planning Perspective 6.1 Planning issues facing reunification 6.2 Policy for Reunification 6.3 After the Fall of the Wall 6.4 Comparison 7 See also 8 References 9 Further reading 9.1 Primary sources 10 External links Edit links This page was last modified on 25 October 2013 at 12:49. 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Does the withdrawal portend an imminent North Korean aggression? Hardly. North Korea is in no position to launch an attack on its Korean neighbour, or on the United States, at least not one that it would survive. North Korean forces are dwarfed by the US and South Korean militaries in size, sophistication and fire-power. The withdrawal serves, instead, as a signal of North Korean resolve to defend itself against growing US and South Korean harassment, both military and economic. US provocations For decades, North Korea has been subjected to the modern form of the siege. The aim of the siege is to reduce the enemy to such a state of starvation and deprivation that they open the gate, perhaps killing their leaders in the process and throw themselves on the mercy of the besiegers. [1] North Korea withstood the siege, and even flourished, during the years it was able to trade with the Soviet Union and Eastern Europes socialist countries. But with the demise of Soviet socialism, the country has bent, but not broken, under the pressure of US-led sanctions of mass destruction. Sanctions against North Korea are multi-form, and include a trade blockade and financial isolation. Significantly, no country in history has been menaced by such wide-ranging sanctions for so long. North Korea is, as then US president George W. Bush once remarked, the most sanctioned nation on earth. [2] Sanctions, military harassment (which Ill come back to in a moment), and the US nuclear threat?Washington has threatened North Korea with nuclear annihilation on countless occasions [3]?have forced the North Koreans to bulk up militarily, build ballistic missiles, and test nuclear devices in order to survive. Led by Washington, the UN Security Council has authored a number of resolutions to deny North Korea rights of self-defense and other rights that other countries are free to exercise: the rights to: build ballistic missiles; withdraw from the Nuclear Non-proliferation Treaty; launch satellites; sell arms abroad; and transfer nuclear technology to other countries. These are rights that every permanent member of the UN Security Council exercises freely. They are also rights that many other countries enjoy with impunity. On top of besieging North Korea, Washington and South Korea have for decades kept up a campaign of unrelenting military harassment in the form of regular war games. The latest war games began March 1 and will last for two months. Undertaken as practice in mobilizing US troops and military hardware from abroad for rapid deployment to the Korean peninsula, the war games this year have activated not only US and South Korean militaries, but British, Canadian, and Australian forces, as well. While labelled defensive, the war games force the North Koreans onto a permanent war footing. It can never be clear to North Korean generals whether the latest US-South Korean mobilization is a drill or preparation for an invasion. The effect is to force Pyongyang to maintain its military on high alert, an exhausting and expensive exercise. The view propagated by Western officials and, in train, the Western mass media, is that the sanctions are aimed at correcting North Koreas bad behaviour and that the war games are carried out to deter North Korean aggression. But whats called bad behaviour?the building of nuclear weapons and ballistic missiles?is Pyongyangs reaction to the US-led permanent state of siege. A tiny country with a military budget dwarfed by South Koreas and the United States [4] is not credibly an offensive threat to Washington and Seoul, but the United States and South Korea are unquestionably offensive threats to the DPRK (the Democratic Peoples Republic of Korea, North Koreas official name.) After the UN manoeuvred the Security Council to slap still more sanctions on North Korea, and began its latest round of war games, the Wall Street Journal alerted the world that North Korea [had] moved to further stoke tensions with South Korea [5] On the contrary, the United States had further stoked tensions with North Korea. A dead letter There are three reasons to regard the armistice agreement as existing in form alone, and not substance. First, the purpose of the agreement was to set the stage for a permanent peace. Despite North Korea repeatedly asking Washington to enter into a peace agreement, none has been struck. After one North Korean entreaty for peace, then US secretary of state Colin Powell said We dont do non-aggression pacts or treaties, things of that nature. [6] Second, the agreement was to be followed by the withdrawal of all foreign troops from the Korean peninsula. The Chinese withdrew, as did most members of the UN forces. But US forces, which have remained in South Korea for the last 60 years, have become a permanent fixture on the peninsula. Incredibly, South Korean forces remain under US command. Third, the agreement prohibits the introduction into Korea of reinforcing combat aircraft, armoured vehicles, weapons and ammunition The US violated the agreement by introducing nuclear weapons into South Korea in 1958. And its questionable whether the war games-related deployment of massive amounts of US military hardware to Korea doesnt violate the agreement, as well. What Washington wants from North Korea On March 11, U.S. national security adviser Tom Donilon announced publicly that what Washington wants from North Korea is open markets and the countrys integration into the US-led system of global capitalist exploitation. At least, thats what he meant when he said, I urge North Koreas leaders to reflect on Burmas experience. [7] Burma (Myanmar) turned its self-directed, locally-, and largely publicly-owned economy into a capitalist playground for foreign investors. When Myanmars military took power in a 1962 coup, it nationalized most industries and brought the bulk of the economy under government control, which is the way it stayed until three years ago. Major utilities were state-owned and health-care and education were publicly provided. Private hospitals and private schools were unheard of. Ownership of land and local companies was limited to the countrys citizens. Companies were required to hire Myanmar workers. And the central bank was answerable to the government. In other words, Myanmars economy, inasmuch as it markets, labor and natural resources were used for the countrys self-directed development, was very much like North Koreas. And like North Korea, Myanmar was an object of US hostility, subject to sanctions, and targeted by US-orchestrated low-level warfare. Bowing to US pressure, Myanmars government began in the last few years to sell off government buildings, its port facilities, its national airline, mines, farmland, the countrys fuel distribution network, and soft drink, cigarette and bicycle factories. The doors to the countrys publicly-owned health care and education systems were thrown open, and private investors were invited in. A new law was drawn up to give more independence to the central bank, making it answerable to its own inflation control targets, rather than directly to the government. To top it all off, a foreign-investment law was drafted to allow foreigners to control local companies and land, permit the entry of foreign telecom companies and foreign banks, allow 100 percent repatriation of profits, and exempt foreign investors from paying taxes for up to five years. Whats more, foreign enterprises would be allowed to import skilled workers, and wouldnt be required to hire locally. With Myanmar signalling its willingness to turn over its economy to outside investors, US hostility abated and the sanctions were lifted. President Obama dispatched then US secretary of state Hillary Clinton to meet with Myanmars leaders, the first US secretary of state to visit in more than 50 years. William Hague soon followed, the first British foreign minister to visit since 1955. Other foreign ministers beat their own paths to the door of the countrys military junta, seeking to establish ties with the now foreign investment-friendly government on behalf of their own corporations, investors, and banks. And business organizations sent their own delegations, including four major Japanese business organizations, all looking to cash in on Myanmars new opening. Announcing the easing of US sanctions, then US secretary of state Hilary Clinton enthused, Today we say to American business: Invest in Burma! [8] That, then, is what the United States wants for North Korea: for a US secretary of state to one day announce, Today we say to American business: Invest in North Korea! Effects, not causes In the US view, North Korea is a militaristic, aggressive state, bent on provoking South Korea and its American overlords and setting the peninsula aflame, for reasons that are never made clear. Pyongyang must, therefore, be deterred by sanctions and displays of US military resolve. Yet North Korea has never pursued an aggressive foreign policy, hasnt the means to do so, and unlike the United States and South Korea, has never sent troops into battle on foreign soil. (South Korea hired out its military to the United States as a mercenary force to battle nationalists seeking independence in Vietnam.) By contrast, the DPRKs militarism, expressed in its Songun (military first) policy, is defensive, not aggressive, mercenary or imperialist. It is a misconception that the incursion of North Korean forces into the south in 1950, marking the formal start of the Korean War, was an invasion across an international border. The boundary dividing the two Koreas had been drawn unilaterally by the United States in 1945, and never agreed to by Koreans. The Korean War was a civil war in which sovereigntists, and collaborators with the Japanese, now with the Americans, battled over control of their country, aided by foreign militaries. Had the United States not intervened the country would have been re-united under a socialist government committed to independence. The US view, far from providing an accurate account of North Korea and its relationship with the United States, turns reality on its head. The reality is that US public policy, including foreign policy, is largely shaped by corporations, banks, and elite investors, through lobbying, the funding of think tanks, and placement of corporate officers, Wall Street lawyers, and ambitious politicians dependent on the wealthy for campaign financing and lucrative post-political job opportunities, into key positions in the state. US foreign policy seeks to protect and enlarge the interests of the class that shapes it, by safeguarding existing, and securing new, foreign investment opportunities, opening markets abroad for US goods and services, and ensuring business conditions around the world are conducive to the profit-making imperatives of US corporations. From the perspective of the goals of US foreign policy, North Koreas publicly-owned, planned economy commits the ultimate sin: it reserves North Korean labor, markets and natural resources for the countrys own welfare and self-development. Accordingly, US foreign policy aims to reduce North Korea to such a level of deprivation and misery that the people overthrow their leaders and open the gate, or the leaders capitulate and heed Donilons urging to follow Myanmars capitulatory path. All attempts to resist integration into the US-superintended global capitalist system are deceptively presented by the United States as evidence of North Koreas bellicosity, rather than what they are: acts of self-defense against an imperialist predator. 1. Tim Beal. Crisis in Korea: America, China and the Risk of War. Pluto Press, 2011, p. 180. 2. U.S. News & World Report, June 26, 2008; The New York Times, July 6, 2008. 3. For more on US threats of nuclear annihilation against North Korea see Stephen Gowans, Why North Korea needs nuclear weapons, whats left, February 16, 2013. 4. The combined US-South Korean 2010 military budget was $739B (US, $700B; South Korea, $39K), 74 times greater than North Koreas $10B expenditure. For more see Stephen Gowans, Wars for Profits: A No-Nonsense Guide to Why the United States Seeks to Make Iran an International Pariah, whats left, November 9, 2011. 5. Alastair Gale, Kims visit to bases raises tension, The Wall Street Journal, March 12, 2013. 6. New York Times, August 14, 2003. 7. Alastair Gale and Keith Johnson, North Korea declares war truce invalid, The Wall Street Journal, March 12, 2013. 8. On Myanmars transition to open markets and free enterprise see Stephen Gowans, Myanmar learns the lesson of Libya, whats left, May 20, 2012. About these ads Share this: StumbleUpon Digg Reddit Print Facebook Twitter12 Email Like this: Like Loading... RelatedWhy North Korea Needs Nuclear Weapons In "north Korea"Washingtons playbook on provoking North Korea In "north Korea"Kim Jong-ils Death is a Danger for North Korea, not its Neighbors In "north Korea" 9 comments Chavezs Enemies Hand Him His Greatest Tribute: DefamationThe Siege and Terrorism 9 Responses Subscribe to comments with RSS. Markov S said, on March 17, 2013 at 10:58 am It is a rare thing indeed for anyone to write about the DPRK without evoking the insane belligerent comic-demon by the third sentence at the latest. Then they always lambast the eccentric and isolated regime, with no regard as to the cause of this isolation. . They have repeated that rant so often that you are considered a crazy person if you even try to make an objective statement regarding N.Koreas situation. Thanks for this succinct and clear analysis. Reply xine said, on March 17, 2013 at 7:07 pm This is just brilliant analysis?such a refreshingly sane account (in contrast to the jingoism and the cant that usually passes as commentary on North Korea). When it comes to North Korea, the received truth is almost always an inverted narrative that nowhere takes into account the asymmetrical terrain of force that structures U.S. relationship to that country. From North Koreas very inception, the only consistent U.S. policy that North Korea has been subjected to is regime change?whether it be rollback in 1950 to U.S. policies today. Reply communistscientist said, on March 17, 2013 at 7:14 pm Reblogged this on The Communist Scientist and commented: A clear analysis of the North Korean behaviour, for once not explaining it by the whims of yet another madded dictator. Reply Dorothy Ogle said, on March 18, 2013 at 8:53 pm It would be in the interest of the United States and both North and South Korea to negotiate a peace treaty to end the Korean War. A treaty must take into consideration the economic and security of both Koreas. We all are spending precious resources that should be used for the good of the people. The 60 year policy of sanctions has failed and the provocative military exercises could lead to an accidental war with great loss to all sides. Reply what's left said, on March 18, 2013 at 9:22 pm Dorothy, you write, The 60 year policy of sanctions has failed. Failed to do what? Reply Sally said, on March 22, 2013 at 7:41 am Another fine article! And, yes, S Markov, xine and communistscientist, I too am heartily sick of the capitalist medias frothing at the mouth over the DRPK. Reply Samuel P. Johnston said, on March 25, 2013 at 9:24 pm Could you comment upon the recent alleged North Korean videos alleging to show destruction of the U.S.? Is this real? An intelligence hoax? http://news.yahoo.com/blogs/lookout/north-korea-video-propaganda-us-troops-rockets-125355219.html http://news.yahoo.com/blogs/lookout/north-korea-dream-video-us-missile-attack-140005920.html;_ylt=AgBmatH5UgTFxHbFZUvrBGXNt.d_;_ylu=X3oDMTFkcWhpdTZuBG1pdANCbG9nIEJvZHkEcG9zAzUEc2VjA01lZGlhQmxvZ0JvZHlBc3NlbWJseQ?;_ylg=X3oDMTMzcWNoa3ZiBGludGwDdXMEbGFuZwNlbi11cwRwc3RhaWQDMDU3MDNmYzEtYjY0Zi0zZWM2LTkxOGMtZDM2ZDY4ZmQ1MDUyBHBzdGNhdANibG9nc3x0aGVsb29rb3V0BHB0A3N0b3J5cGFnZQ?;_ylv=3 Reply communistscientist said, on March 30, 2013 at 12:47 am One more piece of evidence that North Korea does not waste its peoples money on spin doctors. One more piece of evidence that it wouldnt all be wasted after all. Reply Jorg Kontrel said, on April 4, 2013 at 1:30 am I dont understand your reply. What do you mean? Leave a Reply The Pages Capitalism, with all its glitzand socialism, with none at all Bashar al-Assad May 19, 2013 interview with Clarin newspaper and Telam news agency Brief Notes Contact Khrushchevs Revisionism Notification of updates The Palestinian Revolution and the Struggle Against Zionism Whats Left? Why Hezbollah backs Syria The Search search site archives The Associates "We do not knowif Iran will eventually decide to build nuclear weapons." US Director of National Intelligence James Clapper, Jan. 31, 2012 American officials say there is not hard and clear evidence that Iran has resumed work on the military components necessary to build a bomb. I cant tell you [the Iranians are] in fact pursuing a weapon because thats not what intelligence says. Former US Defense Secretary Leon Panetta, Feb. 3, 2013 some Canadian military officers in private jokingly referred to the NATO jets bombing Gadhafis troops as al-Qaedas air force Concerning the charge that Iran is working on a nuclear weapon: It isnt the absence of evidence, its the evidence of an absence, said one former intelligence official Certain things are not being done. Even as the United Nations nuclear watchdog said in a new reportthat Iran had accelerated its uranium enrichment program, American intelligence analysts continue to believe that there is no hard evidence that Iran has decided to build a nuclear bomb How could I possibly explain using the military to destroy the nuclear facilities of a country the intelligence community said had no active nuclear weapons program??George W. Bush Iran appears to be keeping its stockpile of medium-enriched uranium ? which could be converted to bomb fuel in weeks or months ? to a level below the amount necessary to build a single weapon. Iranhas no atomic bombs in its military arsenal, nor the ability to deliver them, say U.S. and United Nations experts.(The Wall Street Journal, March 31, 2013) The Obama administration, in advanced negotiations on nuclear-cooperation agreements with Jordan and Vietnam, has withdrawn a demand that these countries forgo their rights to produce nuclear fuel, senior U.S. officials said. The tightening of U.S. banking sanctions against Iran over its nuclear program [is]increasingly hitting vulnerable medical patients as deliveries of medicine and raw materials for Iranian pharmaceutical companies are either stopped or delayed. United States intelligence officials have said they have no evidence that Irans top leaders have decided to take the final steps toward a weapon. US director of national intelligence James Clapper says there's no evidence that Iran is building a nuclear weapon. CIA Director David Petraeus, Defense Secretary Leon Panetta and chairman of the Joint Chiefs of Staff Gen. Martin Dempsey agree. US Senator Lindsey Graham: Do you have doubt about the Iranians intention when it comes to making a nuclear weapon? Director of National Intelligence James R. Clapper: "I do." 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The Journalist 1.3 Theme. SC http://gowans.wordpress.com/2013/03/16/armistice-agreement-withdrawal-north-korean-belligerence/ ************** KOR REơUNIFICATION II ̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡ %%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%% korean and german re--unification intro by dr yong k park ##################################################### 2013 seoul pppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppp ̡ ooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooo ch xviii ppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppp ơơơơơơơơơơơơơơơơơơơơơơơơơơơơơơơơơơơơơơơơơơơơ SC http://gowans.wordpress.com/2013/03/16/armistice-agreement-withdrawal-north-korean-belligerence/ ************** what's left ============================= Armistice Agreement Withdrawal: North Korean Belligerence? ******************* Posted in north Korea by what's left ======================== on March 16, 2013 By Stephen Gowans *************************************** END ơơơơơơơơơơơơơơơơơơơơơơơơơơơ KOR REơUNIFICATION II ̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡ %%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%% korean and german re--unification intro by dr yong k park ##################################################### 2013 seoul pppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppp ̡ ooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooo ch xviiiơA ppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppp ơơơơơơơơơơơơơơơơơơơơơơơơơơơơơơơơơơơơơơơơơơơơ SC http://news.yahoo.com/blogs/lookout/north-korea-video-propaganda-us-troops-rockets-125355219.html ̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡ The Lookout New North Korea video shows defeat of U.S. troops ************************** Dylan Stableford, =============== Yahoo News $$$$$$$$$$$$$$$ By Dylan Stableford, ******************** Yahoo News March 25, 2013 8:53 AM ************************ Search NewsSearch Web Sign In Mail News Home U.S. World Politics Tech Science Health Odd News Opinion Local Dear Abby Comics ABC News Yahoo Originals Photos The Lookout New North Korea video shows defeat of U.S. troops ************************** Dylan Stableford, =============== Yahoo News $$$$$$$$$$$$$$$ By Dylan Stableford, ******************** Yahoo News March 25, 2013 8:53 AM ************************ The Lookout View gallery . Rocket fire seen in a North Korea propaganda video (YouTube) North Korea has submitted yet another entry to its ongoing propaganda film festival. This time, it has released a video that threatens an attack on U.S. forces using "powerful weapons of mass destruction" and depicts an invasion of Seoul in which 150,000 American citizens are taken hostage. Posted on North Korea's official Uriminzokkiri website and YouTube channel, the video comes less than a week after one showing the White House in its crosshairs and the explosion of the U.S. Capitol building. The film, titled "A Short, Three-Day War," opens with rockets firing into South Korea from the north followed by thousands of North Korean troops crossing the border. "The crack storm troops will occupy Seoul and other cities and take 150,000 U.S. citizens as hostages," a narrator says in a voice-over, according to a translation by the Telegraph. [Related: Rodman returns from N. Korea, says Kim wants Obama to 'call him'] Last month, North Korea produced a bizarre video of a dream sequence that imagined a U.S. city resembling New York under an apparent missile attack and the Empire State Building shown in flames. The soundtrack to that three-and-a-half-minute video was an instrumental version of "We Are the World," and the attack footage appeared to have been taken from the video game "Modern Warfare 3." It was eventually removed from YouTube. Watch North Korea's latest propaganda video: View Comments (24335) Share this Recommended for You 'Knockout Game' Suspect Charged With Hate Crime Other Attacks have been Reported in at Least Five States. ABC News SaveMore like thisRemove Facebook Account Sign Up. Join For Free Today! Connect with friends and the world around you on Facebook. Sign Up, Its free and always will be. AdChoicesFacebookSponsored Taylor Swift wins AMA artist of the year Taylor Swift's fans have done it again, voting her the American Music Awards artist of the year for a third time. Associated Press SaveMore like thisRemove Jealous Girlfriend Must Watch Her Step On The Dance Floor DEAR ABBY: I have been dating my boyfriend, "Jose," for a year. (Shipping and handling are included in the price.) Dear Abby SaveMore like thisRemove Manny Pacquiao's speed would 'overwhelm' Mayweather: Roach Manny Pacquiao would "overwhelm" unbeaten WBC welterweight champion Floyd Mayweather with his lightning speed if the fight that fans crave takes place in 2014, according to trainer Freddie Roach. After Pacquiao returned to winning ways by demolishing former world lightweight champion Brandon Rios AFP SaveMore like thisRemove Obama, at fundraiser, calls GOP an 'impediment' SEATTLE (AP) ? President Barack Obama sounded a nostalgic personal note Sunday night and offered a rare self-assessment while criticizing congressional Republicans as an "impediment" to governing during the start of a West Coast fundraising tour for the Democratic Party. Associated Press SaveMore like thisRemove Supreme Court to consider four Obamacare challenges this week In a private conference on Tuesday, the nine Justices of the U.S. Supreme Court will consider four potential challenges to the Affordable Care Act, or Obamacare. Experts believe at least one case will be accepted by the Court, to be argued and decided in its current term. National Constitution Center SaveMore like thisRemove 'Penniless' man is worth $65 million, court rules - and must give wife half By Estelle Shirbon LONDON (Reuters) - One of Britain's longest and most bitter divorce battles culminated on Friday with a High Court judge branding a well-connected millionaire a liar and his ex-wife a conspiracy theorist. Far from being "penniless and hopelessly bankrupt", as he had claimed, Reuters SaveMore like thisRemove North Valley families mourn loss of 3 men who died in DUI crash Loved ones are mourning the loss of three men who died early Saturday morning in a DUI crash on Highway 99 in Sacramento. KFSN ? Fresno SaveMore like thisRemove Man Breaks Woman's Jump From Oakland Stadium Deck Police: Woman who jumped from Oakland stadium deck saved by man who tried to catch her ABC News SaveMore like thisRemove Washington blows up: Has American politics hit an all-time low? The Senate had changed forever. In one fateful afternoon, Senate majority leader Harry Reid (D) of Nevada had changed an institution whose greatest strength lay in its constancy and tradition. He changed the Senate's rules. Will the "nuclear option" change Washington, or has Washington already Christian Science Monitor SaveMore like thisRemove 5 things to know after Vikings-Packers tie GREEN BAY, Wis. (AP) ? 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Japanese Foreign Minister Fumio Kishida said his country was considering making stronger protests "at a AFP SaveMore like thisRemove Suspect in triple killing arrested Johnathan Sanchez was arrested for the Wednesday shooting that killed three people and left two critically wounded KTRK ? Houston SaveMore like thisRemove Will icy comet survive close encounter with sun? CAPE CANAVERAL, Fla. (AP) ? For months, all eyes in the sky have pointed at the comet that's zooming toward a blisteringly close encounter with the sun. Associated Press SaveMore like thisRemove Freezing weather spreads as storm heads toward U.S. East Coast (Reuters) - Thanksgiving travel may be snarled by a wintry storm system heading for the East Coast, bringing snow, sleet and rain to a region already plunged in to sub-freezing temperatures, the National Weather Service said Sunday. Forecasters warned the winter storm now in the Southwest could Reuters SC http://news.yahoo.com/blogs/lookout/north-korea-video-propaganda-us-troops-rockets-125355219.html ̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡ korean and german re--unification intro by dr yong k park ##################################################### 2013 seoul pppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppp appendix ooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooo ch xviiiơA ppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppp ơơơơơơơơơơơơơơơơơơơơơơơơơơơơơơơơơơơơơơơơơơơơ SC http://news.yahoo.com/blogs/lookout/north-korea-video-propaganda-us-troops-rockets-125355219.html ̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡ The Lookout New North Korea video shows defeat of U.S. troops ************************** Dylan Stableford, =============== Yahoo News $$$$$$$$$$$$$$$ By Dylan Stableford, ******************** Yahoo News March 25, 2013 8:53 AM ************************ END ơơơơơơơơơơơơơơơơơơơơơơơơơơ SC http://news.yahoo.com/blogs/lookout/north-korea-video-propaganda-us-troops-rockets-125355219.html ̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡ KOR REơUNIFICATION II ̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡ %%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%% korean and german re--unification intro by dr yong k park ##################################################### 2013 seoul pppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppp ̡ ooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooo ch xviiiơB ppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppp ơơơơơơơơơơơơơơơơơơơơơơơơơơơơơơơơơơơơơơơơơơơơ SC http://news.yahoo.com/blogs/lookout/north-korea-dream-video-us-missile-attack-140005920.html;_ylt=AgBmatH5UgTFxHbFZUvrBGXNt.d_;_ylu=X3oDMTFkcWhpdTZuBG1pdANCbG9nIEJvZHkEcG9zAzUEc2VjA01lZGlhQmxvZ0JvZHlBc3NlbWJseQ--;_ylg=X3oDMTMzcWNoa3ZiBGludGwDdXMEbGFuZwNlbi11cwRwc3RhaWQDMDU3MDNmYzEtYjY0Zi0zZWM2LTkxOGMtZDM2ZDY4ZmQ1MDUyBHBzdGNhdANibG9nc3x0aGVsb29rb3V0BHB0A3N0b3J5cGFnZQ--;_ylv=3 ̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡ The Lookout North Korea dream video shows U.S. city under missile attack $$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$ Dylan Stableford, $$$$$$$$$$$$$$$ Yahoo News ************* By Dylan Stableford, Yahoo News ************ February 5, 2013 9:00 AM ***************************************** News Home U.S. World Politics Tech Science Health Odd News Opinion Local Dear Abby Comics ABC News Yahoo Originals Photos The Lookout North Korea dream video shows U.S. city under missile attack $$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$ Dylan Stableford, $$$$$$$$$$$$$$$ Yahoo News ************* By Dylan Stableford, Yahoo News ************ February 5, 2013 9:00 AM ***************************************** The Lookout View gallery . A still image taken from North Korea's video shows a U.S. city under attack. (YouTube) In what appears to be a provocative PR stunt, a bizarre video uploaded to YouTube by North Korea over the weekend shows a dream sequence that includes a U.S. city resembling New York under an apparent missile attack. The video, produced by North Korea's official website, Uriminzokkiri, begins with a young man imagining himself aboard a North Korean space shuttle that circles the earth, pausing to zoom in on a unified Korea. The soundtrack to the three-and-a-half-minute video is an instrumental version of "We Are the World," the 1985 single written by Michael Jackson and Lionel Richie, and recorded by a celebrity supergroup, with proceeds going to African aid. Near the end of the dream sequence, the imagined U.S. city?including what appears to be the Empire State Building?is shown in flames. (The attack footage appears to have been taken from the video game "Modern Warfare 3.") "Somewhere in the United States, black clouds of smoke are billowing," reads a caption, translated by The Guardian. "It seems that the nest of wickedness is ablaze." When reached by Yahoo News, U.S. National Security Council spokesman Tommy Vietor declined to comment. The video arrives just days after North Korea threatened to retaliate against the U.S. for what it called a double standard stemming from a recent rocket launch by South Korea, which the U.S. said had no military intent. In December, the U.S. claimed a North Korean rocket launch was a test of banned ballistic missile technology, and the United Nations Security Council announced sanctions. On Saturday, a North Korean Foreign Ministry spokesman did not elaborate on the threatened retaliation. But according to the Associated Press, Pyongyang recently threatened to conduct its third nuclear test in response to what it calls U.S. hostility. On Tuesday, South Korea U.N. Ambassador Kim Sook said a North Korean nuclear test was "imminent." Update, 9:00 a.m. ET, Feb. 6: The video appears to have been removed from Uriminzokkiri's YouTube channel. View Comments (16894) Share this Recommended for You 'Knockout Game' Suspect Charged With Hate Crime Other Attacks have been Reported in at Least Five States. ABC News SaveMore like thisRemove Facebook Account Sign Up. Join For Free Today! Connect with friends and the world around you on Facebook. Sign Up, Its free and always will be. AdChoicesFacebookSponsored Taylor Swift wins AMA artist of the year Taylor Swift's fans have done it again, voting her the American Music Awards artist of the year for a third time. Associated Press SaveMore like thisRemove Jealous Girlfriend Must Watch Her Step On The Dance Floor DEAR ABBY: I have been dating my boyfriend, "Jose," for a year. (Shipping and handling are included in the price.) Dear Abby SaveMore like thisRemove Manny Pacquiao's speed would 'overwhelm' Mayweather: Roach Manny Pacquiao would "overwhelm" unbeaten WBC welterweight champion Floyd Mayweather with his lightning speed if the fight that fans crave takes place in 2014, according to trainer Freddie Roach. After Pacquiao returned to winning ways by demolishing former world lightweight champion Brandon Rios AFP SaveMore like thisRemove Obama, at fundraiser, calls GOP an 'impediment' SEATTLE (AP) ? President Barack Obama sounded a nostalgic personal note Sunday night and offered a rare self-assessment while criticizing congressional Republicans as an "impediment" to governing during the start of a West Coast fundraising tour for the Democratic Party. Associated Press SaveMore like thisRemove Supreme Court to consider four Obamacare challenges this week In a private conference on Tuesday, the nine Justices of the U.S. Supreme Court will consider four potential challenges to the Affordable Care Act, or Obamacare. Experts believe at least one case will be accepted by the Court, to be argued and decided in its current term. National Constitution Center SaveMore like thisRemove Man Breaks Woman's Jump From Oakland Stadium Deck Police: Woman who jumped from Oakland stadium deck saved by man who tried to catch her ABC News SaveMore like thisRemove Washington blows up: Has American politics hit an all-time low? The Senate had changed forever. In one fateful afternoon, Senate majority leader Harry Reid (D) of Nevada had changed an institution whose greatest strength lay in its constancy and tradition. He changed the Senate's rules. Will the "nuclear option" change Washington, or has Washington already Christian Science Monitor SaveMore like thisRemove 5 things to know after Vikings-Packers tie GREEN BAY, Wis. (AP) ? Linebacker Clay Matthews didn't feel like celebrating after the Packers could only muster a tie with the Minnesota Vikings despite rallying from a late 16-point deficit. Associated Press SaveMore like thisRemove North Valley families mourn loss of 3 men who died in DUI crash Loved ones are mourning the loss of three men who died early Saturday morning in a DUI crash on Highway 99 in Sacramento. KFSN ? Fresno SaveMore like thisRemove Chinese anti-veil 'beauty' campaign sows ugly tensions Kashgar (China) (AFP) - A Chinese government worker in the ancient Silk Road oasis of Kashgar beckons two women to her streetside stand and logs their details under the gaze of a surveillance camera. The "Project Beauty" campaign aims to discourage women from covering their faces -- a religious AFP SaveMore like thisRemove JFK's daughter says his spirit lives on TOKYO (AP) ? The daughter of President John F. Kennedy said that his spirit lives on even though his life was cut short. Associated Press SaveMore like thisRemove Inmates learn tech sector from Silicon Valley pros (10 photos) The budding entrepreneurs wear blue sweat pants labeled "prisoner" and huge, flapping blue shirts. Their doors are triple locked, and lunch is a stale peanut butter and jelly sandwich. Complicating matters, participants in this growing Silicon Valley startup incubator are barred from the Internet. SaveMore like thisRemove Woman accused of mailing ricin to Obama gets plea deal (Reuters) - A Texas actress accused of mailing ricin-laced letters to President Barack Obama and New York Mayor Michael Bloomberg has reached a plea deal with federal prosecutors, according to federal court documents. Shannon Guess Richardson, 36, whose acting career included minor television Reuters SaveMore like thisRemove Calm solar cycle prompts questions about impact on Earth The surface of the sun has been surprisingly calm of late -- with fewer sunspots than anytime in in the last century -- prompting curious scientists to wonder just what it might mean here on Earth. But this cycle -- dubbed cycle 24 -- has surprised scientists with its sluggishness. "It is the AFP SaveMore like thisRemove Japan warns of 'unpredictable events' over China's new air zone Japan warned Sunday of the danger of "unpredictable events" and South Korea voiced regret following China's unilateral declaration of an air defence zone over areas claimed by Tokyo and Seoul. 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In a case reminiscent of Shakespeare's star-crossed lovers Romeo and Juliet, Huda al-Niran, 22, defied her family and crossed the border illegally to AFP SaveMore like thisRemove Freezing weather spreads as storm heads toward U.S. East Coast (Reuters) - Thanksgiving travel may be snarled by a wintry storm system heading for the East Coast, bringing snow, sleet and rain to a region already plunged in to sub-freezing temperatures, the National Weather Service said Sunday. Forecasters warned the winter storm now in the Southwest could Reuters SC http://news.yahoo.com/blogs/lookout/north-korea-dream-video-us-missile-attack-140005920.html;_ylt=AgBmatH5UgTFxHbFZUvrBGXNt.d_;_ylu=X3oDMTFkcWhpdTZuBG1pdANCbG9nIEJvZHkEcG9zAzUEc2VjA01lZGlhQmxvZ0JvZHlBc3NlbWJseQ--;_ylg=X3oDMTMzcWNoa3ZiBGludGwDdXMEbGFuZwNlbi11cwRwc3RhaWQDMDU3MDNmYzEtYjY0Zi0zZWM2LTkxOGMtZDM2ZDY4ZmQ1MDUyBHBzdGNhdANibG9nc3x0aGVsb29rb3V0BHB0A3N0b3J5cGFnZQ--;_ylv=3 ̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡ KOR REơUNIFICATION II ̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡ %%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%% korean and german re--unification intro by dr yong k park ##################################################### 2013 seoul pppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppp appendix ooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooo ch xviiiơB ppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppp ơơơơơơơơơơơơơơơơơơơơơơơơơơơơơơơơơơơơơơơơơơơơ SC http://news.yahoo.com/blogs/lookout/north-korea-dream-video-us-missile-attack-140005920.html;_ylt=AgBmatH5UgTFxHbFZUvrBGXNt.d_;_ylu=X3oDMTFkcWhpdTZuBG1pdANCbG9nIEJvZHkEcG9zAzUEc2VjA01lZGlhQmxvZ0JvZHlBc3NlbWJseQ--;_ylg=X3oDMTMzcWNoa3ZiBGludGwDdXMEbGFuZwNlbi11cwRwc3RhaWQDMDU3MDNmYzEtYjY0Zi0zZWM2LTkxOGMtZDM2ZDY4ZmQ1MDUyBHBzdGNhdANibG9nc3x0aGVsb29rb3V0BHB0A3N0b3J5cGFnZQ--;_ylv=3 ̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡ The Lookout North Korea dream video shows U.S. city under missile attack $$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$ Dylan Stableford, $$$$$$$$$$$$$$$ Yahoo News ************* By Dylan Stableford, Yahoo News ************ February 5, 2013 9:00 AM ***************************************** END ơơơơơơơơơơơơơơơơơơơơ SC http://news.yahoo.com/blogs/lookout/north-korea-dream-video-us-missile-attack-140005920.html;_ylt=AgBmatH5UgTFxHbFZUvrBGXNt.d_;_ylu=X3oDMTFkcWhpdTZuBG1pdANCbG9nIEJvZHkEcG9zAzUEc2VjA01lZGlhQmxvZ0JvZHlBc3NlbWJseQ--;_ylg=X3oDMTMzcWNoa3ZiBGludGwDdXMEbGFuZwNlbi11cwRwc3RhaWQDMDU3MDNmYzEtYjY0Zi0zZWM2LTkxOGMtZDM2ZDY4ZmQ1MDUyBHBzdGNhdANibG9nc3x0aGVsb29rb3V0BHB0A3N0b3J5cGFnZQ--;_ylv=3 ̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡ KOR REơUNIFICATION II ̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡ %%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%% korean and german re--unification intro by dr yong k park ##################################################### 2013 seoul pppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppp part iii ơơơơơơơơơơơơơơơơơơơơơơơơơơơơơơơơơơơ ############################################## ooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooo ̡ ppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppp ch xviii--ch xviiiơB__ch xviii--c--ch xviii--s ̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡ KOR REơUNIFICATION II ̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡ %%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%% korean and german re--unification intro by dr yong k park ##################################################### 2013 seoul pppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppp part iii ơơơơơơơơơơơơơơơơơơơơơơơơơơơơơơơơơơơ ############################################## ̡ ooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooo ch xviii--ch xviiiơB__ch xviii--c--ch xviii--s ppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppp - KOR REơUNIFICATION II ̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡ %%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%% korean and german re--unification intro by dr yong k park ##################################################### 2013 seoul pppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppp part iii ############################################## ̡ ooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooo ch xviii--ch xviiiơB__ch xviii--c--ch xviii--s ppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppp KOR REơUNIFICATION II ̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡ %%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%% korean and german re--unification intro by dr yong k park ##################################################### 2013 seoul pppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppp ooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooo ch xviii--c ppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppp SC http://search.naver.com/search.naver?sm=tab_hty.top&where=nexearch&ie=utf8&query=Ż+&x=24&y=23 ̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡ [缳] Ż ؾ Ѵ١ , װ ΰ Ϻ 16 0000000000000000000000000000 縸 뱸 Ż ߾ Ĺ Ű ִ. PPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPP īī ı ο Ż ġ ο ڵ Ų ó óؾ... PPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPP ó : ƽþ ü Խ ˻ ̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡ * ϴ 縸 Ż * Ż Ű 뱸 縸 ,, ++++++++++++++ ̼ ̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡ Ŀȸ ķ۽ Ѽ, ̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡ ȭ ϰ õ ħ ۱ ϴ â... 缱 Ѿ ѹα 2 5õ Żڵ ************************************************************************************************************************************ 'ο ', ... $$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$ ѿ ~~ 2007.10.20 Ǹŵ Ż ܼ ( Ұ 3) $$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$ ׷ ̰ ° ڵ ~~~~~~~~~~~ ϰ p޾ ȸ( û ) ưϴ,,,, $$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$ հ˻αiNī̹ҼȳƮũ α ̹meīȨαȨ NAVER ˻ ڵϼ ġ 󼼰˻ ý۱۲ ۲ü +Mobile հ˻ ǽð˻ α ī iN ̹ л Ȯ ֽż Ⱓ ü 1 1 1 1 Է ü ü ʱȭ ɼ ֺ Ű ˾ƺ! Ű ˻ Ʈ̽Ϲ庸 ˻ 򸻹ϱݿ ˻ 縸 ˻ Űϱ⿬˻ ݱ Ȯ ֽżл缱 [缳] Ż ؾ Ѵ١ , װ ΰ Ϻ 16 0000000000000000000000000000 縸 뱸 Ż ߾ Ĺ Ű ִ. PPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPP īī ı ο Ż ġ ο ڵ Ų ó óؾ... PPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPP ̹ ñ л ˻ 뱸 Ż ߾ 縸 Ϻ 4ð [Ű ȸ] 뱸 īī й濡 к 縸 ø Żڵ Ѿ Ѵ١ ۿ 翡 ߴٰ 28 . PPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPP 뱸 ̳ Ƿ п... ̹ ñ л ˻ 뱸, 'Ż ' 縸 մ 5ð 뱸 īī й濡 к 縸 ø 'Żڵ Ѿ Ѵ' ۿ 翡 ߴٰ 28 . PPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPP 뱸 ̳ Ƿ п '縸 ... ̹ ñ л ˻ 뱸 "Ż ߾ " 1 5ð (뱸=1) = к 縸 'Ż ' ߾ 뱸б 28 " ǥϸ, Żڵ鿡 ɷ ģ Ѵ" . ... ̹ ñ л ˻ "Ż Ѿ" 縸 뱸 SNS ϽŹ 9ð īī ȭ ۿ "Ǹ ıϴ ο Żڵ ġ ο ڵ Ų ó óؾ Ѵ" . ̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡ ̷ ͳ ˷ ġ Ϻο... ̹ ñ л ˻ ī 2013-11-28 10ð 'Ż ' 2013-11-27 ȭϺ ܱο Ͼ ѱ Ŀ䡱 2013-11-27 ȭϺ __ zeichen deleted yp __Ƿᰳ Ȯ__ zeichen deleted yp __ $$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$ ڰݾ л ġ 2013... cafe.naver.com/jinhaksmartpcband/1467 _Ʈ ī ˻ Ѹ ģ ƾ߰ٳ׿... 2 Żڸ ѾѴٴ 뱸 а 縸 .. 츮 ̳ ƾ? ȭ뾿ؼ ô... ̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡ 뱸 а 053-850-6116 ̸ ijô!!!!!! ̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡ cafe.naver.com/rightofkorea/56242 -ѹα ĵ ī ˻ Ǯϴб(Full Sail) ť͸ , 'Ż - κ... 2013.10.01 Ǯϴб(Full Sail) ť͸ , 'Ż - κ Ż' ij ... 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(... 11ð ڵ Ų ó, Ѿ ̴" óϾ ߾ '' ְ... 缱 Ѿ ѹα 2 5õ Żڵ ************************************************************************************************************************************ 'ο ', ... blog.naver.com/ericguim/50183975239 'ߵ츮' '¥ ôϱ'  !! α ˻ "Ż " 縸 ? 5ð "Ż " 縸 ? http://news.tv.chosun.com/site/data/html_dir/2013/11/28/2013112890027.html?r_ranking blog.naver.com/jpmorgan3/50183995731 KEYSTONE α α ˻ 뱸 а 縸 , 'Ż ' '... 19ð 뱸 а 縸 , 'Ż ' ' ' "'Ǹ ıϴµ ο' 'Żڵ Ѿ' а" Ż ġ ... blog.naver.com/srchcu/30180318659 ..ڹ̵ αע..^*^ α ˻ α iNiN ϱ ǥ Ż 2005.06.06 Ż ɸ ݾƿ ׷.,,... ?? ѿ ߱ Żϴٰ ɷ ų.. ߱ ޾ְ , ְ ְ ϴ ű. ߱ ϴ ... TV, > , > ̾Ƽα׷ 亯 1 õ 0 ȸ 779 ѿ Ͽ (Żڵ 亯ָ... 2013.07.25 4.Żڵ鵵 ð ִ ߼ε.. ֹ ߻ ִٴ 󸶳 ˰ֳ? 5.... ijְ Ű ü ƴ϶ ġ ٴ... ȤǼ ȵ˴ϴ. ̽¸ ... ȸ, ġ > > , 亯 1 õ 3 ȸ 1696 Ż ϼ ݴ ٶŴ亯 2012.03.31 Ż ϼ ݴ뿡ؼ ؾϴµ Żڵ ;Ѵٰϴ ̰ŵ... װ ٷ Ϳ. ʹ 1⿡ 2~3 ó ִ ̾. ׵ Ǯָ... ȸ, ġ > > , 亯 2 õ 11 ȸ 7051 iN ö ǿ, 'Ż ߾' 縸 ++++++++++++++++++++++++++++ 25 1024в 500 ٸ ġ ü ī(īī)濡 Ǹ ä 'Ż ' ߾ ߴ. ״ "Ǹ ıϴ ο... ó : ϰ Խ ˻ Ż ö ǿ Ż 縸 縸 뱸 () īī /=ý ƽþ ¹ = Ż ù ȸǿ ö ǿ 27 Ż Ѿ Ѵ١ ߾ ... ó : ƽþ ü Խ ˻ ̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡ * ϴ 縸 Ż * Ż Ű 뱸 縸 ,, ++++++++++++++ ̼ ̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡ Ŀȸ ķ۽ Ѽ, ̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡ ȭ ϰ õ ħ ۱ ϴ â... ó : и ġ Խ ˻ 뱸뱳 ī弭 "Ż Ѿ" ״ īī ȭ ۿ "Ǹ ıϴµ ο Żڵ ġ ο ڵ Ų ó óؾ Ѵ" ٿ. http://news.nate.com/view... ó : ̴ Խ Խ ˻ 뱸, 'Ż ' 縸 5ð 뱸 īī й濡 к 縸 ø 'Żڵ Ѿ Ѵ' ۿ 翡 ߴٰ 28 . ̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡ 뱸 ̳ Ƿ п ... ó : Խ ˻ м 뵿 ѻ - ֱ õ ... 2006 2õ " Ż 100 ó 98 , ׿ ϴ... ġܱ ѿ ѿ / (/α) øб 62 м߱ Ż αǺȣ ( Ү... 2006 οȽ 1 China Żڴ ... ̵ ó ʵ... ѱȸ / (KCI ) (/α) KDI School 63 (65) м2 Ż αħؽ¿ ȣ 2006 ִ Ż αħ ¿... 뵿ȭ, (ַ... ġܱ 谭 ѱȸ / (KCI ĺ ) ̵(/α) ڴб 84 (40) ƮŻ ϼ۰ Ʈ. 2012 ϼ۵ Żڵ ġ ȴ. .(߷) .... ó: ķ۽ ƮŻ ȣ , 2012 ȯǾ Żڵ鸸 ȭŰ... 翬ϰ ǰ ִ.... ó: ķ۽ ̺귯 (),Ż (),Ż Ǹ 1997.01.03 ϰ 1 ġ () ̶ мϰ̰ Ż Ż ְ ¡ 7 ߹ óϵ ó ȭߴٴ ̴. ̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡ ȴ籹 ... (),Ż (),Ż Ǹ 1997.01.03 Ź 1 ġ () Ż߱ ѱ ϴµ ̴ Ұ м,Żڸ Ұ ְ ¡ 7 ߹óϵ ȭѰ ˷.... (),Ż (),Ż 7Ǹ 1997.01.03 Ϻ 2 ġ () óħ ȸϴ ̾ ָǰ ִ. ̿ Բ ߱ ȴ籹 Żڸ ְ ¡ 7߹ óϵ ó ȭ ̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡ ... Ż Ż (Ż)ָȯ"å " 1999.10.15 Ϻ 29 ȸ () 踦 ä ȯǴ Żڵ 硰ż Ϻθ κ ϰų ҿ ȴ١ߴ. ο ... ̺귯 å б ȴ١ ڷ м ؾ Ѵ - 177 [/Ȱ/丮] , ۷μ 2008.06.23 Ͽ ִ ɷ  ̴.׷Ƿ Ź̳ 鼭 , Ż ȸ Ǵ ̴ ʿϸ, ȸ ǿ... ƽþ ȯȺ . ȯı Ȳ - 299 [ȸ] , 輺 1 2005.09.30 ڴ , м ִ. ̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡ 9 ȯ ߿伺 ȯ 42) μ,Ż Ȳм, ,... ̱ Ѱ 08. Żڿ ... - 306 [ȸ] ڼ ̴ٽϽ 2003.07.09 Żڵ鿡 ̱ ȸ öϰ ε ۵ư ǰ ִٴ ... ̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡ ϳ ϴ ū ˾ ֵ α ȴٴ ź ǻ... ̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡ å Űϱ 뱸 Ż 1 44 뱸 Ż ... ȭ ̹ 2013.11.27 [մ]Ż 1 40 [մ]Ż ... ȭ ̹ 2013.11.27 뱸 "Ż 1 20 뱸 "Ż ... ȭ TV 2013.11.28 뱸 "Ż 1 44 뱸 "Ż ... ȭ TV 2013.11.27 Ĺ Ű ιΰȭ(Żڿ ؼ Ǵ (ϼ,,) Ȥ ׿ ϴ 达 𵶽) ó ++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++ ƶ, ̶, ιΰȭ... Ĺ ˻ 縸 ˻ Űϱ⿬˻ ݱ ǽð ޻ ˻ ݱ 1 ٿ͹492 2 189 3 Ÿ108 4 긯348 5 Ź786 6 150 7 318 8 ī147 9 57 10 Ÿ ٽú 2013.11.28 20:38 ݱ , 'Ȳ Ӹ ܵó' ǡȸ '' ¡ Ѿ Һ 3 ñ ' 뼱' Ŀ ̵ Ҹ ˾Ƶ ӡ ", ͳݡſī塤ߵ" " ҽġ" 7 Ʈ , ī Ż Ϻ ? ְ ѱ, FIFA ŷ 54... 1 ̶ Ű ݱ 8 11 14 17 20 1 ܹ 2 Ÿ 3 ȸ ȸ NEW 4 ֿ ⿬ NEW 5 ƶ û 6 ٴ NEW 7 ȭ ε NEW 8 ع ȿ NEW 9 NEW 10 ͺ ä 屺 NEW 2013.11.28 20:00 α˻ ݱ 1 뱸 縸 21.2% 2 캰  14.6% 3 Ϻ 14.2% 4 ä 8.6% 5 8.6% 6 ׽ý 8.3% 7 LGӿλ 7.2% 8 ̾ 6.2% 9 ѱϺ 5.6% 10 Ȳ 5.5% 2013.11.28 20:00 ٸ׷ ˻ ڵϼ ġ å Ʈ/ ˻ ˻ ȳ ȳ հ˻ ϱ Խù Ű NAVER Corp. SC http://search.naver.com/search.naver?sm=tab_hty.top&where=nexearch&ie=utf8&query=Ż+&x=24&y=23 KOR REơUNIFICATION II ̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡ %%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%% korean and german re--unification intro by dr yong k park ##################################################### 2013 seoul pppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppp appendix ooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooo ch xviii--c ppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppp SC http://search.naver.com/search.naver?sm=tab_hty.top&where=nexearch&ie=utf8&query=Ż+&x=24&y=23 ̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡ [缳] Ż ؾ Ѵ١ , װ ΰ Ϻ 16 0000000000000000000000000000 縸 뱸 Ż ߾ Ĺ Ű ִ. PPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPP īī ı ο Ż ġ ο ڵ Ų ó óؾ... PPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPP ó : ƽþ ü Խ ˻ ̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡ * ϴ 縸 Ż * Ż Ű 뱸 縸 ,, ++++++++++++++ ̼ ̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡ Ŀȸ ķ۽ Ѽ, ̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡ ȭ ϰ õ ħ ۱ ϴ â... 缱 Ѿ ѹα 2 5õ Żڵ ************************************************************************************************************************************ 'ο ', ... $$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$ ѿ ~~ 2007.10.20 Ǹŵ Ż ܼ ( Ұ 3) $$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$ ׷ ̰ ° ڵ ~~~~~~~~~~~ ϰ p޾ ȸ( û ) ưϴ,,,, $$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$ end oooooooooooooooooo SC http://search.naver.com/search.naver?sm=tab_hty.top&where=nexearch&ie=utf8&query=Ż+&x=24&y=23 ̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡ KOR REơUNIFICATION II ̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡ %%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%% korean and german re--unification intro by dr yong k park ##################################################### 2013 seoul pppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppp appendix ooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooo ch xviii--d ppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppp SC http://search.naver.com/search.naver?where=nexearch&query=縸&ie=utf8&sm=tab_she&qdt=0 PPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPP Ż ü, 縸 ó α KBS TV 4ð $$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$ Ż ü 'Żڵ Ѿ Ѵ' īī й濡 ø 縸... ̵ 縸 α ö ؾ Ѵ pppppppppppppppppp , Ʋ ɰ ... $$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$ α 뱸 縸 ' ο... 11ð * 縸 īī忡 "'Ǹ ı ο Żε' ======================================================================================== ġ ο ڵ Ų ó, Ѿ ̴" óϾ ߾ ''... ))))))))))))))))))))))))) blog.naver.com/kjg7371/90185501160 kjg7371 α α ˻ , ġ Ż ϱ ^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^ 縸... 13ð 縸, °, 'Ż ' '' ^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^ 'Ǹ ıϴµ ο' ^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^ 'Żڵ Ѿ' а ^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^ Ż ö ǿ Ż 縸 ̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡ cafe.naver.com/rightofkorea/56319 -ѹα ̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡ ī 뱸 縸 10ð 뱸 縸 Ÿ?뱸 ̷ ֽϱ? ... 66 MEINST DU66 YP 66 ̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡ ̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡ հ˻αiNī̹ҼȳƮũ α ̹meīȨαȨ NAVER ˻ ڵϼ ġ 󼼰˻ ý۱۲ ۲ü +Mobile հ˻ ǽð˻ ī α iN ̹ Ȯ ֽż Ⱓ ü 1 1 1 1 Է ü ü ʱȭ ɼ , ȥ Ư ޽! ˻ ˻ Ʈ̽Ϲ庸 ˻ 򸻹ϱݿ ˻ 縸 뱸뱳縸 뱸 縸 뱸 Ż 縸 뱸 縸뱸뱳 뱸 縸 뱸 뱸б 縸 뱸 ************************************** 縸 Ż Ż **************************************************************************************************************************************************** 뱸 а ö 뱸б 縸 뱸 ° ⿬˻ Űϱ⿬˻ ݱ ι 縸 ̹ ************** 縸 , ü ============== 1956 (󳲵 س) Ҽ ̳ٽ (ǥ̻) 2011 48ȸ dz ž 2012.03~ ̳ٽ ǥ̻ 2012 ȸ ڹ ӱȸ ̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡ ڹ Ͼƽþƴȸ Ư ̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡ û 縸 ̹ غ 縸 ============== 1941 12 8 Ҽ Ȯ ֽżл缱 뱸 Ż ߾ 縸 Ϻ 4ð ================= [Ű ȸ] 뱸 īī й濡 к 縸 ... 縸 Ż ߾ 塯̶ ۿ... 뱸 縸 Ż ߾ ... ̹ ñ л ˻ 뱸 "縸 ߾ ġ" Ϻ 4ð 뱸 Ҽ 縸 'Ż ' īī ߾ " Բ Ż... 縸 25 1024в 500 ٸ ġ ü ī(īī)濡... ̹ ñ л ˻ 뱸, 'Ż ' 縸 մ 5ð 뱸 īī й濡 к 縸 ø... 뱸 ̳ Ƿ п '縸 ... 뱸 "縸 Ż ߾ ... ̹ ñ л ˻ 뱸, 縸 'Ż ߾' ġ ý 4ð = 縸 'Ż ' īī ߾ ش 뱸( )... 뱸 縸 Ż ߾ Ұ ͳ 󿡼 ... ̹ ñ л ˻ Ż ü, 縸 ó α KBS TV 4ð $$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$ Ż ü 'Żڵ Ѿ Ѵ' īī й濡 ø 縸... ̵ 縸 α ö ؾ Ѵٸ, Ʋ ɰ ... $$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$ ̹ ñ л ˻ α 뱸 縸 ' ο... 11ð * 縸 īī忡 "'Ǹ ı ο Żε' ======================================================================================== ġ ο ڵ Ų ó, Ѿ ̴" óϾ ߾ ''... ))))))))))))))))))))))))) blog.naver.com/ericguim/50183975239 'ߵ츮' '¥ ôϱ'  !! α ˻ "Ż " 縸 ? 5ð "Ż " 縸 ? http://news.tv.chosun.com/site/data/html_dir/2013/11/28/2013112890027.html?r_ranking blog.naver.com/jpmorgan3/50183995731 KEYSTONE α α ˻ 뱸 а 縸 , 'Ż ' '... 19ð 뱸 а 縸 , 'Ż ' ' ' ================================================ "'Ǹ ıϴµ... Ʒ 縸 ư ø . : ư / Ż ġ ... blog.naver.com/srchcu/30180318659 ..ڹ̵ αע..^*^ α ˻ 縸 뱸 а ΰ ? 10ð 뱸 縸̶ Ű 뱳 𸣰 ? $$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$ ſ 뱸 ־ ׷ ׶ 뱸 ׸ б ƴ... blog.naver.com/kjg7371/90185501160 kjg7371 α α ˻ , ġ Ż ϱ ^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^ 縸... 13ð 縸, °, 'Ż ' '' ^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^ 'Ǹ ıϴµ ο' ^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^ 'Żڵ Ѿ' а ^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^ ǼҸ Է 2013/11/27 [20:54 縸 뱸 ... blog.daum.net/dreamaway/7250279 , Ѱ˼ α ˻ α ̹ ̹ Űϱ 뱸 縸 " 뱸 縸... ī Żϴü ȸ, Żϴü ȸ... 䴺 뱸 縸 뱸 縸... 䴺 縸 ߾ 縸 ... 䴺 縸 Ӱ 縸 ... 䴺 ̹ 縸 츮 ġ п̴. 3ð 縸 հ 迵 ѱȸ 1999 5 2ȣ ǥ ° . 縸 2000 뱸 1ȣ ڱ ǥϿµ, 侾ϳ ٸ ʰ 100... ó : Ѱܷ ġ й Խ ˻ Ż ö ǿ Ż 縸 ̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡ 縸 뱸 () īī /=ý ƽþ ¹ = Ż ù ȸǿ ö ǿ 27 Ż Ѿ Ѵ١ ߾ ... ó : ƽþ ü Խ ˻ Żڸ Ѿ Ѵٴ 縸 ! 뱸б а 縸 Żڵ óؾ Ѵ١ Ĺ ϰ ִ. 25 1024 500 پ ġ ü ī(īī)濡 Ǹ ... ó : и ġ Խ ˻ 뱸б а 縸 Ʈ 뱸б а 縸 ణ ߾ ϼ̳׿"" ʴϱ.? ̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡ ó : Ŀ´Ƽ : DZ, Ÿ ... Ŀ´Ƽ : DZ, Ÿ 巳 ... Խ ˻ ö ǿ, 'Ż ߾' 縸 =ýȫ = ߾ 27 'Ż ' ߾ 뱸 縸 Ѽ Ƿ Ǽ ߴ. ̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡ ö ǿ ̳ ٰŵ ... ó : ϰ Խ ˻ ī 뱸 縸 10ð 뱸 縸 Ÿ?뱸 ̷ ֽϱ? ... 66 MEINST DU66 YP 66 ̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡ ̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡ Ե ǰ ñմϴ. cafe.naver.com/rightofkorea/56319 -ѹα ̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡ ī ˻ Ѻ 縸 2012.09.24 Ѻп ٴϸ ֵ ˹ , 縸̴. 縸 ܿ غ Ѵ. ״ ϴ. ڵ . ڵ հ̴. ... cafe.naver.com/deaguedongilsixfour/1392 뱸ʵб 6г 4 ... ī ˻ 1.ȳϼ IT ̺ 縸Դϴ. 2012.12.10 ̺ 縸 Դϴ. IT+ ڸ ϴ.ڳµ 1ð... Բ ü ǰ Ͻô ּ.. α׷ ̺ 縸 ȭּ 010.2629.4471 cafe.naver.com/eleck/46666 ī ˻ ī Űϱ [ƿ ݼ] 5 30 [ƿ ݼ] 縸... ȭ TV 2013.11.28 ö ǿ, Ż 42 ö ǿ, 'Ż ó... ȭ ̹ 2013.11.27 [ź]縸 1 57 [ź]縸 ... SBS NeTV 2013.03.06 縸 ä 1 58 縸 ä  ... youtube 2013.03.07 м ̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡ ⺻Ǻ μ 2010 οȽ 2 ̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡ ⺻Ǻ μ / 縸 1 ʷϡ 1 I.... ̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡ 縸 ѱȸ / п (KCI ) (/α) б 61 (28) м ġԹ Թǿ ( ʫ... 2013 ̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡ ġü, ġԹ, , 漺Ģ, ĢѰ輺, ĢѰ輺 ̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡ 縸 ѱ񱳰ȸ / п (KCI ) 󸲼˿˻纻 89 м ̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡ ߱ , ȷο, ŷ... 2006 οȽ 2 ̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡ /縸;̰ 1 ʷ 1 I. 1 II. 3 1. 3 2. 絵 4... ̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡ ü 縸 1 ѱɸȸ / ѱɸȸ (KCI ) ѱм(/α) б 92 () ̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡ ÿ Ǹ Ư 2012 Ǹ 縸 ϴб м ̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡ ⺻μ ( μ... 2006 ̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡ ⺻μ /縸 1 Zusammenfassung 1 I. 2 II.... 縸 ѱȸ / (KCI ) (/α) ϴб 61 (27) å 縸, â ̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡ 뱸бǺ 2006.03.10 9.0 Ƽ𸮺[1] 10,000 8,860(-11%) Ұ . å ܰ, 9 , , ð Ŀ мϿ Ѵ. ߽ ̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡ ߽ 幫, , 絿õ 2 2006.08.31 0.0 Ƽ𸮺[0] 25,000 23,750(-5%) Ұ ٱϿ ϰ ֵ Ͽ, ȸȰ о߿ ε Ǵ п ġ ߽ Ͽ ϰ ǿ ٷ ֵ ߴ. ü ////////////////////////////// ü ӽ, , 縸 2 뱸бǺ 2009.02.27 0.0 Ƽ𸮺[0] 15,000 13,950(-7%) Ұ [Ӹ] ü 缺 ˰ ö ƴ %%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%% ü Ģ̳ ٺħ Ǵ ٰ  ؼ Ȯ ü ùٸ ִ ü , ΰ ü ùٸ õ ü ְ ùٸ... å iNiN ϱ ޴޹ õּ 2013.08.10 縸 縸 õּ̤(̵ ƿ䤾) ....п ε µ ³׵ δ ̼ Խû ̰ŵ ¿ ޴ մϴ Դٰ ƴϿ ʰ.... θƮ, > > Ҽ 亯 1 õ 0 ȸ 219 õ Ź帳ϴ! 2007.03.18 õ Ź~ ŸĿ(:) ȳ 縸 Ҽ̸... _..縸 °Ŵ ٵ.. 簡 ... ..) Ƹ ϱδ ǥõ ͵ 縸̾ ɷ DZ.. (........... > > 亯 2 õ 5 ȸ 4072 õ޾ƿ 2008.02.22 ´ 縸 ߽̾ ڰ... ´ 縸 ߽̾ ڰ ٸ... ´ 縸 ߽̾ ڰ ٸ... ´ 縸 ߽̾ ڰ ٸ... > > 亯 5 õ 2 ȸ 13754 iN ˻ 縸 뱸뱳縸 뱸 縸 뱸 Ż 縸 뱸 縸뱸뱳 뱸 縸 뱸 뱸б 縸 뱸 縸 Ż Ż ̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡ 뱸 а ö 뱸б 縸 뱸 ° ⿬˻ Űϱ⿬˻ ݱ ǽð ޻ ˻ ݱ 1 ٿ͹492 2 Ÿ108 3 189 4 긯348 5 318 6 Ź786 7 ī147 8 150 9 Ÿ ٽú0 10 57 2013.11.28 20:42 ݱ , 'Ȳ Ӹ ܵó' ǡȸ '' ¡ Ѿ Һ 3 ñ ' 뼱' Ŀ ̵ Ҹ ˾Ƶ ӡ MMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMM ", ͳݡſī塤ߵ" " ҽġ" 7 Ʈ , ī Ż Ϻ ? ְ ѱ, FIFA ŷ 54... 1 ̶ Ű ݱ 8 11 14 17 20 1 ܹ 2 Ÿ 3 ȸ ȸ NEW 4 ֿ ⿬ NEW 5 ƶ û 6 ٴ NEW 7 ȭ ε NEW 8 ع ȿ NEW 9 NEW 10 ͺ ä 屺 NEW 2013.11.28 20:00 α˻ ݱ 1 뱸 縸 21.2% 2 캰  14.6% 3 Ϻ 14.2% 4 ä 8.6% 5 8.6% 6 ׽ý 8.3% 7 LGӿλ 7.2% 8 ̾ 6.2% 9 ѱϺ 5.6% 10 Ȳ 5.5% 2013.11.28 20:00 ٸ׷ ˻ ڵϼ ġ å Ʈ/ ˻ ˻ ȳ ȳ հ˻ ϱ Խù Ű NAVER Corp. SC http://search.naver.com/search.naver?where=nexearch&query=縸&ie=utf8&sm=tab_she&qdt=0 PPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPP KOR REơUNIFICATION II ̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡ %%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%% korean and german re--unification intro by dr yong k park ##################################################### 2013 seoul pppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppp ̡ ooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooo ch xviii--d ppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppp SC http://search.naver.com/search.naver?where=nexearch&query=縸&ie=utf8&sm=tab_she&qdt=0 PPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPP Ż ü, 縸 ó α KBS TV 4ð $$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$ Ż ü 'Żڵ Ѿ Ѵ' īī й濡 ø 縸... ̵ 縸 α ö ؾ Ѵ pppppppppppppppppp , Ʋ ɰ ... $$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$ α 뱸 縸 ' ο... 11ð * 縸 īī忡 "'Ǹ ı ο Żε' ======================================================================================== ġ ο ڵ Ų ó, Ѿ ̴" óϾ ߾ ''... ))))))))))))))))))))))))) blog.naver.com/kjg7371/90185501160 kjg7371 α α ˻ , ġ Ż ϱ ^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^ 縸... 13ð 縸, °, 'Ż ' '' ^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^ 'Ǹ ıϴµ ο' ^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^ 'Żڵ Ѿ' а ^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^ Ż ö ǿ Ż 縸 ̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡ cafe.naver.com/rightofkorea/56319 -ѹα ̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡ ī 뱸 縸 10ð 뱸 縸 Ÿ?뱸 ̷ ֽϱ? ... 66 MEINST DU66 YP 66 ̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡ ̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡ end llllllllllllllllll SC http://search.naver.com/search.naver?where=nexearch&query=縸&ie=utf8&sm=tab_she&qdt=0 PPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPP KOR REơUNIFICATION II ̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡ %%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%% korean and german re--unification intro by dr yong k park ##################################################### 2013 seoul pppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppp ̡ ooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooo ch xviii--e ppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppp 뱸 縸 ' ο Ż ' PPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPP * 縸 īī忡 "'Ǹ ı ο Żε' ̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡ ġ ο ڵ Ų ó, Ѿ ̴" óϾ ߾ '' ְ ִ !! ̷ 'ѽ ' 66 MEINST DU66 YP 66 ̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡ '' 'ź' Լ Ͼ ʰڴ° ? !! 888888888888888888888888888888888888888888888888888888888888888888888 α α ̿α α ٷΰ 'ߵ츮' '¥ ôϱ'  !! ѷα α new ۽ ޸ ± Ⱥ α ѱ Ͽ (144) Ͽ 뱸 縸 ' ο Ż ' PPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPP ź !! ( ؾ !!) ѱ 2013/11/28 08:51 http://blog.naver.com/ericguim/50183975239 * 縸 īī忡 "'Ǹ ı ο Żε' ̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡ ġ ο ڵ Ų ó, Ѿ ̴" óϾ ߾ '' ְ ִ !! ̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡ 'ģϹ' ǥ̶簡, ̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡ 'ſ ο ڵ' %%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%% , ó '뼼̼ų ߾' Ǹ ִ ' ' 'ﰢ ĸ' Ҿ ' å' ϴ !! 缱 Ѿ ѹα 2 5õ Żڵ鿡 'ο ',  ߷ ó Ѵ ΰ ? !! , ׷ ' ۿ 'μ ' ' ̻ '' ϸ, 'ѹα' ִ ΰ ? !! ̷ 'ѽ ' 66 MEINST DU66 YP 66 ̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡ '' 'ź' Լ Ͼ ʰڴ° ? !! More Light !! ---- μ ϸũ 28 NEW 6 ϱ ' ѱ ' īװ ٸ ü Ʈ 'Ҹ ݰ' '  ؼ' ɻġ .. 2013.11.28 뱸 縸 ' ο Ż .. (28) 2013.11.28 Ī '' ' Ῡ ' 'Ѽ .. 2013.11.27 纴 ϴ , Ŀ ' ä 屺.. 2013.11.27 Ѽ 'ȸ ' Ѿ 'ΰݱ .. 2013.11.26 ׺̼ α׿ ' γ' β 𸣴 ' ఢ' !! (2) 2013.09.23 15ܺ ΰ ' ƹ ҷ' ' ' Ϲ.. (1) 2013.10.24 ֱ ҹ ٽ 縦 ް ִ õ 'źο? .. (2) 2013.06.19 谭 Ѱ ' â ' ϴ ϸ !! (7) 2012.09.13 'ΰ ', ' ' ϶ !! (2) 2013.09.09 ׺̼ top ̹ ҷ (ericguim) '?' 'ȸ' ̿߰ īװ ü (448) ѱ NEW 'ִ ŷ±' ٱ NEW ѷ û () ȭ ΰɵ ѷ ۿ ѷŸ ٱ ڿ (dz) ȸȳ Խ ȭб Ʈ ± ֱ | α ±װ ϴ. κ 0 ؿ ũԺ Ʈ ˻˻ ȿ Ʈ 0 ȿ Ʈ ϴ. ü 2013.11 Ͽȭ 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 ֱٵ ٳణ ΰ ̿ ΰ Ȱ α ̿ 9 0 ȸ Ʈ ũ 10 ȸ 2,268 88,262 SC http://blog.naver.com/ericguim?Redirect=Log&logNo=50183975239 ̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡ KOR REơUNIFICATION II ̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡ %%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%% korean and german re--unification intro by dr yong k park ##################################################### 2013 seoul pppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppp ̡ ooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooo ch xviii--f ppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppp 25 __xi mmxiii__īī ȭ濡 'ģ ܿ پ Ǹ ʶ߸ Żڵ óؾ ̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡ ϰ, ġ ο ڵ Ų ó óؾ Ѵ' ÷ Ǹ . leeki@yna.co.kr ^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^ NAVER̹˻ ̹ [] 縸 뱸 [] 縸 뱸 ϽŹhttp://news.naver.com/main/read.nhn?mode=LSD&mid=sec&sid1... ̹ ̹ 1 1° ̹ ũԺ 2011.10.06200X27540KBJPG [] 縸 뱸 ̹ Űϱ 縸 ˻1-9 / 20 [] 縸 뱸 ̹ ̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡ 뱸 縸 ̹縸 뱸 ̹縸 ߾ ̹Ż š ö ̹縸 뱸 ̹뱸 縸 " ̹Żϴü ȸ, ̹縸 ߾ ̹ 1-9 ̹ Ǹ ̹ Ʒ ǥõ ó Ʈ Խڿ , å ֽϴ. http://imagesearch.naver.com/search.naver?sm=ext&viewloc=0&where=idetail&rev=17&query=縸ion=image&sort=0&res_fr=0&res_to=0&start=1&img_id=news0880000211803_1&ie=utf8&aq=0&spq=3&nx_search_query=縸&nx_and_query=&nx_sub_query=&nx_search_hlquery=&nx_search_fasquery= ̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡ αγ̹me īα״ ˻ ĵ ǽŹ +mobile 11.28()66 MMXIII 66 -4C õ-3C -2C -2C û-2C -1C õ-3C ҳ -1C ҳ0C λ2C 帲뱸0C 6C 1C ҳ ︪1C -4C ֿ䴺 'ö Ŵ' ֡ շϳ ̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡ '1 ' 48⸸ ɼ ̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡ [ŸijƮ] " , ñ?"ڽ, 麰 ԡ ̵ Ҹ ˾Ƶ ӡ [ܵ]'ҹ' աص, 500 ..缼 300 漱 ù Ǵ ı޷? , ī Ż Ϻ ? ְ ' Ⱦ ' ȯ() " Ʈ ڴ Z " 3 ñ ' 뼱' Ŀ [] 3 簡 ʾ 'ܿ ̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡ 'й' , 6⸸ 翡 () ̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡ "޴ȭ ¼ ڳడ " [2013 ] Ǫƾ ̺ 塯 ȭ dz Ҵ ߰ ٶ ġ 硯 뱸 ü ö 16% " θԲ 뵷 ޾ƿ" []뼼 ,' ' ܾ õ̴ [], ̼ҵ Ƹ! [], 'ŷ ' Ǵ Ҵ 'Ÿ' ؾ ࿡ "ȸ " ȭ (ա ڵ Ǽ ȭ DZⶩ ⶩ ࡱ κ, ȼ ã , ' Ʈ' 㰡 ¡ Ѿ Һ [ܵ]濵 ġ ĵ ƴϴ١ ɸ ûҳ뵿ڵ ǿ ϶ 'ö Ŵ' ֡ շϳ ̽ û л TV ǥ ̺귯 Į Ȩ Ӻ ġ ȸ Ȱ/ȭ IT/ TV ŷ ˻ Ӻ ġ ȸ Ȱ/ȭ IT/ Į մ Ӻ IN ̴ ڻ ũμ 뱸, 'Ż ' 縸 մ| Է 2013-11-28 14:51 (=մ) ̰ = 뱸 īī й濡 к 縸 ø 'Żڵ Ѿ Ѵ' ۿ 翡 ߴٰ 28 . 뱸 ̳ Ƿ п '縸 Ż ߾ '̶ ۿ ̰ , "簡 Ǹ ʿ ġ "̶ ٿ. 뱸 "縸 Ż ߾ ǥϰ, Żڵ鿡 ɷ ģ Ϳ ؼ Ѵ" . 25 īī ȭ濡 'ģ ܿ پ Ǹ ʶ߸ Żڵ óؾ ̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡ ϰ, ġ ο ڵ Ų ó óؾ Ѵ' ÷ Ǹ . leeki@yna.co.kr uuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuu մ ͷƼ괺 ȭ <۱(c)մ -> մ ôл ̵մϴ. , Ȳ ؾ ܵó õ ݹ uuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuu , 1 ü弭 1⸸ "â ź, ߾ ؾ" :::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::: <ڸ߱> "Ʈ ߽ż" , Ŵ â ġȭ ȭ() uuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuu Ʈ̽Ϲϸũ մ μ⽺ũ ȸ Ӻ | ü λ 꺹θ׻ ' ѱŹȭ ι ̷ åȸ 뱸, 'Ż ' 縸 " 븮ǥ 漱 " Ȯ ε 5 æ 50 ֿ䴺 ¡ Ѿ Һ !!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!! , ' Ʈ' 㰡 ڵ Ǽ ؾ ࿡ "ȸ "ࡦ Ǵ Ҵ¡ ѱ, FIFA ŷ 54... 1 ̡ 16% " θԲ 뵷 ޾ơ ' Ʈ 121' 塦 ġȸ Ȱ/ȭ 1 ̵ Ҹ ˾Ƶ ӡ 2 "޴ȭ ¼ ڳడ " 3 ܼϰ ϰ ξ ƿ 츲 4 Ǵ Ҵ 'Ÿ' 5 硯 뱸 ü ö 6 " Ǽ ٲٸ 4%" 7 ֿ , ־ 8 ܾ õ̴ ' ' - ̴ ڻ [278ȸ] Ʈ ¥ ձ [278ȸ] Ʈ ¥ ձ new ' ' - ̴ ڻ Ÿ ¦ ѹα ȭ 'ŷ '䰶 ѹα ȭ 'ŷ ' , ' !'䰶 , ' !' '' , ȭ ҳ 䰶 '' , ȭ ҳ , !䰶 , ! , ̼ҵ Ƹ!䰶 , ̼ҵ Ƹ! ŵ ߻ з " ߺ..Ű콺 "䰶 ŵ ߻ з " ߺ..Ű콺 " - ' ?'䰶 - ' ?' Ź ƺ [ư] Ǭ [ư] Ǭ 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 IN IN ְ û IN Ƽ ͱۿͱ å ånew "ùԾ" 'Ϻ' ȸ ù 'ζ' ۿ 塦̼ uuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuu · ñ " ȸƯ" оߺ ֿ䴺 û /Ȱ 10° Һ, K Ģ? ѱ FIFA ŷ 54, 1 ̶ λ, 赿  dz? Ȳȫ " ֽ ȸ ĥ" -ȣ ߽ż ÿƼ Ʈ11 ȣδ? λ, ؼ 󼱼 ̽ 21P13R , 뿡 ¸ ÿ- 434 ¾ -̸, и µ 迬 ٽ 4 ' ' θ ƽ ⸷ ۷ : ̻ '絿 Ÿ' ̴뼺, Ÿ ӿ ġ оߺ ֿ䴺 Ű嵵 2013.11.28 20:00 1 ܹ 2 Ÿ 3 ȸ ȸ new 4 ֿ ⿬ new 5 ƶ û 6 ٴ new 7 ȭ ε new 8 ع ȿ new 9 new 10 ͺ ä 屺 new ̶Ʈ īƮٿ īƮٿ 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 ư | | | ̿ Ģ Ģ(å: ̵) ޹ħ å Ѱ ϱ ۱ ó Ǵ ̹ ̸ ̿ϴ ۱ǹ  å ֽϴ. $$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$ Copyright մ All Rights Reserved. Copyright NAVER Corp. All Rights Reserved. SC http://news.naver.com/main/read.nhn?mode=LSD&mid=sec&sid1=102&oid=001&aid=0006621852 KOR REơUNIFICATION II ̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡ %%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%% korean and german re--unification intro by dr yong k park ##################################################### 2013 seoul pppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppp ̡ ooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooo ch xviii--g ppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppp Ż ü, 縸 ó α ******************************* Ż ü ü Żֹå Ҽ ü ѻȸǼҿ ȸ߿ ^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^ Żڵ ְ ϴ α ߴ ˶ ̰ ߽ϴ. $$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$ ̵ 縸 α ö ؾ Ѵٸ, Ʋ ɰ ó uuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuu ϵ 뱹 ȣҿ Բ αǴü ̲ ̶ ߽ϴ. mmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmm KBSǥα NEWS 2013-11-28 updated 20:30 ٽú üġȸITйȭ û ť ͳ û ˻˻ [ֽŴ]Ⱦ翪 α ö ǹ ȭ [ֽŴ], 밡 ǰ [ֽŴ]߱, ѱ ֺ [ֽŴ]Ϻ 뺸 ߱ $$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$ [ֽŴ] 㰡 翬ʱ 롱 [ֽŴ]Ʈ 14, ¡ 11 [ֽŴ] Ϻ ĺ öȸؾ [ֽŴ]SBS 忡 ̿ [ֽŴ]̶, [ֽŴ]泲 õ ߺȮ  [ֽŴ]泲 õ ݷ ߻ [ֽŴ], ȸĻȸ [ֽŴ], ۡ 2 ^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^ [ֽŴ], ڳ ģǻ û ɡ ι ^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^ [ֽŴ] ѿ ¾ [ֽŴ] ħ , ؾ [ֽŴ]û α׷ û [ֽŴ] Ϻ ȸ ǻ ߴܡ [ֽŴ]б տ 29 2 κľ [ֽŴ]Ѻ 4ȣ 6 ߰ [ֽŴ]1 ǡ 48⸸ ɼ $$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$ [ֽŴ]Ⱦ翪 α ö ǹ ȭ [ֽŴ], 밡 ǰ up down > ġ > ܽŴ Mail Print ũ Ż ü, 縸 ó α ******************************* Է2013.11.28 (15:50) ܽŴ Ƚ|6|0۾ ũ ۰ ñ HOTŬ! ź ּ䡱 ȳ Play 01:39 ź ּ䡱 ȳ PSV ҡ Z 굧ũ, ޴ȭ ¼ ڳడ ء ȫ ù衯 ù , Ϻȸ ä ħ , ¥ ڡ ? Ż ü 'Żڵ Ѿ Ѵ' īī й濡 ø 縸 뱸 ϰ ó $$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$ αȸ Ѵٰ ϴ. Ż ü ü Żֹå Ҽ ü ѻȸǼҿ ȸ߿ ^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^ Żڵ ְ ϴ α ߴ ˶ ̰ ߽ϴ. $$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$ ̵ 縸 α ö ؾ Ѵٸ, Ʋ ɰ ó uuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuu ϵ 뱹 ȣҿ Բ αǴü ̲ ̶ ߽ϴ. ̸ ٸ twitter 0 facebook 0 me2day 0 6 TOP ҼȷαKBS α â ϴTwitter α â ϴFacebook α â ϴMe2day α â ϴGooglePlus α â ϴ α ̹ ҼȰ ____________________________ ۼϼ ƼĿ ϱ ưƼĿ ϱ ư 0/250 Powered by LiveRe ȭ , ʾƿ䡦 ? , ʾƿ䡦 ? ʰܿ Ǹ ָ ô ҸӴ ... cccccccccccccccccccccccc 5-0 5-0 èǾ𽺸׿ ... IJϰ ì ϴ١ IJϰ ì ϴ١ ؾȡ ȸ źΡ (((((((((((((((((((((((( ü ȸ 715 ź ּ䡱 ȳ 110 ⡯ ɡ ״ ѱ, FIFA 54ƽþ 3 ޽! ױ۷ ÿ÷ eeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeee û '' 1.4 õ-3.4 -1.3 û-1.7 -0.3 6.2 -3.9 λ2.1 뱸0.1 -1.2 -2.1 KBS24 00:30 | ͳݴ 01:00 | ͳݴ 02:00 | ͳݴ 02:30 | ͺ '.. 03:00 | ͳݴ 04:00 | (((((((((((((((((((( ͳݴ 05:00 | KBS 05:10 | ѱ.. 06:00 | KBS 07:50 | 崺 08:00 | KBS ħ Ÿ 09:00 | ͳݴ-1 09:30 | KBS 10:00 | ٸ  10:10 | ͳݴ-2 10:40 | 崺 10:50 | aaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaa 11:10 | ٸ  11:20 | λ̵ 11:30 | ͳݴ-3 12:00 | KBS 12 13:00 | ü ǰ 13:40 | ٸ  13:50 | 崺 14:00 | ̱ οī .. 14:30 | ͳݴ-4 15:00 | ______________________ ũ 16:00 | )))))))))))))))))))))))))))) ͳݴ-5 16:30 | ø 16:40 | â 16:50 | ٸ  17:00 | KBS 5 17:20 | â 17:30 | ͳݴ-6 18:00 | κ 18:50 | 崺 19:00 | KBS 7 19:30 | KBS World N.. 19:50 | ٸ  20:00 | ͳݴ 20:30 | KBS ۷ι24(.. 21:00 | KBS 9 22:00 | KBS ij 22:50 | 23:30 | ))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))) KBS 00:30 | ͳݴ 01:00 | ͳݴ 02:00 | ͳݴ 02:30 | ̱ οī2 03:00 | ͳݴ 04:00 | ͳݴ 1TV 2TV eeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeee 1 , ¥ ڡ .. 2 Ϸ ¥ .. 3 Ȳ ? 4 ʱ Ź ä.. 5 Ļ簡 ο 3 .. (((((((((((((((((( 6 Ѽ ȸ .. 7 帣, ø ǡ 8 ͺ Ŵ ä .. 9 ħ, ϱ .. 10 ߵ, .. 1234 ȭ 123456 , ʾƿ䡦 ? , ʾƿ䡦 ? , ʾƿ䡦 ? 5-0 5-0 5-0 IJϰ ì ϴ١ IJϰ ì ϴ١ IJϰ ì ϴ١ , ¥ ڡ ? , ¥ ڡ ? , ¥ ڡ ? ׿ 1 ׿ 1 ׿ 1 μӾ º ǡ ȸ ü μӾ º ǡ ȸ ü μӾ º ǡ ȸ ü û α׷ ü 21:00 906:00 107:00 207:00 ()08:00 ħŸ09:30 93009:30 930()10:50 ̴12:00 1214:00 Ÿ15:00 ũ 17:00 518:00 ۷ι2419:00 719:00 7()21:00 9()23:30 07:00 Ͽ䴺Ÿ17:00 News Today Ӻ?Ư ûť ȭ 22:00 ûȹ â 23:05 60б 22:30 K 07:50 â 08:20 ƯĿ 庸 08:10 Ͽ 17:10 ̵ λ̵ 16:10 λ̵ 10:55 ưư Ȱü11:10 Ÿ21:40 9(9)24:30 ̶Ʈ 24:55 KBS ٵϿ 24:45 K ͳݽ 塤 ӴϹ2ȭ ֶ ˾2 翵 ͺ ̱ οī2 α T-Time 24ð 24ð 1R ȭ1R ߰ž1R 1R մ1R մ 1TV 2TV α׷ ݱ û KBS Ұ Ұŷ/ûȳܱ KBS http://news.kbs.co.kr , KBS - մϴ. ޹ħȸ̹ǻƮ Copyright 2013 KBS all rights reserved. mail to news webmaster oooooooooooooooooooooooooo SC http://news.kbs.co.kr/news/NewsView.do?SEARCH_NEWS_CODE=2763073&ref=A MMMMMMMMMMMMMMM KOR REơUNIFICATION II ̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡ %%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%% korean and german re--unification intro by dr yong k park ##################################################### 2013 seoul pppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppp ̡ ooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooo ch xviii--h ppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppp 25 īī ȭ濡 'ģ ܿ پ Ǹ ʶ߸ Żڵ óؾ (((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((( ϰ, ġ ο ڵ Ų ó óؾ Ѵ' ÷ Ǹ . ________________________________________ leeki@yna.co.kr () $$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$ diodeo հ˻ ģ Ÿ αΰ̺Ʈ ǴƮ "-赵, " 赵 "÷"() ε ݴ 'CG ƴ϶?' ̱ ʵ 극 ppppppppppppppppppppppp 'Ϳ' þӴϰ γ Ұзµ ǹ ݹ ̳డ θ ư '־' ^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^ ܹ ? 5 ! ' vs ' ư Ƣʰ YG ε༭ ó ũ ߿伺, ' ̻ ' ̱ Ű! ? ǴƮ "-赵, " 赵 "÷"() ε ݴ 'CG ƴ϶?' ̱ ʵ 극 'Ϳ' þӴϰ γ Ұзµ ǹ ݹ ̳డ θ ư '־' ܹ ? 5 ! ' vs ' ư Ƣʰ YG ε༭ ó ũ ߿伺, ' ̻ ' ̱ Ű! ? ǴƮ "-赵, " 赵 "÷"() ε ݴ 'CG ƴ϶?' ȭ Ȱ ġȸ IT Ư ͺ 뱸, 'Ż ' 縸 2013-11-28 14:51 Է | 2013-11-28 15:04 ̸ּҺμ 뱸 īī й濡 к 縸 ø 'Żڵ Ѿ Ѵ' ۿ 翡 ߴٰ 28 . 뱸 ̳ Ƿ п '縸 Ż ߾ '̶ ۿ ̰ , "簡 Ǹ ʿ ġ "̶ ٿ. 뱸 "縸 Ż ߾ ǥϰ, Żڵ鿡 ɷ ģ Ϳ ؼ Ѵ" . 25 īī ȭ濡 'ģ ܿ پ Ǹ ʶ߸ Żڵ óؾ (((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((( ϰ, ġ ο ڵ Ų ó óؾ Ѵ' ÷ Ǹ . ________________________________________ leeki@yna.co.kr () ڷ press@diodeo.com &̽! (www.diodeo.com) Copyright . [AD] ǿ ġ ȯġ, , , , Ҹ, , ġ [AD] Ѿ ƿǿ д翡 Ѿ Ѵٰ ҹ ǿ, ƿ, ߾߰. [AD] ⿣ ȲĹ õȣǰ 10 ȯǰ ̺Ʈ! ⿡ ȲĹ õ, ű԰ . [AD] Ŭ, ǿ , κġ, , 忹˻, 24ð, 10882 [AD] ġ ûǿ û㵿, Ƿ, ̹, Ʈ, ؼ, , Ͽ, 38722. ̾ũ ̾ũ û Դ븮â ѱâ 24û, 100% ǸŹ Դ븮â, ŷҼ ִ â .Ʈũ, ϸǿ ո , ѹ̾Ʈ, Ļ, 12228.쵵2ϴ̾Ʈ KBS ΰ, ȫ 2ϴ̾Ʈ, ܱⰣ OK, NO, ˻.񵿿ڿ̹ ġϺ񹫷, ſ11,000ιװ, , Ű, ǰ. ̸ּҺμ Ʈ, ̽, , ȸ ۼ մϴ. <Ӻ> [ ] ̽ÿ ȭ簡 ߻ߴ. 28 1ī 5뿩 2ǵ 2 , 齺Ÿ A 3ͺ Ŵ ä ߰ 4õȼ -ÿܹ 浹 1 ! 5<" "ä 7û DZ 40 ߵ' 6<齺Ÿ ΰ 㽺 , 㽺 찡 ȴ. ȸҰ||޹|û||޹ħ|ûҳ⺸ȣå|̸ּҹܼź|RSSKoreaJapan 135-080 ﵿ 797-22 2 () | ǥ̻: | ڵϹȣ: 220-86-02741 ȣ: | Ϲȣ: 00857 | : 2009.5.8 | / : | å : | å : ޼ | mail to webmaster@diodeo.com Ǵ () ۱ǹ ȣ մϴ. COPYRIGHT 2000-2011 DIODEO.COM ALL RIGHTS RESERVED. SC http://www.diodeo.com/comuser/news/news_view.asp?news_code=240658 MMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMM KOR REơUNIFICATION II ̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡ %%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%% korean and german re--unification intro by dr yong k park ##################################################### 2013 seoul pppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppp ̡ ooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooo ch xviii--j ppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppp 25 --xi mmxiii--īī ȭ濡 'ģ ܿ پ Ǹ ʶ߸ Żڵ óؾ (((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((( ϰ, ġ ο ڵ Ų ó óؾ Ѵ' ÷ Ǹ . ________________________________________ leeki@yna.co.kr () eeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeee Żڸ ѾѴٴ 뱸 а 縸 .. 츮 ̳ ƾ? ȭ뾿ؼ ô... eeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeee 뱸 а 053-850-6116 ̸ ijô!!!!!! """""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""" cafe.naver.com/mo2zun2/6766 ѱġ ī ˻ ѿ ~~ 2007.10.20 Ǹŵ Ż ܼ ( Ұ 3) ^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^ ׷ ̰ ° ڵ ~~~~~~~~~~~ ^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^ ϰ p޾ ȸ( û ) ưϴ,,,, uuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuu * ϴ 縸 Ż * """"""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""" Ż Ű 뱸 縸 ,, ____________________ ̼ eeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeee Ŀȸ ķ۽ Ѽ, eeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeee ȭ ϰ õ ħ ۱ ϴ â... eeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeee 2012.04.03 - - - ƼƮ Ǿ ^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^ ߰ Ż ݴ Ǿ - 빫( ߰ ϰڽϴ. عٶϴ.), ^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^ 1997.01.03 Ϻ 2 ġ () óħ ȸϴ ̾ ָǰ ִ. ̿ Բ ߱ ȴ籹 Żڸ ְ ¡ 7߹ óϵ ó ȭ eeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeee Ű ^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^ ιΰȭ ^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^ (Żڿ ؼ (((((((((((((((((((((((( Ǵ (ϼ,,) Ȥ ׿ ϴ 达 𵶽) ^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^ ó ƶ, ̶, ιΰȭ... ^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^ ***************************************************************************** հ˻αiNī̹ҼȳƮũ α ̹meīȨαȨ NAVER ˻ ڵϼ ġ 󼼰˻ ý۱۲ ۲ü +Mobile հ˻ ǽð˻ α ī iN ̹ л Ȯ ֽż Ⱓ ü 1 1 1 1 Է ü ü ʱȭ ɼ ֺ Ű ˾ƺ! Ű ˻ Ʈ̽Ϲ庸 ˻ 򸻹ϱݿ ˻ 縸 ˻ Űϱ⿬˻ ݱ Ȯ ֽżл缱 [缳] Ż ؾ Ѵ١ , װ ΰ Ϻ 16 縸 뱸 Ż ߾ Ĺ Ű ִ. ^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^ īī ı ο Ż _______________________________ ġ ο ڵ Ų ó óؾ... ppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppp ̹ ñ л ˻ 뱸 Ż ߾ 縸 Ϻ 4ð [Ű ȸ] 뱸 īī й濡 к 縸 ø Żڵ Ѿ Ѵ١ ۿ 翡 ߴٰ 28 . 뱸 ̳ Ƿ п... ̹ ñ л ˻ 뱸, 'Ż ' 縸 մ 5ð 뱸 īī й濡 к 縸 ø 'Żڵ Ѿ Ѵ' ۿ 翡 ߴٰ 28 . 뱸 ̳ Ƿ п '縸 ... ̹ ñ л ˻ 뱸 "Ż ߾ " 1 5ð (뱸=1) = к 縸 'Ż ' ߾ 뱸б 28 " ǥϸ, Żڵ鿡 ɷ ģ Ѵ" . ... ̹ ñ л ˻ "Ż Ѿ" 縸 뱸 SNS ϽŹ 9ð īī ȭ ۿ "Ǹ ıϴ ο Żڵ $$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$ ġ ο ڵ Ų ó óؾ Ѵ" . ^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^ ̷ ͳ ˷ ġ Ϻο... ̹ ñ л ˻ ī 2013-11-28 10ð 'Ż ' 2013-11-27 ȭϺ ܱο Ͼ ѱ Ŀ䡱 2013-11-27 ȭϺ --zeichen deleted --Ƿᰳ Ȯ--zeichen deleted --yp -- eeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeee ڰݾ л ġ 2013... cafe.naver.com/jinhaksmartpcband/1467 _Ʈ ī ˻ Ѹ ģ ƾ߰ٳ׿... 2 Żڸ ѾѴٴ 뱸 а 縸 .. 츮 ̳ ƾ? ȭ뾿ؼ ô... eeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeee 뱸 а 053-850-6116 ̸ ijô!!!!!! """""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""" cafe.naver.com/rightofkorea/56242 -ѹα ĵ ((((((((((((((((((((( ī ˻ Ǯϴб(Full Sail) ť͸ , 'Ż - κ... 2013.10.01 Ǯϴб(Full Sail) ť͸ , 'Ż - κ Ż' ij ... ^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^ Ż Ǹ ¡ 5⿡ ް DZ eeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeee ſ ū Ȱ... cafe.naver.com/uhakstar/618 - ϴ ī ˻ [Ȼ]- ߱ ź (빫 ߽߰ϴ.) ^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^ 2012.04.03 - - - ƼƮ Ǿ ^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^ ߰ Ż ݴ Ǿ - 빫( ߰ ϰڽϴ. عٶϴ.), ^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^ ƻ ߰ 1. ѹα ȸ ƼƮ ϰ ߱... cafe.naver.com/mo2zun2/6766 ѱġ ī ˻ ѿ ~~ 2007.10.20 Ǹŵ Ż ܼ ( Ұ 3) ^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^ ׷ ̰ ° ڵ ~~~~~~~~~~~ ^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^ ϰ p޾ ȸ( û ) ưϴ,,,, uuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuu cafe.naver.com/nuke928/139827 и͸, 繫 ī ī ˻ ī ̹ ̹ Űϱ 뱸 縸 뱸 縸... 䴺 [մ]Ż ... ȸ... 䴺 縳 ... Ż 縳 ... α Ż ظΰ 'Ż... 䴺 ° Ż ° Ż... 䴺 ̹ α ο Ż ' ź !! (... 11ð ڵ Ų ó, Ѿ ̴" óϾ ߾ '' ְ... 缱 Ѿ ѹα 2 5õ Żڵ鿡 'ο ', ... blog.naver.com/ericguim/50183975239 'ߵ츮' '¥ ôϱ'  !! α ˻ "Ż " 縸 ? 5ð "Ż " 縸 ? http://news.tv.chosun.com/site/data/html_dir/2013/11/28/2013112890027.html?r_ranking blog.naver.com/jpmorgan3/50183995731 KEYSTONE α α ˻ 뱸 а 縸 , 'Ż ' '... 19ð 뱸 а 縸 , 'Ż ' ' ' "'Ǹ ıϴµ ο' ))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))) 'Żڵ Ѿ' а" ((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((( Ż ġ ... blog.naver.com/srchcu/30180318659 ..ڹ̵ αע..^*^ α ˻ α iNiN ϱ ǥ Ż 2005.06.06 Ż ɸ ݾƿ ׷.,,... ?? ѿ ߱ Żϴٰ ɷ ų.. ߱ ޾ְ , ְ ְ ϴ ű. ߱ ϴ ... TV, > , > ̾Ƽα׷ 亯 1 õ 0 ȸ 779 ѿ Ͽ (Żڵ 亯ָ... 2013.07.25 4.Żڵ鵵 ð ִ ߼ε.. ֹ ߻ ִٴ 󸶳 ˰ֳ? 5.... ijְ Ű ü ƴ϶ ġ ٴ... pppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppp ȤǼ ȵ˴ϴ. ̽¸ ... ȸ, ġ > > , 亯 1 õ 3 ȸ 1696 Ż ϼ ݴ ٶŴ亯 2012.03.31 Ż ϼ ݴ뿡ؼ ؾϴµ Żڵ ;Ѵٰϴ ^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^ ̰ŵ... װ ٷ Ϳ. ʹ 1⿡ 2~3 ó ִ ̾. _______________________________________________________________________________ ׵ Ǯָ... ȸ, ġ > > , 亯 2 õ 11 ȸ 7051 iN ö ǿ, 'Ż ߾' 縸 ------------------------------ 25 1024в 500 ٸ ġ ü ī(īī)濡 Ǹ ä 'Ż ' ߾ ߴ. ״ "Ǹ ıϴ ο... ó : ϰ Խ ˻ Ż ö ǿ Ż 縸 eeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeee 縸 뱸 () īī /=ý ƽþ ¹ = Ż ù ȸǿ ö ǿ 27 Ż Ѿ Ѵ١ ߾ ... ó : ƽþ ü Խ ˻ * ϴ 縸 Ż * """"""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""" Ż Ű 뱸 縸 ,, ____________________ ̼ eeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeee Ŀȸ ķ۽ Ѽ, eeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeee ȭ ϰ õ ħ ۱ ϴ â... eeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeee ------------------------------------------------- ó : и ġ Խ ˻ ppppppppppppppppppppppppppppp 뱸뱳 ī弭 "Ż Ѿ" ״ īī ȭ ۿ "Ǹ ıϴµ ο Żڵ ^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^ ġ ο ڵ Ų ó óؾ Ѵ" ٿ. ((((((((((((((((((((( http://news.nate.com/view... ó : ̴ Խ Խ ˻ 뱸, 'Ż ' 縸 5ð 뱸 īī й濡 к 縸 ø 'Żڵ Ѿ Ѵ' ۿ 翡 ߴٰ 28 . 뱸 ̳ Ƿ п ... ó : Խ ˻ м ((((((((((((( 뵿 ѻ - ֱ õ ... 2006 2õ " Ż 100 ó 98 , ׿ ϴ... ġܱ ѿ ѿ / (/α) øб 62 м ((((((((((((( ߱ Ż αǺȣ ( Ү... 2006 οȽ 1 China Żڴ ... ̵ ó ʵ... ѱȸ / (KCI ) (/α) KDI School 63 (65) м """""""""""""" 2 Ż αħؽ¿ ȣ 2006 ִ Ż αħ ¿... 뵿ȭ, (ַ... ġܱ 谭 ѱȸ / (KCI ĺ ) ̵(/α) ڴб 84 (40) ƮŻ ϼ۰ Ʈ. 2012 ϼ۵ Żڵ ġ ȴ. .(߷) .... ó: ķ۽ ƮŻ ȣ , 2012 ȯǾ Żڵ鸸 ȭŰ... 翬ϰ ǰ ִ.... ó: ķ۽ ̺귯 (),Ż (),Ż Ǹ oooooooooooooooooooooo 1997.01.03 ϰ 1 ġ () ̶ мϰ̰ Ż """"""""""""""" Ż ְ ¡ 7 ߹ óϵ ó ȭߴ '''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''' ̴. ȴ籹 ... (),Ż (),Ż Ǹ 1997.01.03 Ź 1 ġ () Ż߱ ѱ ϴµ ̴ Ұ м '''''''''''''''''''''''' ,Żڸ Ұ ְ ¡ 7 ߹óϵ ȭ ((((((((((((((((((((( Ѱ ˷.... (),Ż (),Ż 7Ǹ ------------------- 1997.01.03 Ϻ 2 ġ () óħ ȸϴ ̾ ָǰ ִ. ̿ Բ ߱ ȴ籹 Żڸ ְ ¡ 7߹ óϵ ó ȭ eeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeee ... Ż Ż (Ż)ָȯ"å " 1999.10.15 Ϻ 29 ȸ () 踦 ä ȯǴ Żڵ pppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppp ż Ϻθ κ ϰų ҿ ȴ١ߴ. ppppppppppppppppppppppppp ο ... ̺귯 å б ȴ١ ڷ м ؾ Ѵ - 177 [/Ȱ/丮] , ۷μ 2008.06.23 Ͽ ִ ɷ  ̴.׷Ƿ Ź̳ 鼭 , Ż ȸ Ǵ ̴ ʿϸ, ȸ ǿ... ƽþ ȯȺ . ȯı Ȳ - 299 [ȸ] , 輺 1 2005.09.30 ڴ , м ִ.9 ȯ ߿伺 ȯ 42) μ,Ż Ȳм, ,... ̱ Ѱ 08. Żڿ ... - 306 [ȸ] ڼ ̴ٽϽ 2003.07.09 Żڵ鿡 ̱ ȸ öϰ ε ۵ư ǰ ִٴ ... ^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^ ϳ ϴ ū ˾ ֵ α ȴٴ ź ǻ... $$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$ å Űϱ 뱸 Ż 1 44 뱸 Ż ... ȭ ̹ 2013.11.27 [մ]Ż 1 40 [մ]Ż ... ȭ ̹ 2013.11.27 뱸 "Ż 1 20 뱸 "Ż ... ȭ TV 2013.11.28 뱸 "Ż 1 44 뱸 "Ż ... ȭ TV 2013.11.27 Ĺ Ű ^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^ ιΰȭ ^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^ (Żڿ ؼ (((((((((((((((((((((((( Ǵ (ϼ,,) Ȥ ׿ ϴ 达 𵶽) ^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^ ó ƶ, ̶, ιΰȭ... ^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^ Ĺ ˻ 縸 ˻ Űϱ⿬˻ ݱ ǽð ޻ ˻ ݱ 1 189 2 Ÿ108 3 긯348 4 150 5 ٿ͹492 6 뷡 Ÿ87 7 ä162 8 129 9 ߴ201 10 Դ72 2013.11.28 21:06 ݱ , 'Ȳ Ӹ ܵó' ǡȸ '' ¡ Ѿ Һ 3 ñ ' 뼱' Ŀ ̵ Ҹ ˾Ƶ ӡ ", ͳݡſī塤ߵ" " ҽġ" 7 Ʈ , ī Ż Ϻ ? ְ ѱ, FIFA ŷ 54... 1 ̶ Ű ݱ 8 11 14 17 20 1 ܹ 2 Ÿ 3 ȸ ȸ NEW 4 ֿ ⿬ NEW 5 ƶ û 6 ٴ NEW 7 ȭ ε NEW 8 ع ȿ NEW 9 NEW 10 ͺ ä 屺 NEW 2013.11.28 20:00 α˻ ݱ 1 뱸 縸 21.2% 2 캰  14.6% 3 Ϻ 14.2% 4 ä 8.6% 5 8.6% 6 ׽ý 8.3% 7 LGӿλ 7.2% 8 ̾ 6.2% 9 ѱϺ 5.6% 10 Ȳ 5.5% 2013.11.28 20:00 ٸ׷ ˻ ڵϼ ġ å Ʈ/ ˻ ˻ ȳ ȳ հ˻ ϱ Խù Ű NAVER Corp. SC http://search.naver.com/search.naver?sm=tab_hty.top&where=nexearch&ie=utf8&query=Ż+&x=24&y=23 ̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡ KOR REơUNIFICATION II ̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡ %%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%% korean and german re--unification intro by dr yong k park ##################################################### 2013 seoul pppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppp ̡ ooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooo ch xviii--k ppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppp The 2nd KINU Human Rights Forum in Europe 2013 ccccccccccccccccccccc The Current North Korean Situation cccccccccccccccccccccccccccc and Technical Cooperation _________________________ to Improve North Korean Human Rights Conditions __________________________________________________________ pppppppppppppppppppppp Date ^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^ November 19, 2013 (Tuesday) ppppppppppppppppppppppp KINU - Korea Institute for National Uniffication ppppppppppppppppppp HomeSitemapenlargementSizereductionKOREANAbout KINUPublicationsNK InformationKINU News POPUP zone prevnextplaystop KINU vod ȫ Digital Library DB _______________ Search Recent Books & Reports Web Zine Subscribe Unsubscribe HOT ISSUESearch KINU Event ______________________ The 2nd KINU Human Rights Forum in Europe 2013 ____________________________________________ cccccccccccccccccccccc The 2nd KINU Human R.. [13.11.21] _______________________________ The 2nd KINU Human Rights Forum in Europe 2013 ccccccccccccccccccccc The Current North Korean Situation cccccccccccccccccccccccccccc and Technical Cooperation ______________________ to Improve North Korean Human Rights Conditions __________________________________________________________ pppppppppppppppppppppp Date ^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^ November 19, 2013 (Tuesday) ppppppppppppppppppppppp Time ppppppppppppppppppp 10:00~17:00 pppppppppppppppppp Venue ooooooooooooooooo Permanent Mission of the Republic of Korea ____________________________________ to the UN Secretariat and International Organizations in Geneva ... pppppppppppppppppppppppp SC http://www.kinu.or.kr/eng/index.jsp ̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡ KOR REơUNIFICATION II ̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡ %%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%% korean and german re--unification intro by dr yong k park ##################################################### 2013 seoul pppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppp ̡ ooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooo ch xviii--k--aaa ppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppp The 2nd KINU Human Rights Forum in Europe ccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccc 2013--13.11.21 aaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaa Strategies __________________________________ to Implement the Trust-building Process on the Korean Peninsula _____________________________________________________________ -------------------------- The 2nd KINU Human Rights Forum in Europe ccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccc 2013--13.11.21 aaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaa Strategies ____________________ to Implement the Trust-building Process on the Korean Peninsula _____________________________________________________________ -------------------------- 13.10.31 ''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''' SC http://www.kinu.or.kr/eng/index.jsp ̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡ KOR REơUNIFICATION II ̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡ %%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%% korean and german re--unification intro by dr yong k park ##################################################### 2013 seoul pppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppp ̡ ooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooo ch xviii--k--bbb ppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppp The 3rd KINU Chaillot Human Rights Forum _________________________________________ '''''''''''''''''''''''''' 2013--13.08.20 aaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaa The 3rd KINU Chaillot Human Rights Forum _________________________________________ '''''''''''''''''''''''''' 2013--13.08.20 aaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaa more SC http://www.kinu.or.kr/eng/index.jsp ̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡ KOR REơUNIFICATION II ̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡ %%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%% korean and german re--unification intro by dr yong k park ##################################################### 2013 seoul pppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppp ̡ ooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooo ch xviii--k--bbb--i ppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppp North Korea Should Break Free from its Nuclear Dilemma ____________________ on ..North Korea Should B.. ppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppp [13.10.31] ^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^ Online Series ppppppppppppppppppppppp Timely Analyses by KINU Scholars eeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeee North Korea Should Break Free from its Nuclear Dilemma ____________________ on ..North Korea Should B.. ppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppp [13.10.31] ^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^ 1. _____________________ Denuclearization and the Non-Aggression Agreement Duet ^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^ The U.S. Secretary of State John Kerry attracted attention when he revealed his intent to sign a Non-Aggression Agreement, under the premise of North Koreas denuclearization, ppppppppppppppppppppppp immediately following the U.S.-Japan Security Consultative Committee Meeting in --on --October 3, 2013. + pppppppppppppppppppp Whether this was a planned respon ... +the U.S.-Japan Security Consultative Committee Meeting _____________________________________ in --on --October 3, 2013. North Korea Should Break Free from its Nuclear Dilemma ________________________________________________________ on its Own Accord+ pppppppppppppp +Ac--cord qgreement, of one' s own a-- voluntarily , c xii lat ad to+ cord stem, lat cor heart __________________________________________ coll mdccccxc hhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhh 13.10.31 oooooooooooooooooooooo SC http://www.kinu.or.kr/eng/index.jsp ̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡ KOR REơUNIFICATION II ̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡ %%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%% korean and german re--unification intro by dr yong k park ##################################################### 2013 seoul pppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppp ̡ ooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooo ch xviii--k--bbb--ii ppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppp Commission of Inquiry (COI) _______________ on Human Rights in North Korea: ________________ Evaluation _______________________________ and the Tas.. ^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^ 13.10.17 ^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^ Commission of Inquiry (COI) _______________ on Human Rights in North Korea: ________________ Evaluation _______________________________ and the Tas.. ^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^ 13.10.17 ^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^ Prospects for North Koreas Nuclear Issue _________________________________ and --for--Inter-Korean Relations in the Second half of.. ppppppppppppppppppppp 13.08.13 ccccccccccccccccccccc SC http://www.kinu.or.kr/eng/index.jsp ̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡ KOR REơUNIFICATION II ̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡ %%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%% korean and german re--unification intro by dr yong k park ##################################################### 2013 seoul pppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppp ̡ ooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooo ch xviii--k--ccc ppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppp White Paper on Human Rights in North Korea __________________________ 2013White Paper on Human.. [13.08.13] pppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppp more Publications ccccccccccccccccccc White Paper + on Human Rights in North Korea __________________________ 2013White Paper on Human.. [13.08.13] pppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppp +White Paper official govt report which sells out govt policy coll mdccccxc ooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooo +white blank, unprinted, bene--volent, W/O intent malicious, with snow, conservative, counter--revolutionary, royalist, un--blemished morally, ___________________________________ o e h--wit, o fris h--wit, o sax h--wit, o nor h--vitr, goth h--veits, ohg h--wiz, aaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaa coll mdccccxc --------------------- I. ____________ The Purpose of Publication and Research Methods ((((((((((((((( In December 1994, the Korea Institute for National Unification(KINU) + based in Seoul, South Korea established """""""""""""""""""" the Center for North Korean Human Rights Studies + eeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeee for the purpose of scientific and systematic collection --of --and management of pppppppppppppppppppppp data aaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaa on North Korean human rights. oooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooo +Korea Institute for National Unification(KINU) +the Center for North Korean Human Rights Studies Since 1996, the Center for North Korean Human Rights Studies + has published th ... pppppppppppppppppppppppppppp +Center for North Korean Human Rights Studies White Paper on Human Rights in North Korea """"""""""""""""" 2013-- ________________________ 13.08.13 ''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''' Peaceful Utilization of the DMZ ________________ as a National Strategy pppppppppppppppppp 13.07.29 pppppppppppppppppppppppppp Easing International Concerns over a Unified Korea _______________________________________ and Regional Benefits of Korean Uni.. pppppppppppppppppp 13.07.29 pppppppppppppppppppppppppp more NK Information ______________________________ Learn More SC http://www.kinu.or.kr/eng/index.jsp ̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡ KOR REơUNIFICATION II ̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡ %%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%% korean and german re--unification intro by dr yong k park ##################################################### 2013 seoul pppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppp ̡ ooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooo ch xviii--k--ccc --i ppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppp Chinas Air Defense Identification Zone--adiz --: ________________ The Korean Angle aaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaa 13.11.28 ccccccccccccccccccccc Chinas Air Defense Identification Zone--adiz --: ____________ The Korean Angle aaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaa 13.11.28 ccccccccccccccccccccc SC http://www.kinu.or.kr/eng/index.jsp ̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡ KOR REơUNIFICATION II ̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡ %%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%% korean and german re--unification intro by dr yong k park ##################################################### 2013 seoul pppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppp ̡ ooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooo ch xviii--k--ccc --ii ppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppp The Best Deal with Iran ________________________ That We Can Get aaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaa 13.11.28 aaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaa The Best Deal with Iran _________________________ That We Can Get aaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaa 13.11.28 aaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaa SC http://www.kinu.or.kr/eng/index.jsp ̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡ KOR REơUNIFICATION II ̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡ %%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%% korean and german re--unification intro by dr yong k park ##################################################### 2013 seoul pppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppp ̡ ooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooo ch xviii--k--ccc --iii ppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppp China Ups+ the Ante+ ____________________ in East China Sea Dispute aaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaa 13.11.28 ______________________ China Ups+ the Ante+ _________________________ in East China Sea Dispute aaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaa 13.11.28 ______________________ +Up vb to increase, o e upp, vf o sax , old nor up, ohg uf; goth iup coll 1990 CCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCC +Ante gaming stake before deal, sum of money coll mdccccxc gggggggggggggggg +Ante before, in front of; lat ante coll mdccccxc gggggggggggggggggggggg SC http://www.kinu.or.kr/eng/index.jsp ̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡ KOR REơUNIFICATION II ̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡ %%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%% korean and german re--unification intro by dr yong k park ##################################################### 2013 seoul pppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppp ̡ ooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooo ch xviii--k--ccc --iv ppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppp The Economic Costs ___________________________ of North Korean Nuclear Development aaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaa 13.11.28 ___________________________ The Economic Costs ___________________________ of North Korean Nuclear Development aaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaa 13.11.28 ___________________________ SC http://www.kinu.or.kr/eng/index.jsp ̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡ KOR REơUNIFICATION II ̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡ %%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%% korean and german re--unification intro by dr yong k park ##################################################### 2013 seoul pppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppp ̡ ooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooo ch xviii--k--ccc --v ppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppp Chinas Air Defense Identification Zone--adiz --: ___________________ The Korean Angle aaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaa 13.11.28 ______________________ Chinas Air Defense Identification Zone--adiz--: ___________________ The Korean Angle aaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaa 13.11.28 ______________________ The Best Deal with Iran _________________________ That We Can Get aaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaa 13.11.28 ______________________ China Ups the Ante _____________________________________ in East China Sea Dispute aaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaa 13.11.28 ccccccccccccccccccccccccc The Economic Costs __________________________ of North Korean Nuclear Development ccccccccccccccccccc 13.11.28 ------------------ Research Council on Unification Affairs ppppppppppppppp Ϻ ppppppppppppppppppppppp IKIS ppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppp KINU Ͽ Korea Institute for National Unification ppppppppppppppppppppppppp 123, 4.19-ro(Suyudong), Gangbuk-gu, Seoul 142-728, Korea Tel : 02-900-4300 Fax : 02-901-2549 E-mail : Webmaster@kinu.or.kr Copyright 2012 by KINU. All rights reserved. ccccccccccccccccccccccc SC http://www.kinu.or.kr/eng/index.jsp ̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡ KOR REơUNIFICATION II ̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡ %%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%% korean and german re--unification intro by dr yong k park ##################################################### 2013 seoul pppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppp ̡ ooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooo ch xviii--m ppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppp The Economic Costs ________________________________ of North Korean Nuclear Development aaaaaaaaaaaaaaaa AuthorScott A. Snyder ____________________ Publish Date / Page aaaaaaaaaaaaaa 2013-11-28 / p. Source aaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaa CFR aaaaaaaaaaaaaaaa Url aaaaaaaaaaaaaa http://blogs.cfr.org/asia/2013/11/25/the-economic-costs-of-north-korean-nuclear-development/#more-12778 )))))))))))))) File Summary ^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^ International sanctions have thus far failed to convince North Korean leadership __________________________ that they cannot survive as a nuclear weapons state. ppppppppppppppppppppp KINU - Korea Institute for National Uniffication pppppppppppppppppppppppp HomeSitemapenlargementSizereductionKOREANAbout KINUPublicationsNK InformationKINU NewsEventsAnnouncement NK Information Overseas Research Institutes Multilateral Agencies Digital Library DB Search Recent Books & Reports Web Zine Subscribe Unsubscribe KINU President HOT ISSUESearchHome > NK Information > Overseas Research Institutes eeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeee Overseas Research Institutes _____________________ The Economic Costs _______________________ of North Korean Nuclear Development aaaaaaaaaaaaaaaa Author ^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^ Scott A. Snyder ____________________ Publish Date / Page aaaaaaaaaaaaaa 2013-11-28 / p. Source aaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaa CFR aaaaaaaaaaaaaaaa Url aaaaaaaaaaaaaa http://blogs.cfr.org/asia/2013/11/25/the-economic-costs-of-north-korean-nuclear-development/#more-12778 )))))))))))))) File Summary International sanctions have thus far failed to convince North Korean leadership ______________________ that they cannot survive as a nuclear weapons state. ppppppppppppppppppppp With its policy of simultaneously pursuing economic and nuclear development, North Korean leaders clearly assume they can manage the economic costs resulting from nuclear development. ppppppppppppppppppp But the costs of such a policy are staggering compared to the economic benefits North Korea might enjoy without nuclear weapons. oooooooooooooooooooo Comparing the estimated costs of the nuclear program to economic growth with the benefits of becoming a normal economy integrated with its neighbors reveals the steep price of the byungjin policy. ccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccc Yonsei University professor Lee Doo--won + projects that North Koreas trade volume would grow by 5.6 to 8.3 times from that of 2008 levels ________________ if North Korea were to become a normal economy. pppppppppppppppppp + Lee Doo--won __________ Yonsei University professor North Koreas trade volume would grow by 5.6 to 8.3 times from that of 2008 levels ________________ if North Korea were to become a normal economy. pppppppppppppppppp Lee + also calculates that a normal inter-Korean trade relationship would increase the relative importance of inter-Korean trade as a contributor to North Korean Gross National Income --gni-- from around 7 percent in 2008 to over 40 percent, oooooooooooooooooooo which would contribute to much faster overall growth for the North Korean economy. ppppppppppppppppppp + Lee Doo--won __________ Yonsei University professor North Koreas trade volume would grow by 5.6 to 8.3 times from that of 2008 levels ________________ if North Korea were to become a normal economy. pppppppppppppppppp a normal inter-Korean trade relationship would increase the relative importance of inter-Korean trade as a contributor to North Korean Gross National Income --gni-- from around 7 percent in 2008 to over 40 percent, ________________________ Using these figures, + I + project ________________ that if North Korea were to move toward reform and -- toward--denuclearization, inter-Korean trade would grow rapidly from the present amount of roughly $2 billion per year to approximately $11 to $16 billion per year by 2020+... ^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^ + Lee Doo--won __________ Yonsei University professor North Koreas trade volume would grow by 5.6 to 8.3 times from that of 2008 levels ________________ if North Korea were to become a normal economy. pppppppppppppppppp a normal inter-Korean trade relationship would increase the relative importance of inter-Korean trade as a contributor to North Korean Gross National Income --gni-- pppppppppppppppp from around 7 percent in 2008 to over 40 percent, ________________________ +Scott A. Snyder ppppppppppppp if North Korea were to move toward reform and -- toward--denuclearization, inter-Korean trade would grow rapidly from the present amount of roughly $2 billion per year ppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppp to approximately $11 to $16 billion per year by 2020 pppppppppppppppppppppppp Prev. pppppppppppppppppppp China Ups the Ante in East China Sea Dispute Next ooooooooooooooooooo Impact Player: Kim Kye-gwan LIST TOP Research Council on Unification Affairs--rcua -- ppppppppppp Ϻ ooooooooooooooooo IKIS ppppppppppppppppp KINU Ͽ Korea Institute for National Unification 88888888888888 123, 4.19-ro(Suyudong), Gangbuk-gu, Seoul 142-728, Korea Tel : 02-900-4300 Fax : 02-901-2549 E-mail : Webmaster@kinu.or.kr Copyright 2012 by KINU. All rights reserved. SC http://www.kinu.or.kr/eng/info/info_01_01.jsp?bid=REPORT03&page=1&num=4905&mode=view&category=81 ̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡ KOR REơUNIFICATION II ̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡ %%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%% korean and german re--unification intro by dr yong k park ##################################################### 2013 seoul pppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppp ̡ ooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooo ch xviii--n ppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppp http://www.piie.com/blogs/nk/?p=12360 File Summary Chinas risky decision to announce an expansive Air Defense Identification Zone (ADIZ) + sparked a debate about how the US and Japan should respond. ____________ +Air Defense Identification Zone (ADIZ) ^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^ KINU - Korea Institute for National Uniffication 8888888888888888 HomeSitemapenlargementSizereductionKOREANAbout KINUPublicationsNK InformationOverseas Research InstitutesMultilateral AgenciesKINU News NK Information Overseas Research Institutes _________________ Multilateral Agencies Digital Library DB Search Recent Books & Reports Web Zine Subscribe Unsubscribe KINU President ________________ HOT ISSUESearchHome > NK Information > Overseas Research Institutes Overseas Research Institutes $$$$$$$$$$$ Chinas Air Defense Identification Zone: The Korean Angle _____________ Author lllllllllllllllll Stephan Haggard $$$$$$$$$$$$ Publish Date / Page 2013-11-28 / p. ^^^^^^^^^^^^^^ Source mmmmmmmmm PIIE Url mmmmmmmmmmm http://www.piie.com/blogs/nk/?p=12360 File Summary Chinas risky decision to announce an expansive Air Defense Identification Zone (ADIZ) + sparked a debate about ______________ how the US and Japan should respond. +Air Defense Identification Zone (ADIZ) ADIZs have no standing in international law; ^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^ they do not necessarily correspond with territorial --claims-- ^^^^^^^^ or even Exclusive Economic Zone (EEZ) claims. Nonetheless, they constitute a unilateral assertion of the power to identify, locate, and control aircraft in the name of national security; ______ Chinas announcement--?linked above?--is typical _______________ but --Chinas announcement--?linked above?--is-- nonetheless demanding. According to the Chinese announcement, aircraft passing through the ADIZ must provide prior notification of their nationality and flight plan and remain in periodic radio contact with the Chinese Defense Ministry. $$$$$$$$ The implicit threat: that aircraft without authorization might be treated as intruders and even intercepted. pppppp No sooner had the ADIZ + been announced than the government also announced the first patrol of the ADIZ, ______ with early warning aircraft and --with --fighters providing support and cover for two scout planes... +Air Defense Identification Zone (ADIZ) Prev. Next mmmmmm The Best Deal with Iran That We Can Get LIST TOP Research Council on Unification Affairs--rc--ua -- $$$$$$$ Ϻ--min of unif-- mmmmmmm IK--I--S )))))))) KI--NU Ͽ Korea Institute for National Unification 88888888 123, 4.19-ro(Suyudong), Gangbuk-gu, Seoul 142-728, Korea Tel : 02-900-4300 Fax : 02-901-2549 E-mail : Webmaster@kinu.or.kr Copyright 2012 by KINU. All rights reserved. SC http://www.kinu.or.kr/eng/info/info_01_01.jsp?bid=REPORT03&page=1&num=4908&mode=view&category=81 LLLLLLLLLLLLLLL KOR REơUNIFICATION II ̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡ %%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%% korean and german re--unification intro by dr yong k park ##################################################### 2013 seoul pppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppp ̡ ooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooo ch xviii--o ppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppp Chinas Air Defense Identification Zone: The Korean Angle cccccccccccccccc by Stephan Haggard | aaaaaaaaaaaa November 27th, 2013 | 07:00 am ccccccccccccccc 2013 Peter G. Peterson Institute for International Economics. aaaaaaaaaaaaaa 1750 Massachusetts Avenue, NW. Washington, DC 20036. ppppppppppp Tel: 202-328-9000 ppppppppppppp Fax: 202-659-3225 / 202-328-5432 _____________ Peterson Institute llllllllllll PI--IE + Blog | --zeichen deleted--yp --? php bloginfo ('name'); ?--zeichen deleted--yp -- ====================================================================================== +PI--IE Peterson Institute for International Economics $$$$$$$$$$$$$$$ Research Publications Staff About For Press Events Bookstore $$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$ The Peterson Institute for International Economics pppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppp is a private, nonprofit, nonpartisan research institution devoted to the study of international economic policy. __________________ More ? ? Subscribe to ---------------- North Korea: Witness to Transformation _________________________ Search ABOUT | HOME | MOBILE SEARCH THIS BLOG Search for: AUTHORS Marcus Noland Stephan Haggard RECENT POSTS ______________ Chinas Air Defense Identification Zone: The Korean Angle ______________ The Iranian Deal uuuuuuuuuuuuuuu The Echo Chamber: The Kim Jong-Un Assassination Attempt tttttttttttttttt Biking Into Rason The State Department Travel Advisory oooooooooooooooo TAGS CONTRIBUTORS ____________ CATEGORIES ARCHIVES OTHER PIIE + BLOGS ------------ +PI--IE Peterson Institute for International Economics ooooooooooooo SUBSCRIBE Sign up to receive automatic updates to this blog. Email RSS Kindle Twitter Facebook RELATED BOOKS Witness to Transformation: _____________ Refugee Insights into North Korea ttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttt Witness to Transformation: ________________ Refugee Insights into North Korea ttttttttttttttttttttttttttttt Praise for the book llllllllllllll Famine in North Korea: Markets, Aid, and ReformFamine in North Korea: Markets, Aid, and Reform lllllllllllllll Engaging North Korea: The Role of Economic StatecraftEngaging North Korea: The Role of Economic Statecraft lllllllllllll The North Korean Refugee Crisis: Human Rights and International Response mmmmmmmmmmmmmmmm The North Korean Refugee Crisis: __________________Human Rights and International Response [pdf] mmmmmmmmmmmmmm The North Korean Refugee Crisis: Human Rights and International Response mmmmmmmmmmmmmmm Hunger and Human Rights: _________________ The Politics of Famine in North Korea [pdf] mmmmmmmmmmmmm Korea after Kim Jong-il mmmmmmmmmmmmm Korea after Kim Jong-il Avoiding the Apo--calypse: _______________ The Future of the Two Koreas mmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmm Avoiding the Apo--calypse: ________________ The Future of the Two Koreas mmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmm TRANSLATE LINKS 38 North North Korea Economy Watch ____________________ North Korea Leadership Watch North Korea News North Korea Tech ccccccccccccccccc One Free Korea Sino-NK North Korea: Witness to Transformation ccccccccccccccccccc Previous | Home | Next Chinas Air Defense Identification Zone: The Korean Angle cccccccccccccccc by Stephan Haggard | aaaaaaaaaaaa November 27th, 2013 | 07:00 am ccccccccccccccc | Chinas risky decision to announce an expansive Air Defense Identification Zone (ADIZ) + __________ sparked a debate about how the US and Japan should respond. +Air Defense Identification Zone ^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^ (ADIZ) ADIZs have no standing in international law; __________ they do not necessarily correspond with territorial --claims-- or even Exclusive Economic Zone (EEZ) claims. + +Exclusive Economic Zone (EEZ) claims Nonetheless, they --ADIZs --constitute a uni--lateral assertion of the power ttttttttttttt to identify, locate, and --to --control aircraft in the name of national security; tttttttt Chinas announcement--?linked above?--is typical but -- Chinas announcement--?linked above?--is --nonetheless demanding. tttttttt According to the Chinese announcement, aircraft passing through the ADIZ must provide prior notification of their nationality and --of --flight plan lllllllllll and --aircraft passing through the ADIZ must--remain in periodic radio contact with the Chinese Defense Ministry. The implicit threat: that aircraft without authorization might be treated as intruders and even intercepted. ___________ No sooner had the ADIZ + been announced than the government also announced the first patrol of the ADIZ, +with early warning aircraft + and --with --fighters + providing support and cover for two scout planes.+ +with early warning aircraft ^^^^^^^^^^^ +and --with --fighters +two scout planes +scout aircraft to gqin info, vb to examine, c xiv o f a--scouter to listen, lat auscultare to auscultate ____________________________________________________________ coll mdccccxc pppppppppppppppppppppppppp +auscultate to examine patient with auscultation coll mdccccxc oooooooooo +auscultation technique med of listening to sounds internal by body, with aid of stethoscope, c xix lat auscultatio a listening, lat auscultare to listen, lat auris ear ____________________________________ gggggggggggggggggggggggggggggggggggggggggggggg coll mdccccxc ______________ oooooo +stethoscope med, disc hollow that transmits sounds through tubes holloz to ear--pieces, _______________________________________________ c xix gk ste--thos breast + scope _______________ gggggggggggggggggggg coll mdccccxc ggggggg +scope capaity for action, area covered by act, _____________________________________ n lat scopium, gk skopion gk skopein to look at ______________________________________________ coll mdccccxc ________________ +Air Defense Identification Zone ^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^ (ADIZ) It didnt take long for that debate to be resolved. In an absolutely correct response, the US did what it said it would do, ____________________ ppppppppppppppppp namely to ignore the ADIZ annoucement __________________ ppppppppppppppppppp by sending two B52s into the zone _________________ without prior permission from --Chinese authorities-- ___________________ or --without prior --contact with Chinese authorities. As it turns out, the Chinese decision did not sit well in Korea either, ________________ and representatives of both the Ministry of Foreign Affairs _______________ and--of -- the Ministry of Defense _____________ contacted their Chinese counterparts to register regrets and concerns. ____________ A look at the released Chinese map suggests why. ______________ First, if it looks like the Chinese ADIZ + butts up against South Koreas territorial waters around Jeju _________ because it + does. +Air Defense Identification Zone ^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^ (ADIZ) China is claiming air control over a 20-by-115-kilometer rectangle of airspace ____________ that falls within South Koreas ADIZ. + +Air Defense Identification Zone ^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^ (ADIZ) Second, there is the question of Ieodo+ or the Socotra Rock. + +Ieodo + or the Socotra Rock. ________________________ +Socotra , sokotra, suqutra, island in ind ocean, part of s yemen coll mdccccxc ___________________________________ Ieodo sits about 5 meters under the surface, + ____________ +5 meters under the surface, + but South Korea has constructed the unmanned Ieodo Ocean Research Center + on it and effectively exercises control. + the unmanned Ieodo Ocean Research Center on it --Ieodo-- Ieodo is now squarely inside the Chinese ADIZ. + +Air Defense Identification Zone ^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^ (ADIZ) Finally, there is the larger issue of the maritime demarcation line between South Korea and China. ______________________ The two sides claim overlapping Exclusive Economic Zones + +overlapping Exclusive Economic Zones --eez -- and despite 14 meetings --on overlapping Exclusive Economic Zones --since 1996 _________________ no agreement has been reached on the issue; __________________ the June --,,xiii--Park-Xi summit + called for a resumption of the talks.--on overlapping Exclusive Economic Zones -- +June --mmxiii--Park-Xi summit aaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaa called for a resumption of the talks.--on overlapping Exclusive Economic Zones -- Unlike its response to Japans concerns, China was quick to play down any conflict with Seoul, including over Ieodo. __________________ But the tone of South Korean coverage--?even on the left?--was not very understanding -------- (for example, Hankyoreh). One concern: Chinas suggestion that they may declare other ADIZs, including in the West (Yellow) Sea. _______ At least the South Koreans and Chinese are talking; _______ the ADIZ question is likely to be added to the agenda of the third meeting of bilateral defense strategy talks taking place later in the week. _____ But Beijings over-reaching is generating backlash ________ not only in Tokyo and Washington but in Seoul as well. aaaaaaaaaa Posted in Commentary | Comments 1 | Leave a comment pppppp Tags: China, Defense, Japan, South Korea Previous | Home | Next Comments (1) ooooooo For comparison and further historical background ttttt here is a link to the Wikipedia article on the domestic US ADIZ: _____ http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Air_Defense_Identification_Zone_(North_America) ppppppp Walter L. Keats oooooo November ppppppp 27, 2013 | 1:11 pm Reply Leave a Comment All fields are required; your email address will remain private and will not display. pppppppp Please see guidelines for comments in our Comment Policy. Name Email Comment Home : Research : Publications : Experts : About : For Press : Events : Bookstore : Site Map : RSS Contact Us 2013 Peter G. Peterson Institute for International Economics. aaaaaaaaaaaaaa 1750 Massachusetts Avenue, NW. Washington, DC 20036. ppppppppppp Tel: 202-328-9000 ppppppppppppp Fax: 202-659-3225 / 202-328-5432 SC http://www.piie.com/blogs/nk/?p=12360 KOR REơUNIFICATION II ̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡ %%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%% korean and german re--unification intro by dr yong k park ##################################################### 2013 seoul pppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppp ̡ ooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooo ch xviii--p ppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppp Commission of Inquiry (COI) on Human Rights in North Korea: ______________ Evaluation and the Tasks Ahead ______________________ Author _____ Han Dong-ho _____ Publish Date / Page ____________ 2013-10-17 / 5 p. _____________ Series No.2013-21 ___________ File co13-21(E).pdf [ٿ:98] _____________________________________ KINU - Korea Institute for National Uniffication 88888888888 HomeSitemapenlargementSizereductionKOREANAbout KINUPublicationsOnline SeriesReports & AnalysesInternational JournalWhite PaperNK InformationKINU News Publications Online Series Reports & Analyses International Journal ------------- White Paper Digital Library DB _____________ Search Recent Books & Reports Web Zine Subscribe Unsubscribe KINU President HOT ISSUESearchHome > Publications > Online Series Online Series eeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeee Commission of Inquiry (COI) on Human Rights in North Korea: ______________ Evaluation and the Tasks Ahead ______________________ Author _____ Han Dong-ho _____ Publish Date / Page ____________ 2013-10-17 / 5 p. _____________ Series No.2013-21 ___________ File co13-21(E).pdf [ٿ:98] _____________________________________ Contents _____ On 17 September 2013, ____________ Michael Kirby, + _______ Chair of the Commission of Inquiry (COI) + on Human Rights in the Democratic Peoples Republic of Korea (DPRK) (here--inafter the Commission)1) presented an oral update, summarizing the Commissions activities thus far at the 24th session--xxxx of the United Nations Human Rights Council. aaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaa +the 24th session--xxxx of the United Nations Human Rights Council. +United Nations Human Rights Council. +Council. assembly of people , c xii lat concilium assembly, lat com together+ calare to call , ___________ cf lat consillium, counsel coll mdccccxc gggggg +consillium i, n, aus con--s--eliom, gk elein zusammen--nehmen , versammeln, ^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^ cf consul, consulo, beratung lang mdcccclxxxviii lat--dt ggggggggg +counsel advice , lat consilium body deliberating, cf consul, consult coll mdccccxc ggggggg +consult to ask advice from, c xvii lat consultare to take cunsel, lat consulere to consult coll mdccccxc ___________ lllllll +consul official to aid citizens in foreign country, c xiv lat consulere to consult coll mdcccccv gggggggggg +Michael Kirby, _______ Chair of the Commission of Inquiry (COI) + ______________________ on Human Rights in the Democratic Peoples Republic of Korea (DPRK) +Commission of Inquiry (COI) on Human Rights in the Democratic Peoples Republic of Korea (DPRK) _______________________ The Commission, --Commission of Inquiry (COI)--established by a UN Human Rights Council Resolution2) ____________________________ adopted at the 22nd session--xxxx of the UN Human Rights Council _______________________________ on 21 March 2013, __________________________________________________ held its first meeting in July 2013. cccccccccccccccccccccc In August, the Commission --Commission of Inquiry (COI)--visited South Korea and Japan and --Commission of Inquiry (COI)--held public hearings, and --Commission of Inquiry (COI)--conducted interviews with expert and --Commission of Inquiry (COI)--closed face-to-face talks. In addition, an oral update on the results of its --of Commission of Inquiry (COI)-- activities was presented at the 24th session--xxxx of the UN Human Rights Council in September. aaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaa Hereafter, following an oral update at the 68th session--xxxx of the UN General Assembly, eeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeee the Commission will submit its final written report to the 25th session--xxxx of the UN Human Rights Council in March 2014. cccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccc This paper seeks to assess the activities of the Commission and to present future prospects, with a focus on the oral update that was recently presented at the UN Human Rights Council. Prev. eeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeee Prospects for North Koreas Nuclear Issue and Inter-Korean Relations in the Second half of 2013 Next eeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeee North Korea Should Break Free from its Nuclear Dilemma on its Own Accord LIST TOP Research Council on Unification Affairs --rcua -- )))))) Ϻ --min of unif -- ))))) IK--IS )))))))) KI--NU Ͽ _________ Korea Institute for National Unification _______ 123, 4.19-ro(Suyudong), Gangbuk-gu, Seoul 142-728, Korea Tel : 02-900-4300 Fax : 02-901-2549 E-mail : Webmaster@kinu.or.kr Copyright 2012 by KINU. All rights reserved. sc http://www.kinu.or.kr/eng/pub/pub_05_01.jsp?bid=EINGINSIGN&page=1&num=144&mode=view&category= """"""""""""" KOR REơUNIFICATION II ̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡ %%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%% korean and german re--unification intro by dr yong k park ##################################################### 2013 seoul pppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppp ̡ ooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooo ch xviii--p--aaa ppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppp The 2nd KINU Human Rights Forum in Europe 2013 pppppppppppppppppppppppp NameKINU ^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^ Date2013-11-21 )))))))))))))))))))) File2013-11-19.pdf [ٿ:0] eeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeee KINU - Korea Institute for National Uniffication ppppppppppppppppp HomeSitemapenlargementSizereductionKOREANAbout KINUPublicationsNK InformationKINU NewsEventsAnnouncement KINU News Events Announcement Digital Library DB Search Recent Books & Reports Web Zine Subscribe Unsubscribe KINU President HOT ISSUESearchHome > KINU News > Events Events ^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^ The 2nd KINU Human Rights Forum in Europe 2013 pppppppppppppppppppppppp NameKINU ^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^ Date2013-11-21 )))))))))))))))))))) File2013-11-19.pdf [ٿ:0] eeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeee Hit62 $$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$ The 2nd KINU Human Rights Forum in Europe 2013 The Current North Korean Situation ^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^ and Technical Cooperation cccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccc to Improve North Korean Human Rights Conditions --------------------------------------------------------------------------- Date pppppppppppppppppppp November 19, 2013 (Tuesday) Time ^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^ 10:00~17:00 Venue ^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^ Permanent Mission of the Republic of Korea ^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^ to the UN Secretariat and International Organizations in Geneva Program Opening Remarks: ^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^ Seong--whun Cheon (President, Korea Institute for National Unification) Congratulatory Remarks: pppppppppppppppppp Seok-young Choi (Ambassador, Permanent Mission of the Republic of Korea ppppppppppppppp to the UN Secretariat and International Organizations in Geneva) session--xxxxxxxx1. ^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^ Current North Korean Situation ^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^ and North Korean Human Rights Presentations aaa ppppppppppppppppppppp Current North Korean Economic Situation ^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^ and its Implications for Human Rights in North Korea: aaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaa Soo-Young Choi (KINU) bbb eeeeeeeeeeeeeeeee The North Korean Human Rights Situation and its Current Trend: ^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^ Keum-Soon Lee (KINU) Discussions Julie de Rivero (Human Rights Watch), ____________________ Robert Schwarz (Bertelsmann Stiftung), ccccccccccccccccc Benjamin Ismail (Reporters Without Borders), eeeeeeeeeeeeeeeee Grzegorz Gruca (Polska Akcja Humanitama), """"""""""""""" Jiha Jung (Ministry of Unification) $$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$ Luncheon session--xxxxxxxx2. Various Strategies to Improve North Korean Human Rights: ^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^ the Role of Technical Cooperation Presentations ccc iiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiii O__HCHR, Technical Cooperation and North Korean Human Rights: eeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeee Rory Mungoven (UN O__HCHR) ddd ((((((((((((((((((( Humanitarian Aid and Knowledge Cooperation: Long-term Perspectives in Human Rights Implementation: ppppppppppppppp Erich Weingartner (CanKor) Discussions Ryan Russell (Choson Exchange), Matyas Eorsi (Parliamentary Forum for Democracy), Yu Jin Cha (Ministry of Justice) Prev. Next ppppppppppppppppp Strategies to Implement the Trust-building Process __ trust what?__ trust for what?__yp __ aaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaa on the Korean Peninsula LIST TOP Research Council on Unification Affairs ^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^ Ϻ mou ^^^^^^^^^^^^^^ IKIS KINU Ͽ Korea Institute for National Unification $$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$ 123, 4.19-ro(Suyudong), Gangbuk-gu, Seoul 142-728, Korea Tel : 02-900-4300 Fax : 02-901-2549 E-mail : Webmaster@kinu.or.kr Copyright 2012 by KINU. All rights reserved. sc http://www.kinu.or.kr/eng/news/news_01_01.jsp?bid=ENGNEW&page=1&num=71&mode=view&category= lllllllllll KOR REơUNIFICATION II ̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡ %%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%% korean and german re--unification intro by dr yong k park ##################################################### 2013 seoul pppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppp ̡ ooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooo ch xviii--q ppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppp Strategies to Implement the Trust-building Process on the Korean Peninsula ccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccc __ trust what?__ trust for what?__yp __ eeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeee Name KINU '''''''''''''''''''''' Date 2013-10-31 ________________ File2013-10-29_invitation.pdf [ٿ:0] ppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppp 20131029.pdf [ٿ:0] pppppppppppppppppppppppppppppp KINU - Korea Institute for National Uniffication pppppppppppppp HomeSitemapenlargementSizereductionKOREANAbout KINUPublicationsNK InformationKINU NewsEventsAnnouncement KINU News Events Announcement Digital Library DB Search Recent Books & Reports Web Zine Subscribe Unsubscribe KINU President HOT ISSUESearchHome > KINU News > Events Events eeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeee Strategies to Implement the Trust-building Process on the Korean Peninsula ccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccc __ trust what?__ trust for what?__yp __ eeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeee Name KINU '''''''''''''''''''''' Date 2013-10-31 ________________ File2013-10-29_invitation.pdf [ٿ:0] ppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppp 20131029.pdf [ٿ:0] pppppppppppppppppppppppppppppp Hit261 Korea Institute for National Unifications International Conference on Strategies to Implement the Trust-building Process on the Korean Peninsula ************* __ trust what?__ trust for what?__yp __ eeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeee Date ^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^ 2013. 10. 29 ************* Time ^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^ 09:00-18:00 Venue ^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^ The Plaza Hotel, Grand Ballroom Program 09:00~09:30 Registration 09:30~10:00 Opening Ceremony Opening Remarks Cheon Seong-Whun ^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^ President, KINU Congratulatory Remarks Kim Nam-Sik ppppppppppppppppp Vice Minister of Unification Ahn Se Young ppppppppppppppppppp Chairman, National pppppppppppppppp Research Council for Economic, Humanities, and Social Sciences__ rc__ehss__ rcehss 10:00~12:00 session--xxxx1 The Trust-building Process on the Korean Peninsula ^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^ and Developing Inter-Korean Relations __ trust what?__ trust for what?__yp __ eeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeee Moderator Chung Chong-Wook $$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$ Chair Professor, Dong-A University Presentations aaa ? The Current Implementation eeeeeeeeeeeeeeee and Future Strategies of the Trust-building Process/ ^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^ __ trust what?__ trust for what?__yp __ eeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeee Choi Jinwook l ^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^ KINU bbb ? The Trust-building Process __________________ and Institutionalizing Inter-Korean Relations/ __ trust what?__ trust for what?__yp __ eeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeee Park Ihn-Hwi l pppppppppppppppppppppp Ewha Womans University Discussants Kim Keun-Sik l _____________ Kyungnam University eeeeeeeeeeeeee Woo Seongji l aaaaaaaaaaaaa Kyung Hee University eeeeeeeeeeeeeeeee Gordon Flake l cccccccccccccc Mansfield Foundation eeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeee Kimiya Tadashi l ))))))))))))))) University of Tokyo eeeeeeeeeeeeeeeee 12:00~13:30 Luncheon Luncheon Speech Ju Chul-ki ''''''''''''''''' Senior Secretary to the President of Foreign Affairs and National Security 13:30~15:30 session__xxxx2 The Trust-building Process on the Korean Peninsula eeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeee and Establishing Peace __ trust what?__ trust for what?__yp __ eeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeee Moderator Chang Dal-joong pppppppppppppppppp Professor Emeritus, Seoul National University Presentations ccc ? The Trust-building Process eeeeeeeeeeeeeeee and Directions to Resolve North Koreas Nuclear Issue/ """""""""""""""""" __ trust what?__ trust for what?__yp __ eeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeee Han Yong-sup l ''''''''''''''''' Korea National Defense University ddd ? Creating the DMZ World Peace Park ppppppppppppppp and its Implications for Peace on the Peninsula/ Park Eun Jin l ppppppppppppppp Gyeonggi Research Institute ? Directions to Establish Trust and Peace on the Korean Peninsula/ __ trust what?__ trust for what?__yp __ eeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeee Park Jong-Chul l ^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^ KINU Discussants Lee Sang Hyun l Sejong Institute ^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^ Wang Fan l China Foreign Affairs University """""""""""""" Son Gi-Woong l KINU _________________ Gordon Flake l aaaaaaaaaaaaaa Mansfield Foundation 15:30~16:00 Coffee Break 16:00~18:00 session--xxxx3 The Trust-building Process on the Korean Peninsula aaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaa and Establishing the Foundation for Unification __ trust what?__ trust for what?__yp __ eeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeee Moderator Ha Young-Sun Chairman, East Asia Institute Presentations eee ? The Trust-building Process and R.O.K-U.S. Cooperation/ ----------------- __ trust what?__ trust for what?__yp __ eeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeee Bruce Klingner l ppppppppppppppp Heritage Foundation fff ? The Trust-building Process and R.O.K-China Cooperation/ ^^^^^^^^^^^^^^ __ trust what?__ trust for what?__yp __ eeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeee Park Byung Kwang l ^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^ Institute for National Security Strategy ggg ? The Trust-building Process and the Tasks Ahead for Unification Diplomacy/ ''''''''''''''''''''''' __ trust what?__ trust for what?__yp __ eeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeee Park Young-Ho l ''''''''''''''''' KINU Discussants Lee Chung Min l ^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^ Yonsei University Wang Fan l aaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaa China Foreign Affairs University Kimiya Tadashi l aaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaa University of Tokyo Ko Yunhee l """""""""""""""" Joongang Ilbo 18:00~20:00 Dinner Prev. ^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^ The 2nd KINU Human Rights Forum in Europe 2013 Next iiiiiiiiiiii The 3rd KINU Chaillot Human Rights Forum 2013 LIST TOP Research Council on Unification AffairsϺIKIS KINU Ͽ Korea Institute for National Unification ooooooooooooooooo 123, 4.19-ro(Suyudong), Gangbuk-gu, Seoul 142-728, Korea Tel : 02-900-4300 Fax : 02-901-2549 E-mail : Webmaster@kinu.or.kr Copyright 2012 by KINU. All rights reserved. sc http://www.kinu.or.kr/eng/news/news_01_01.jsp?bid=ENGNEW&page=1&num=70&mode=view&category= pppppppp KOR REơUNIFICATION II ̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡ %%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%% korean and german re--unification intro by dr yong k park ##################################################### 2013 seoul pppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppp ooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooo ch xviii--r ppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppp Korea Institute for National Unifications International Conference on Strategies cccccccccccccccccccc to Implement the Trust-building _______________________ Process ccccccccccccccccccccccccccccc on the Korean Peninsula __ trust what?__ trust for what?__yp __ eeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeee α׷ Korea Institute for National Unifications International Conference on Strategies cccccccccccccccccccc to Implement the Trust-building _______________________ Process ccccccccccccccccccccccccccccc on the Korean Peninsula __ trust what?__ trust for what?__yp __ eeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeee ??? ??? ?? ???? ???????? ??????? ???? ?????? ????? ???? ???? ??? ???? ???? ?????? ?? ???? ????? ??? ??? ?? ??? ???? ??? ??? ???? ???? ?????? ????? ???? ????? ô oooooooooooooooooo ѹݵ ŷμ ̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡ мȸ Program Hosted by Sponsored by ʴ -------------------- 2013 ϰ Ǹ ϴ ȥ ϴ. ̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡ ʺ 3 ٽ, ڷ 簡 Ÿ ̻ , ߴ 簳, Żûҳ ϼ, ̻갡 Ϸ ǵ ߻Ͽϴ. ̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡ ٹ°Ǽ Ǽ 뼱 ߽ϴ. ̱ ߱, Ϻ þ ֺ 4 ѹݵ Ͽ ٸ ذ踦 ̸鼭 ѹݵ ȭ Ҹ 䱸ϰ ֽϴ. ̿ Ͽ ѹݵ ŷμ мȸǸ ϰ Ǿϴ. ̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡ ڱ ѹݵ ŷμ ưư Ⱥ ϰ ŷڸ Ͽ ϰ踦 Ű, ѹݵ ȭ Ű, Ϸ åԴϴ. ̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡ ϰ ѹݵ ȭ Ѿ ȭؿ ̷ ϴ ù Դϴ. ̹ мȸǿ ѹݵ ŷμ 鿡 ϰ մϴ. ε Ͻþ ϡ ū Ϸ, ٸ ϡ ƴ ٰ ϡ ưµ ʿ ֽø ϰڽϴ. 2013 10 Ͽ $$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$ Date ^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^ 2013. 10. 29 ̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡ Time ppppppppppppp 09:00-18:00 Venue oooooooooooooooo The Plaza Hotel, Grand Ballroom ȣ, ׷ ö ̿ û (1ȣ/2ȣ) , 6 ⱸ 1~2 Ÿ ̿ û (뼱ȣ : N16 , 150 , 402 , 405A , 501 , 502 , 506 , 604 , 706) ȳ cccccccccccccccccccccccccccc Ͽ Tel : 02-901-2648, 2606 Email : shim73@kinu.or.kr ȣ (Ư ߱Ұ 119) Tel : 02-771-2200 aaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaa __ zeichen deleted yp__ ȣ__ zeichen deleted yp__ $$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$ 13:30~15:30 SESSION 2 aaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaa The Trust-building Process on the Korean Peninsula ------------------- and Establishing Peace ^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^ __ trust what?__ trust for what?__yp __ eeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeee Moderator pppppppppppp Presentations Chang Dal-joong %%%%%%%%% Professor Emeritus, Seoul National University ccccccccccccccccc ? The Trust-building Process ppppppppppppppppppppppppp and Directions to Resolve North Koreas Nuclear Issue ))))))))))))))))))) __ trust what?__ trust for what?__yp __ eeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeee Han Yong-supl ^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^ Korea National Defense University pppppppppppppppppp ? Creating the DMZ World Peace Park ppppppppppppppppppppppppppppp and its Implications for Peace on the Peninsula Park Eun Jinl ppppppppppppppppp Gyeonggi Research Institute eeeeeeeeeeeeeeee ? Directions to Establish Trust """""""""""""""" and Peace on the Korean Peninsula __ trust what?__ trust for what?__yp __ eeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeee Park Jong-Chull oooooooooooooo KINU """""""""""""""""" Discussants eeeeeeeeeeeeeee Lee Sang Hyunl """"""""""""""" Sejong Institute Wang Fanl """"""""""""" China Foreign Affairs University Son Gi-Woongl (((((((((((((((( KINU Gordon Flakel -------------- Mansfield Foundation """""""""""""" 15:30~16:00 Coffee Break 16:00~18:00 SESSION 3 The Trust-building Process on the Korean Peninsula and Establishing the Foundation for Unification __ trust what?__ trust for what?__yp __ eeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeee Moderator """"""""""""""" Presentations Discussants Ha Young-Sun ------------- Chairman, East Asia Institute ? The Trust-building Process ''''''''''''' and R.O.K-U.S. Cooperation __ trust what?__ trust for what?__yp __ eeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeee Bruce Klingnerl ''''''''''''''' Heritage Foundation """""""""""""""" ? The Trust-building Process """"""""""""" and R.O.K-China eeeeeeeeeeeeee __ trust what?__ trust for what?__yp __ eeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeee Cooperation Park Byung Kwangl '''''''''''''' Institute for National Security Strategy rrrrrrrrrrrr ? The Trust-building Process (((((((((((((( and the Tasks Ahead for Unification Diplomacy __ trust what?__ trust for what?__yp __ eeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeee Park Young-Hol ''''''''''''''''' KINU eeeeeeeeeeeee Lee Chung Minl ccccccccccccc Yonsei University Wang Fanl cccccccccccccccc China Foreign Affairs University Kimiya Tadashil University of Tokyo Ko Yunheel cccccccccccccc Joongang Ilbo 18:00~20:00 Dinner 09:00~09:30 Registration ooooooooooooo 09:30~10:00 Opening Ceremony Opening Remarks Congratulatory Remarks Cheon Seong-Whun eeeeeeeeeeeeee President, KINU Kim Nam-Sik cccccccccccccc Vice Minister of Unification Ahn Se Young cccccccccccccc Chairman, National Research Council for Economic, Humanities, and Social Sciences__ rc__ehss __ 10:00~12:00 SESSION 1 ccccccccccccccc The Trust-building Process on the Korean Peninsula aaaaaaaaaaaaaaa and Developing Inter-Korean Relations __ trust what?__ trust for what?__yp __ eeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeee Moderator """""""""""" Presentations Discussants Chung Chong-Wook '''''''''''''' Chair Professor, Dong-A University ? The Current Implementation and Future Strategies of the Trust-building Process (((((((((((((((((( __ trust what?__ trust for what?__yp __ eeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeee Choi Jinwookl (((((((((((( KINU ? The Trust-building Process ppppppppppppp and Institutionalizing Inter-Korean Relations __ trust what?__ trust for what?__yp __ eeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeee Park Ihn-Hwil ''''''''''''' Ewha Woman's University Kim Keun-Sikl _____________ Kyungnam University Woo Seongjil cccccccccccc Kyung Hee University Gordon Flakel cccccccccccccc Mansfield Foundation Kimiya Tadashil aaaaaaaaaaaaaa University of Tokyo 12:00~13:30 Luncheon Luncheon Speech Ju Chul-ki ppppppppppppppp Senior Secretary to the President of Foreign Affairs and National Security 16:00~18:00 3ȸ """""""""""" ѹݵ ŷμ ϱ aaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaa __ trust what?__ trust for what?__yp __ eeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeee ȸ ǥ Ͽl eeeeeeeeeeeeeee ƽþƿ ̻ ? ѹݵ ŷμ ѡ """""""""""""""""""" __ trust what?__ trust for what?__yp __ eeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeee 罺 Ŭl ((((((((((((( 츮Ƽ ?ѹݵ ŷμ ѡ (((((((((((((((( __ trust what?__ trust for what?__yp __ eeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeee ںl ((((((((((((((( Ⱥ ?ѹݵŷμ Ͽܱ ------------------ __ trust what?__ trust for what?__yp __ eeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeee ڿȣl eeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeee Ͽ l --------------- б l eeeeeeeeeeeeeeee ܱп Ű̾ Ÿٽl ------------------- б l (((((((((((((((( ߾Ϻ 18:00~20:00 09:00~09:30 09:30~10:00 ȸ 尳ȸ l ppppppppppppp Ͽ 賲l cccccccccccccc Ϻ ȼl '''''''''''''''' ιȸȸ ̻ 10:00~12:00 1ȸ oooooooooooooo ѹݵ ŷμ ϰ eeeeeeeeeeeeeee __ trust what?__ trust for what?__yp __ eeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeee ȸ ǥ l (((((((((((((( ƴб ± ? ѹݵ ŷμ ¿ ---------------------- __ trust what?__ trust for what?__yp __ eeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeee l ''''''''''''''' Ͽ ?ѹݵ ŷμ ϰ ȭ """""""""""""" __ trust what?__ trust for what?__yp __ eeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeee l (((((((((((((( ȭڴб ٽl ------------ 泲б l '''''''''''' б ÷ũl '''''''''''''' ǽʵ Ű̾ Ÿٽl (((((((((((((( б 12:00~13:30 öl (((((((((((((((((( ûʹ ܱȺ񼭰 13:30~15:30 2ȸ -------------- ѹݵ ŷμ ȭ -------------------- __ trust what?__ trust for what?__yp __ eeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeee ȸ ǥ l '''''''''''''' б ? ѹݵ ŷμ ٹ ذ '''''''''''''''''''' __ trust what?__ trust for what?__yp __ eeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeee ѿ뼷l ((((((((((((((((( б ? DMZ ȭ ѹݵ ȭ (((((((((((((( l """"""""""""""" ⰳ߿ ? ѹݵ ŷڱ ȭ ''''''''''''' __ trust what?__ trust for what?__yp __ eeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeee öl ((((((((((((((( Ͽ ̻l ''''''''''''' l (((((((((((((( ܱп ձl '''''''''''''''''' Ͽ ÷ũl '''''''''''''''''''' ǽʵ 15:30~16:00 SC http://www.kinu.or.kr/eng/news/news_01_01.jsp?bid=ENGNEW&page=1&num=70&mode=view&category= ccccccccccccccc KOR REơUNIFICATION II ̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡ %%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%% korean and german re--unification intro by dr yong k park ##################################################### 2013 seoul pppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppp ̡ ooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooo ch xviii--s ppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppp sc http://www.kinu.or.kr/eng/news/news_01_01.jsp?bid=ENGNEW&page=1&num=70&mode=view&category= $$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$ Korea Institute for National Unifications International Conference on Strategies ((((((((((((((((((((((( to Implement the Trust-building ̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡ Process eeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeee on the Korean Peninsula ̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡ __ trust what?__ trust for what?__yp __ eeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeee Date 2013. 10. 29 %%%%%%%%%%%%%%% Korea Institute for National Unifications International Conference on Strategies ((((((((((((((((((((((( to Implement the Trust-building ̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡ Process eeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeee on the Korean Peninsula ̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡ __ trust what?__ trust for what?__yp __ eeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeee Date 2013. 10. 29 %%%%%%%%%%%%%%% Time 09:00-18:00 Venue The Plaza Hotel, Grand Ballroom ȣ, ׷ ѹݵ ŷμ мȸ ^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^ ********************************************** Korea Institute for National Unifications International Conference on Strategies ((((((((((((((((((((((( to Implement the Trust-building ̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡ Process eeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeee on the Korean Peninsula ̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡ __ trust what?__ trust for what?__yp __ eeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeee Date 2013. 10. 29 %%%%%%%%%%%%%%% Time 09:00-18:00 Venue The Plaza Hotel, Grand Ballroom ȣ, ׷ ѹݵ ŷμ мȸ ^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^ Hosted by Sponsored by Discussants Lee Sang Hyunl ccccccccccc Sejong Institute $$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$ Wang Fanl aaaaaaaaaaaaa China Foreign Affairs University Son Gi-Woongl aaaaaaaaaaa KINU Gordon Flakel ))))))))))))) Mansfield Foundation 15:30~16:00 Coffee Break 16:00~18:00 $$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$ SESSION 3 ^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^ The Trust-building Process on the Korean Peninsula """"""""""""" and Establishing the Foundation for Unification $$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$ __ trust what?__ trust for what?__yp __ eeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeee Moderator Presentations Discussants Ha Young-Sun (((((((((((( Chairman, East Asia Institute ? The Trust-building Process on the Korean Peninsula '''''''''''''''''' and ROK-US Cooperation $$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$ __ trust what?__ trust for what?__yp __ eeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeee Bruce Klingnerl ---------- Heritage Foundation ? The Trust-Building Process eeeeeeeeeeee and ROK-China Cooperation $$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$ __ trust what?__ trust for what?__yp __ eeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeee Park Byung Kwangl iiiiiiiiiiiii Institute for National Security Strategy ? The Trust-building Process on Korean Peninsula ppppppppppppppp and the Tasks Ahead for Unification Diplomacy $$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$ __ trust what?__ trust for what?__yp __ eeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeee Park Young-Hol oooooooooooo KINU Lee Chung Minl ^^^^^^^^^^^^^ Yonsei University Wang Fanl '''''''''''''' China Foreign Affairs University Kimiya Tadashil (((((((((((( University of Tokyo Ko Yunheel ------------ Joongang Ilbo 18:00~20:00 Dinner 09:00~09:30 Registration $$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$ 09:30~10:00 Opening Ceremony Opening Remarks Congratulatory Remarks Cheon Seong-Whun ''''''''''' President, KINU Kim Nam-Sik (((((((((((( Vice Minister of Unification Ahn Se Young """"""""""" Chairman, National Research Council for Economic, Humanities, and Social Sciences__rc __ ehss__ 10:00~12:00 $$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$ SESSION 1 ----------- The Trust-building Process on the Korean Peninsula aaaaaaaaaaaaa and Developing Inter-Korean Relations $$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$ __ trust what?__ trust for what?__yp __ eeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeee Moderator Presentations Discussants Chung Chong-Wook (((((((( Chair Professor, Dong-A University ? The Current Implementation and Future Strategies of the Trust-building Process ________________ __ trust what?__ trust for what?__yp __ eeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeee Choi Jinwookl ccccccccccc KINU ? The Trust-building Process on the Korean Peninsula aaaaaaaaaaaa and Institutionalizing Inter-Korean Relations $$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$ __ trust what?__ trust for what?__yp __ eeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeee Park Ihn-Hwil ppppppppppppp Ewha Womans University Kim Keun-Sikl pppppppppppp Kyungnam University Woo Seongjil ^^^^^^^^^^^^ Kyung Hee University Gordon Flakel ^^^^^^^^^^^^ Mansfield Foundation Kimiya Tadashil ppppppppppppp University of Tokyo 12:00~13:30 Luncheon Luncheon Speech ^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^ Ju Chul-ki cccccccccccccc Senior Secretary to the President of Foreign Affairs and National Security 13:30~15:30 $$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$ SESSION 2 ''''''''''''' ^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^ The Trust-building Process on the Korean Peninsula eeeeeeeeeeee and Establishing Peace $$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$ __ trust what?__ trust for what?__yp __ eeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeee Moderator Presentations Chang Dal-joong ------------ Professor Emeritus, Seoul National University ? The Trust-building Process on the Korean Peninsula cccccccccccccc and Directions to Resolve North Koreas Nuclear Issue ^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^ __ trust what?__ trust for what?__yp __ eeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeee Han Yong-supl oooooooooooo Korea National Defense University ? Creating the DMZ World Peace Park and its Implications for Peace on the Peninsula ^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^ iiiiiiiiiii Park Eun-Jinl eeeeeeeeeeeee Gyeonggi Research Institute ? Directions to Establish Trust and Peace on the Korean Peninsula ^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^ (((((((((((((((((( __ trust what?__ trust for what?__yp __ eeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeee Park Jong-Chull ----------- KINU October 29(Tue) Program ̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡ 10 29 (ȭ) α׷ ^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^ 16:00~18:00 $$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$ 3ȸ ((((((((((((((((((( ѹݵ ŷμ ϱ """"""""""""""" ^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^ __ trust what?__ trust for what?__yp __ eeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeee ȸ ǥ Ͽl ''''''''''''' ƽþƿ ̻ ? ѹݵ ŷμ ѡ '''''''''''''''''' ^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^ __ trust what?__ trust for what?__yp __ eeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeee 罺 Ŭl ''''''''''''' 츮Ƽ ?ѹݵ ŷμ ѡ ''''''''''''''' __ trust what?__ trust for what?__yp __ eeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeee ںl eeeeeeeeeeee Ⱥ ? ѹݵŷμ Ͽܱ ------------------ __ trust what?__ trust for what?__yp __ eeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeee ڿȣl '''''''''''''''''' Ͽ l ''''''''''''''' б l (((((((((((((( ܱп Ű̾ Ÿٽl (((((((((((((( б l eeeeeeeeeee ߾Ϻ 18:00~20:00 09:00~09:30 09:30~10:00 ȸ 尳ȸ l ---------------- Ͽ 賲l '''''''''''' Ϻ ȼl ''''''''''''''' ιȸȸ ̻ __ rc__ ehss__ 10:00~12:00 ^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^ 1ȸ _______________ $$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$ ѹݵ ŷμ ϰ eeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeee __ trust what?__ trust for what?__yp __ eeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeee ȸ ǥ l iiiiiiiiiiiiii ƴб ± ? ѹݵ ŷμ ¿ """""""""""""""""""" __ trust what?__ trust for what?__yp __ eeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeee l ----------- Ͽ ? ѹݵ ŷμ ϰ ȭ eeeeeeeeeeeeeee __ trust what?__ trust for what?__yp __ eeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeee l ((((((((((( ȭڴб ٽl """""""""""""" 泲б l ''''''''''''''' б ÷ũl (((((((((((( ǽʵ Ű̾ Ÿٽl (((((((((((( б 12:00~13:30 öl (((((((((((((((((( ûʹ ܱȺ񼭰 13:30~15:30 $$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$ 2ȸ $$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$ -------------- ѹݵ ŷμ ȭ '''''''''''''''''''' __ trust what?__ trust for what?__yp __ eeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeee ȸ ǥ l eeeeeeeeeeeeeee б ? ѹݵ ŷμ ٹ ذ '''''''''''''''''''''''' __ trust what?__ trust for what?__yp __ eeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeee ѿ뼷l ooooooooooo б ? DMZ ȭ ѹݵ ȭ eeeeeeeeeeeeeeeee l aaaaaaaaaaaaaaa ⰳ߿ ? ѹݵ ŷڱ ȭ aaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaa __ trust what?__ trust for what?__yp __ eeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeee öl ccccccccccccccccccc Ͽ ̻l $$$$$$$$$$$ l ______________ ܱп ձl eeeeeeeeeeee Ͽ ÷ũl ccccccccccc ǽʵ 15:30~16:00 sc http://www.kinu.or.kr/eng/news/news_01_01.jsp?bid=ENGNEW&page=1&num=70&mode=view&category= $$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$ KOR REơUNIFICATION II ̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡ %%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%% korean and german re--unification intro by dr yong k park ##################################################### 2013 seoul pppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppp %% ooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooo ch xviii--s ppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppp sc http://www.kinu.or.kr/eng/news/news_01_01.jsp?bid=ENGNEW&page=1&num=70&mode=view&category= $$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$ Korea Institute for National Unifications International Conference on Strategies ((((((((((((((((((((((( to Implement the Trust-building ̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡ Process eeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeee on the Korean Peninsula ̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡ __ trust what?__ trust for what?__yp __ eeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeee Date 2013. 10. 29 %%%%%%%%%%%%%%% Korea Institute for National Unifications International Conference on Strategies ((((((((((((((((((((((( to Implement the Trust-building ̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡ Process eeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeee on the Korean Peninsula ̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡ __ trust what?__ trust for what?__yp __ eeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeee Date 2013. 10. 29 %%%%%%%%%%%%%%% Time 09:00-18:00 Venue The Plaza Hotel, Grand Ballroom ȣ, ׷ ѹݵ ŷμ мȸ ^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^ ************************* end oooooooooooooo sc http://www.kinu.or.kr/eng/news/news_01_01.jsp?bid=ENGNEW&page=1&num=70&mode=view&category= $$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$ KOR REơUNIFICATION II ̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡ %%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%% korean and german re--unification intro by dr yong k park ##################################################### 2013 seoul pppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppp part iii ############################################## ooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooo ))))))))))))))))))))))) ch xviii--ch xviiiơB__ch xviii--c--ch xviii--s ppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppp ססססססססססס SC סססססססס http://gcci2013.npage.de/kor-re-unification-ii-part-iii.html סססססססססססססססס KOR REơUNIFICATION II ̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡ %%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%% korean and german re--unification intro by dr yong k park ##################################################### 2013 seoul pppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppp part iii--null ############################################## ̡ ooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooo ch xviii--s--aaa__ch xviii--s--ccc __ch xviii--s --mmm ppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppp KOR REơUNIFICATION II ̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡ %%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%% korean and german re--unification intro by dr yong k park ##################################################### 2013 seoul pppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppp ̡ ooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooo ch xviii--s--aaa ppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppp sc http://www.kinu.or.kr/eng/news/news_01_01.jsp?bid=ENGNEW&page=1&num=70&mode=view&category= $$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$ Korea Institute for National Unifications International Conference on Strategies ((((((((((((((((((((((( to Implement the Trust-building ̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡ Process eeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeee on the Korean Peninsula ̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡ __ trust what?__ trust for what?__yp __ eeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeee Date 2013. 10. 29 %%%%%%%%%%%%%%% Contents ̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡ The Trust-building Process on the Korean Peninsula and Developing Inter-Korean Relations """""""""""""" ^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^ _________________________________________________________________________ __ trust what?__ trust for what?__yp __ eeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeee Contents ̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡ The Trust-building Process on the Korean Peninsula and Developing Inter-Korean Relations """""""""""""" ^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^ _________________________________________________________________________ __ trust what?__ trust for what?__yp __ eeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeee ? The Current Implementation and Future Strategies of the Trust-building Process uuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuu __ trust what?__ trust for what?__yp __ eeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeee 15 Choi Jinwook l ((((((((((( KINU _______________________________________________________________ ? The Trust-building Process on the Korean Peninsula ---------------- and Institutionalizing Inter-Korean Relations uuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuu __ trust what?__ trust for what?__yp __ eeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeee 63 Park Ihn-Hwi l ooooooooooooooo Ewha Womans University ______________________________________________________________________ The Trust-building Process on the Korean Peninsula ^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^ and Establishing Peace mmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmm _______________________________________________________________________ ? The Trust-building Process on the Korean Peninsula """"""""""""""" and Directions to Resolve North Korea's Nuclear Issue $$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$ __ trust what?__ trust for what?__yp __ eeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeee 113 Han Yong-sup l uuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuu Korea National Defense University _____________________________________________________________________ ? Creating the DMZ World Peace Park and its Implications for Peace on the Peninsula 159 ^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^ Park Eun-Jin l pppppppppppp Gyeonggi Research Institute ____________________________________________________________________ ? Directions to Establish Trust and Peace on the Korean Peninsula pppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppp __ trust what?__ trust for what?__yp __ eeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeee 195 Park Jong-Chul l ppppppppppppp KINU cccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccc The Trust-building Process on the Korean Peninsula eeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeee and Establishing the Foundation for Unification $$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$ )))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))) __ trust what?__ trust for what?__yp __ eeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeee ? The Trust-building Process on the Korean Peninsula and ROK-US Cooperation ''''''''''''''''''''' __ trust what?__ trust for what?__yp __ eeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeee 233 Bruce Klingner l """""""""""""""""""" Heritage Foundation eeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeee ? The Trust-Building Process pppppppppppppppp and ROK-China Cooperation $$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$ __ trust what?__ trust for what?__yp __ eeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeee 273 Park Byung Kwang l pppppppppppppp Institute for National Security Strategy ''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''' ? The Trust-building Process on Korean Peninsula ------------------- and the Tasks Ahead for Unification Diplomacy __ trust what?__ trust for what?__yp __ eeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeee 313 Park Young-Ho l pppppppppppppppppp KINU ccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccc 1 Session 2 Session 3 Session ppppppppppppppppppp ѹݵ ŷμ ϰ ccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccc __ trust what?__ trust for what?__yp __ eeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeee ? ѹݵ ŷμ ¿ ^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^ __ trust what?__ trust for what?__yp __ eeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeee 41 l aaaaaaaaaaaaaaaa Ͽ """"""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""" ?ѹݵ ŷμ ϰ ȭ $$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$ __ trust what?__ trust for what?__yp __ eeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeee 87 l pppppppppppppppp ȭڴб eeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeee ѹݵ ŷμ ȭ cccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccc __ trust what?__ trust for what?__yp __ eeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeee ?ѹݵ ŷμ ٹ ذ $$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$ __ trust what?__ trust for what?__yp __ eeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeee 137 ѿ뼷 l pppppppppppppppp б """"""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""" ?DMZ ȭ ѹݵ ȭ 177 ^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^ l ''''''''''''''''' ⰳ߿ eeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeee ?ѹݵ ŷڱ ȭ ^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^ __ trust what?__ trust for what?__yp __ eeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeee 213 ö l ^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^ Ͽ^ ooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooo ѹݵ ŷμ ϱ ___________________________________________________________________________ __ trust what?__ trust for what?__yp __ eeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeee ?ѹݵ ŷμ ѡ aaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaa __ trust what?__ trust for what?__yp __ eeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeee 253 罺 Ŭ l oooooooooooooo 츮Ƽ ___________________________________________________________________________ ?ѹݵ ŷμ ѡ pppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppp __ trust what?__ trust for what?__yp __ eeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeee 293 ں l eeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeee Ⱥ (((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((( ?ѹݵ ŷμ Ͽܱ ppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppp __ trust what?__ trust for what?__yp __ eeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeee 335 ڿȣ l ------------------------------------- Ͽ ____________________________________________________________________ 1ȸ '''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''' 2 Session 3 Session $$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$ sc http://www.kinu.or.kr/eng/news/news_01_01.jsp?bid=ENGNEW&page=1&num=70&mode=view&category= $$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$ KOR REơUNIFICATION II ̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡ %%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%% korean and german re--unification intro by dr yong k park ##################################################### 2013 seoul pppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppp ̡ ooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooo ch xviii--s--aaa ppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppp sc http://www.kinu.or.kr/eng/news/news_01_01.jsp?bid=ENGNEW&page=1&num=70&mode=view&category= $$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$ Korea Institute for National Unifications International Conference on Strategies ((((((((((((((((((((((( to Implement the Trust-building ̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡ Process eeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeee on the Korean Peninsula ̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡ __ trust what?__ trust for what?__yp __ eeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeee Date 2013. 10. 29 %%%%%%%%%%%%%%% Contents ̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡ The Trust-building Process on the Korean Peninsula and Developing Inter-Korean Relations """""""""""""" ^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^ _________________________________________________________________________ __ trust what?__ trust for what?__yp __ eeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeee end ̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡ sc http://www.kinu.or.kr/eng/news/news_01_01.jsp?bid=ENGNEW&page=1&num=70&mode=view&category= $$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$ KOR REơUNIFICATION II ̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡ %%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%% korean and german re--unification intro by dr yong k park ##################################################### 2013 seoul pppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppp ̡ ooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooo ch xviii--s--bbb ppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppp sc http://www.kinu.or.kr/eng/news/news_01_01.jsp?bid=ENGNEW&page=1&num=70&mode=view&category= $$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$ Korea Institute for National Unifications International Conference on Strategies ((((((((((((((((((((((( to Implement the Trust-building ̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡ Process eeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeee on the Korean Peninsula ̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡ __ trust what?__ trust for what?__yp __ eeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeee Date 2013. 10. 29 %%%%%%%%%%%%%%% Opening Remarks **************************************************************** )))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))) __October 29, 2013 Cheon Seong-Whun pppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppp President, Korea Institute for National Unification __ ^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^ ************************************************** Opening Remarks )))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))) __October 29, 2013 Cheon Seong-Whun pppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppp President, Korea Institute for National Unification __ Good morning, as the President of the Korea Institute for National Unification (KINU), thank you very much indeed for your participation. The Korea Institute for National Unification is very glad to host an international conference on the topic of "Strategies to Implement the Trust-building Process on the Korean Peninsula." In particular, I would like to extend my deepest gratitude to Vice-Minister of Unification Kim Nam-sik and Chairman of the National Research Council for Economic, Humanities and Social Sciences Ahn Se Young, who will be giving congratulatory remarks, and also to the Senior Secretary to the President of Foreign Affairs and National Security, Ju Chul-ki, who will be giving the luncheon speech. We would also like to express our appreciation to various distinguished experts who will be participating as moderators, presenters and discussants. KINU supports the formation and implementation of the government's policies on North Korea and unification. KINU was established in 1991 with the aim of preparing for the nation's dream of peaceful unification, by broadening society-wide consensus on the issue of unification. We are dedicated to becoming an internationally renowned think-tank with expertise and authority on issues concerning North Korea and the unification of the Peninsula. Today's conference was arranged in an effort to fulfill such mission. Distinguished guests and experts, it has been 8 months since the Park Geun-hye government was launched under the banner of 'Opening a New Era of Hope.' As you well know, the Park Geun-hye government has set 'Foundation for Peaceful Unification' as one of the four Administrative Priorities. The Trust-building Process on the Korean Peninsula is the core implementation strategy to establish the 'Foundation for Peaceful Unification.' The Trust-building Process on the Korean Peninsula is grounded in the spirit of the South Korean Constitution. Based on a firm national identity, it aims to develop inter-Korean relations with a flexible and open mind. The Trust-building Process on the Korean Peninsula is the realization of 'trust,' which is a core concept throughout the Park Geun-hye government's administrative philosophy, in inter-Korean relations. Based on trust, the policy seeks a sustainable peace while securely managing inter-Korean relations. Korea Institute for National Unifications International Conference on Strategies to Implement the Trust-building Process on the Korean Peninsula The Trust-building Process will open the doors to dialogue and build healthy inter-Korean relations, while responding to North Korea's provocations with strong security. Through constructive contact, it aims to induce positive changes in North Korea's thoughts and actions. The Trust-building Process is a stable North Korea policy that dynamically balances national security and inter-Korean dialogue. Moreover, by balancing inter-Korean dialogue with international norms, it will shape inter-Korean relations so that it corresponds with the expectations of the international community. The Trust-building Process on the Korean Peninsula is a North Korea policy that is constantly evolving through discarding the weaknesses and applying the strengths of previous governments' policies. It strives to enhance its quality by embracing the history and continuity of unification policies, and pursuing policy reinforcements. The Trust-building Process is a multi-dimensional process similar to the two sides of a coin, in that it will respond to North Korea's positive actions with reciprocity to create positive momentum, and respond to negative actions by cooperating with the international community to induce positivity. By discarding past malaise and fixing distorted practices, it consistently pursues the sustainable development of inter-Korean relations. The foundation for the Trust-building Process on the Korean Peninsula is the establishment of a firm security posture on the premise that not even the least kind of threat shall harm national security and the safety of the Korean citizens. Strong security and flexible dialogue are comparable to the two wheels of a barrow, which support the 'Development of Inter-Korean relations and a Peaceful Korean Peninsula.' Today's conference is a forum to listen to the views of experts from both home and abroad for the successful implementation of the Trust-building Process on the Korean Peninsula. I hope that this will become a meaningful gathering in which we pool the wisdom to establish a strong foundation for peaceful unification and form a new inter-Korean relation based on trust. Thank you. October 29, 2013 Cheon Seong-Whun pppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppp President, Korea Institute for National Unification end oooooooooooooooooooooo sc http://www.kinu.or.kr/eng/news/news_01_01.jsp?bid=ENGNEW&page=1&num=70&mode=view&category= $$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$ KOR REơUNIFICATION II ̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡ %%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%% korean and german re--unification intro by dr yong k park ##################################################### 2013 seoul pppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppp ooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooo ch xviii--s--bbb ppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppp sc http://www.kinu.or.kr/eng/news/news_01_01.jsp?bid=ENGNEW&page=1&num=70&mode=view&category= $$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$ Korea Institute for National Unifications International Conference on Strategies ((((((((((((((((((((((( to Implement the Trust-building ̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡ Process eeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeee on the Korean Peninsula ̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡ __ trust what?__ trust for what?__yp __ eeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeee Date 2013. 10. 29 %%%%%%%%%%%%%%% Opening Remarks **************************************************************** )))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))) __October 29, 2013 Cheon Seong-Whun pppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppp President, Korea Institute for National Unification __ ^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^ ************************************************** ȸ $$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$ __ October 29, 2013 Cheon Seong-Whun pppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppp President, Korea Institute for National Unification__ ȳϽʴϱ? Ͽ Դϴ. Ͽ ѹݵ ŷμ мȸǸ ϰ ſ մϴ. ٻڽ  ڸ ֽ ͺ в λ縦 øϴ. Ư 縦 ֽ 賲 Ϻ , ȼ ιȸȸ ̻, ֽ ö ûʹ ܱȺ񼭰Բ ū 帳ϴ. ƿ﷯ ȸǿ ȸ, ǥ, ڷ Ͻ е鲲 λ縦 帳ϴ. Ͽ ϡå ϰ Ͽ 븦 ν Ҹ ȭ غϱ 1991⿡ Ǿϴ. ѹݵ ϰ ־ ְ ִ γ DZ ϰ ֽϴ. ȸǵ Ͽ ϱ ڸ õǾ ϴ. ͺ ׸ , ô롯 ġ ɰ ڱΰ 8 ϴ. ƽô ó ڱδ ȭ ࡯ 4 ϳ ߽ϴ. ȭ ϱ ٽ ٷ ѹݵ ŷμԴϴ. ѹݵ ŷμ ѹα ſ Ѹ ֽϴ. Ȯ ü ϰ ڼ ϰ踦 Ű մϴ. ѹݵ ŷμ ڱ ö ϴ ٽɰ ŷڡ ϰ Դϴ. ŷڸ ϰ踦 ϸ鼭 Ӱ ȭ ϰ մϴ. ѹݵ ŷμ ߿ ưư Ⱥ óϸ鼭 Ѱ ȭ ǰ ϰ踦 Դϴ. Ǽ ൿ ٲ ϰ մϴ. ѹݵ ŷμ мȸ ѹݵ ŷμ Ⱥ ϴȭ ̿ ϴ å Դϴ. ϴȭ Թ ν ȸ Ŀ ϴ ϰ踦 ϰ մϴ. ѹݵ ŷμ å ϸ鼭 ո̰ ȭϴ åԴϴ. å 缺 Ӽ ϰ å ȭ ϸ鼭 ϰ մϴ. ѹݵ ŷμ ൿ ȭϸ鼭 ū âϰ, ൿ ȸ ؼ ϸ鼭, ó Ǵ ü μ ϴ. ߸ ְ ٷν, ϰǰ ϰ Ӱ ߱մϴ. ѹݵ ŷμ ޹ħϴ 밡 ٷ Ȯ Ⱥ¼ ȮԴϴ. Ⱥ ȣ 鸲 ٴ Դϴ. Ⱥ ȭ ϰ ȭο ѹݵ ̴ ϴ. ȸǴ ѹݵ ŷμ ûϴ ڸԴϴ. ȸǰ ŷڿ ο ϰ踦 ϰ, ȭ ưư ִ ڸ DZ⸦ ٶϴ. մϴ. 2013 10 29 Ͽ ccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccc sc http://www.kinu.or.kr/eng/news/news_01_01.jsp?bid=ENGNEW&page=1&num=70&mode=view&category= $$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$ KOR REơUNIFICATION II ̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡ %%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%% korean and german re--unification intro by dr yong k park ##################################################### 2013 seoul pppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppp ̡ ooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooo ch xviii--s--bbb ppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppp sc http://www.kinu.or.kr/eng/news/news_01_01.jsp?bid=ENGNEW&page=1&num=70&mode=view&category= $$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$ Korea Institute for National Unifications International Conference on Strategies ((((((((((((((((((((((( to Implement the Trust-building ̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡ Process eeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeee on the Korean Peninsula ̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡ __ trust what?__ trust for what?__yp __ eeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeee Date 2013. 10. 29 %%%%%%%%%%%%%%% Opening Remarks )))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))) __October 29, 2013 Cheon Seong-Whun pppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppp President, Korea Institute for National Unification __ ^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^ end iiiiiiiiiiiiiii sc http://www.kinu.or.kr/eng/news/news_01_01.jsp?bid=ENGNEW&page=1&num=70&mode=view&category= $$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$ KOR REơUNIFICATION II ̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡ %%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%% korean and german re--unification intro by dr yong k park ##################################################### 2013 seoul pppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppp ̡ ooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooo ch xviii--s--ccc ppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppp sc http://www.kinu.or.kr/eng/news/news_01_01.jsp?bid=ENGNEW&page=1&num=70&mode=view&category= $$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$ Korea Institute for National Unifications International Conference on Strategies ((((((((((((((((((((((( to Implement the Trust-building ̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡ Process eeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeee on the Korean Peninsula ̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡ __ trust what?__ trust for what?__yp __ eeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeee Date 2013. 10. 29 %%%%%%%%%%%%%%% ѹݵ ŷμ ϰ ^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^ The Trust-building Process on the Korean Peninsula and Developing Inter-Korean Relations __ trust what?__ trust for what?__yp __ eeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeee Session1 ^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^ Presentations ^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^ ? ѹݵ ŷμ ¿ ^ $$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$ The Current Implementation $$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$ and Future Strategies of the Trust-building Process ^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^ __ trust what?__ trust for what?__yp __ eeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeee ? ѹݵ ŷμ ϰ ȭ $$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$ The Trust-building Process on the Korean Peninsula $$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$ and Institutionalizing Inter-Korean Relations __ trust what?__ trust for what?__yp __ eeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeee Session1-1 $$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$ ѹݵ ŷμ ¿ $$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$ The Current Implementation $$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$ and Future Strategies $$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$ of the Trust-building Process $$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$ __ trust what?__ trust for what?__yp __ eeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeee Choi Jinwook l ^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^ KINU ^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^ ѹݵ ŷμ мȸ15 aaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaa The Current Implementation ^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^ and Future Strategies of the Trust-building Process __ trust what?__ trust for what?__yp __ eeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeee Choi Jinwook ))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))) KINU cccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccc I. Introduction The Park Geun-hye Government started with the worst situation of the inter-Korean relations in a long time. During the South Korean presidential election campaign in 2012, North Korea reproached her vision for foreign relations, national security and unification as a pledge for all-out confrontation and war, fired a long-rangemissile just before the election, and restarted to conduct the third nuclear test with the inauguration ahead. As soon as the new South Korean administration was established, the North Korean regime heightened tension between the two Koreas with provocative threats and the closure of the Kaesong Industrial Complex. After a short quiet period of negotiations to reopen the Kaesong Industrial Complex and resume the Six-Party Talks, it cancelled the scheduled reunion of separated families and reproached President Park Geun-hye directly by name to push ahead the crisis. Although her diplomatic policy received widespread support both internally and externally in spite of the serious aggravation of South-North relations, the future of inter-Korean relations will be influenced by North Koreas alternately strong and moderate attitudes and Northeast Asias unstable circumstances. This paper evaluates the current implementation of the Trust- 16 Korea Institute for National Unifications International Conference on Strategies to Implement the Trust-building Process on the Korean Peninsula building Process during the last eight months and tries to suggest the future strategy based on the expected attitudes of North Korea and the political situations around the neighboring countries. aaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaa The Current Implementation and Future Strategies of the Trust-building Process __ trust what?__ trust for what?__yp __ eeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeee Choi Jinwook ))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))) KINU cccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccc II. Significance and Current Implementation of the Trust-building Process 1. Significance and Current Implementation of the Trust-building Process The Trust-building Process was proposed to terminate a vicious cycle of mistrust and confrontation in inter-Korean relations. Although there appeared to be some progress made, it used to turn out not to be sustainable ultimately and was frustrated in a short time. It is mainly due to the lack of trust. Though building trust with North Korea is not easyat all, it is inevitable to make an irreversible progress in the inter-Korean relations. Although the importance of trust between South and North Korea has been mentioned intermittently, the Park Administration included it into the keyword of policy towards North Korea for the first time. Unlike the former governments of South Korea where some policy measures, such as engagement, principle and strategic patience, were discussed, the present administration focused more on the amorphous infrastructure of trust. Thus, an armchair theory of dichotomy between hard-line and moderate stances is meaningless, and the diplomatic stances toward North Korea should be alternate between strong and moderateaccording to instant situations. The Trust-building Process is a policy to improve the inter-Korean relations through forming mutual trust based on the solid national ѹݵ ŷμ мȸ17 _____________________________________________________________________________ security, settling the peace on the Korean Peninsula and laying the cornerstone of the eventual unification. The Trust-building Process excludes both helpless maintenance of the status quo and hastiness in the inter-Korean relations. It aims at constructing trust through humanitarianaid and communication rather than interrupting dialogues on the excuse of political controversies as the nuclear issue. At the same time, South Korea does not hasten to push forward inter-Korean communication in accordance with the velocity of trust. Trust is never identified with unilateral concession or weak policy. It is rather a gradual progress to the next steps in a calm and orderly way. The purposes of the Trust-building Process consist of three objectives. First, it is to conform the inter-Korean relations suffering from a vicious cycle of mistrust and confrontation to common sense and the international rules. Second, to transform the relations into the sustainable, cooperative and pacificatoryones based on firm mutual trust, escaping from the tension and crises. Finally, it is aiming at the bedrock for the prosperous co-existence of the two Koreas and the way to the peaceful unification through putting together wisdom from the whole Korean nation and the world. The Trust-building Process is based on three major principles. First, it follows the balanced approach, which analyses the strength and weaknesses of hardline and moderate policies each to maintain the strength and make up for the weakness. Its equilibrium includes a variety of sub-balances, such as the balances between national security and cooperation, 18 Korea Institute for National Unifications International Conference on Strategies to Implement the Trust-building Process on the Korean Peninsula between the inter-Korean relations and the international alignment, and between negotiation and deterrence as well as between the strong and soft-line policies. The second principle is an evolutionary North Korea policy. The South Korean policy toward the North must evolve in order to induce the North Korean regime to make a right decision and to achieve joint progress of both Koreas. Also, South Korea should manage the circumstances in the peninsula actively through giving variety to its policy in accordance with development of situations. The evolution of North Korea policy is to maintain the consistency of the policy amending the weakness and expanding the strength in contrast todiscontinuities in policy. Third, it is to cooperate with the international community that is essential to put the Trust-building Process intopractice, for which diverse strategies would be necessary. Therefore, South Koreas drive to build trust needs the international support. The Current Implementation and Future Strategies of the Trust-building Process __ trust what?__ trust for what?__yp __ eeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeee Choi Jinwook ))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))) KINU cccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccc 2. Current Implementation of the Trust-building Process. A. Decisive response to North Koreas third nuclear test and provocative threats North Korea conducted the third nuclear test on February 12, just before the inauguration of the ParkGeun-hye Administration, and then heightened the crisis with a provocative threat after the inauguration. Park responded to North Koreas provocation with warning that the ROK-US combined forces would retaliate decisively against the North if necessary. She affirmed that North Koreas nuclear weapons is not acceptable and the development of the inter-Korean relations would be implausible without the denuclearization of North Korea, emphasizing the impossibility of the so- ѹݵ ŷμ мȸ19 ))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))) called Byungjin Line of simultaneousnuclear and peoples economic development. The Park Administration strived both to empower the U.S. extended deterrence and develop South Koreas independent capacity of strike and deterrence to prepare for North Koreas asymmetric warfare capabilities, such as nuclear and biochemical weapons. Accordingly, South Korea will discuss the optimal time to delay the scheduled transfer of wartime operational control (OPCON) and increase its national defense expenditure that is amount to 2.53% of present GDP into 2.8% by 2017. B. Efforts to build trust In order to build trust, South Korea should start from small but feasible tasks, including observance of the existing promises, acquiring diverse communicative channels, implementing humanitarian aid, etc., rather than leaving the situation unchanged on excuse of political controversies as the nuclear issue. The efforts to communicate with North Korea is a crucial part of the Trust-building Process as it says, Talks must be done even in wartime because trust is impossible to formwithout communication. There is, of course, a limit to solve a great deal of the pending tasks between the two Koreas where there is no mutual trust.In fact, South Korea succeeded in reopening the Kaesong Industrial Complex through its persistent efforts to communicate instead of reproach or put pressure on the North. 1 1 South Korea proposed a dialogue to settle the Kaesong Industrial Complex crisis on April 25. When North Korea refused it, the South government ordered the South Korean personnel to return from the Complex. On June 6, the 20 Korea Institute for National Unifications International Conference on Strategies to Implement the Trust-building Process on the Korean Peninsula Although repeated provocative threats of North Korea and UN Security Council Resolution for sanction left Humanitarian aid to the North slumped since the inauguration of the Park administration, South Korea approved tuberculosis medicine aid by Eugene Bell Foundation on March 22 (worth about 670 million won), medicine items and nourishing foods aid for North Korean infants, children and elementary students by the five civilian organizations on July 29. Though the humanitarian aid of $ 6.04 million (6.7 billion won) was decided to implemented, it was composed of $ 2,645,724 of vaccine and medicine, $ 2,995,335 of nutritious improvement, $ 394,874 of indirect costs as monitoring and $15.92 million of task maintenance. 2 The efforts to form the trust are far from a unilateral or submissive policy. South Korean government observed its principle and demonstrated flexibility when necessary in negotiating with North Korea. In the beginning, the Park Administration warned that it would retaliate strongly against North Koreas provocations. When North Korea closed the Kaesong Industrial Complex, South Korea proposed a working-level talk on April 25, adding we have to take a grave measure unless there is any response by tomorrow (March 26). Then it ordered the personnel in the 123 firms to evacuate from the Complex with North Korea remaining silent. In the negotiation for reopening the Kaesong Industrial Complex, South Korea refused to accept the blame claimed by the North and demanded the North explicitly to admit its responsibility and to prevent recurrence, risking a breakdown of Committee for the Peaceful Reunification of the Fatherland (CPRF) offered a talk, to which South Korea responded with a counter proposal for a minister-level talk. Then both sides had a working-level talk, which broke down due to a controversy over level of chief representatives. On. August 4, the South proposed a working-level talk again, and finally the seventh minister-level talk agreedto the resumption of the Kaesong Industrial Complex. 2 South Korean government has offered humanitarian aid toNorth Korea of at least a million dollars each year through UNICEF, which amounted to 26.6 million dollars in total until now. ѹݵ ŷμ мȸ21 ___________________________________________________________________________ negotiation. When North Korea accepted the seventh working-level talk, South Korea demonstrated its flexibilityfinally to include North Korea into an agency of responsibility to prevent recurrence despite its explicit apology. 3 The Current Implementation and Future Strategies of the Trust-building Process __ trust what?__ trust for what?__yp __ eeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeee Choi Jinwook ))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))) KINU cccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccc C. Constant speed of the inter-Korean relations That is the reason why South Korea divided the subjects of negotiation such as the resumption of the Kaesong Industrial Complex, reunion of separated families and the tour business in Mt. Kumgangsan. It is intended to accumulate trust by solving problems one by one instead of pushing forward everything at once, considering the mistrust between South and North Korea. That is to say, it isprudential attitudewith no excessive expectation for results. Accordingly, summit talks or large-scale aid that has a temporary impact ending in vain could interfere with building trust paradoxically. It is interpreted that the South broadcasting media decided not to allow 2013 Asian Cup and Interclub Weightlifting Championship in Pyongyang to be aired so that it would not cause an immoderate upsurge in peoples expectation for ameliorating the inter-Korean relations rapidly. The Current Implementation and Future Strategies of the Trust-building Process __ trust what?__ trust for what?__yp __ eeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeee Choi Jinwook ))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))) KINU cccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccc D. Focus on alignment The Park Administration claims to resolution of the crisis in the Korean peninsula through the close agreement and alignment with the 3 The South and North try not to cause the suspension of the Kaesong Industrial Complex due to passage reservation or evacuation of workers, and guarantee normal operation of the Complex, including stable passage of South Korean workers, normal attendance of North Koreanworkers and protection of the enterprises property without any political influence in any case. 22 Korea Institute for National Unifications International Conference on Strategies to Implement the Trust-building Process on the Korean Peninsula international societies, and a virtuous cycle of solution of the Korea problem and peaceful cooperation in Northeast Asia. 4 It is reasonable that the international alignment, especially with the United States and China is crucial to implement policy toward North Korea. Park explained the details of the Trust-building Process and attracted supports from the two powers, which agreed to intolerability to North Koreas nuclear weapons development and advocated South Koreas drive to communicate with the North, in the U.S.-South Korea Summit on May 7 and the China-South Korea Summit on June 27. South Koreas alignment with the international community resulted in North Koreas switch from provocative threats to a forward-looking attitude toward dialogue while the United States decisive will of war deterrence and Chinas strong stance on the denuclearization had a significant role. Park delivered the Joint Address to U.S. Congress, where she suggested Northeast Asia Peace Cooperation Plan (Seoul Process) to ameliorate the inter-Korean relationsand the multilateral cooperation in Northeast Asia simultaneously. Thisprocess intended to focus on humanitarian and non-political areas suchas disaster relief, environmental issues, and nuclear safety. As the level of trust graduallybuilds up, it will then concentrate on political and military problems such as denuclearization. South Koreas policy toward North Korea is based on the U.S.-ROK alliance, and improving the relations with China whose support is quintessential to the inter-Korean relations as a major objective of its 4 Ministry of Unification, the Trust-building Process in the Korean peninsula, p.12. ѹݵ ŷμ мȸ23 diplomatic policy. Chinas strong stance on North Korea after the third nuclear test highlighted the impact ofthe ROK-U.S.-China alignment system. When China raised a different view against the United States demand for North Koreas preemptive measures for the denuclearization as a prior condition to the six-party talk, however, South Korea chose toalign with the United States. E. Efforts to build the basis of unification One of the four major objectives of the Park Administration is the building the basis of peaceful unification along with economic rehabilitation, peoples happiness and cultural prosperity. It was first time to adopt the theme of unification as a major policy objective since the Kim Young-sam Administration. 5 Park puts emphasis constantly on building the foundation of unification and arouses the public opinion on the division of the Korean peninsula. The development and stabilityin the inter-Korean relations are the primary task in order to construct the firm of unification, which entails the need for more detailed projects to set up an infrastructure for unification. 6 Parks frequent mentions on forming the basis of unification maintain the 5 The major objectives of each governmentof South Korea state as below; Affluent people, warm society and strong nation of the Lee Myung-bak Administration, which was changed into Global diplomacy, advanced innovations and practical midway in favor of people; Democracy aligned with people, society of balanced development of co-existence and the era of Northeast Asia of peace and prosperity of the Roh Moo-hyun Administration; Popular cooperative politics, democratic development of economy, autonomous civil society, comprehensive system of national security and the nation of creative cultures of the Kim Dae-jung Administration; Transparent government, solid economy, healthy society and unified fatherland of the Kim Young-sam Administration; Protection of national pride, practice of democratic cooperation, balanced development in economy, society and culture, and unification and prosperity of the Roh Tae-woo Administration; Realization of the just society, naturalization of democracy, construction of welfare society, and innovation of education and development of culture of the Chun Doo-hwan Administration. 6 The Statement of Kim Ki-chun,chief of the presidential secretary, just after taking his office, that I will contribute to the realization of unification or a momentum of unification within president Parks term indicates the importance of building the firm of unification 24 Korea Institute for National Unifications International Conference on Strategies to Implement the Trust-building Process on the Korean Peninsula public interests of unification in a natural manner, which clarify the direction of the governmental objectives as well as North Korea policy. Park sought to resolve the factors for the conflictsin North Korea issues through her proposal to DMZ Peace Park in the Joint Session to Congress in the U.S.-South Korea Summit to alert the urgency about the division of Korea and reassure her will for unification. Unification should not be delayed for the distant future. It should not be waited, but approached. (Parks statement as the election candidate on her major pledges and tasks of foreign relations, national security and unification. Trust diplomacy and the new Korean peninsula. November 5, 2012) I will build the basis of the happy era of unification where every Koreans are allowed to lead their prosperous and free lives and pursue their dreams through the Trust-building Process. (Parks address to the inauguration. Iwill open the door of the new era of hope, February 25, 2013.) I will consolidate the basis of happy unification through accumulating trust in the Korean peninsula based on the firm national security. (Parks commemorative address to the 94 th anniversary of the March First Independence Movement Day, March 1, 2013.) I think that the true independence and foundation will be completed when the peace of the Korean peninsula and unification are realized. (Parks commemorative address to the 68 th anniversary of the Independence Day, August 8, 2013.) Unification is an essential task to turn the abnormality into normality in our history. ѹݵ ŷμ мȸ25 ccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccc (Parks address to the 16 th advisory council of National Unification of Advisory Council, August 28, 2013.) The Current Implementation $$$$$$$$$$$$$$$ and Future Strategies of the Trust-building Process __ trust what?__ trust for what?__yp __ eeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeee Choi Jinwook ))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))) KINU cccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccc III. Environment for implementing the Trust-building Process 1. North Koreas responses and probable attitudes North Korea has been against the Trust-building Process since the South Korean presidential election. WhenParks pledge of foreign relations, national security and unification was released in November 11, 2012, North Korea denounced it as a pledge for all-out confrontation and war which is more dangerous than the Lee Myung-bak Administrations policy toward North Korea. On December 1, the public inquiry statement on the name of the chief of the secretariat for Committee for the Peaceful Reunification of the Fatherland (CPRF) demanded the Park Administration to present responses about implementation of the Joint Declaration ofJune 15 and the Declaration of October 4, unification under the liberal democratic order, prior condition to North Koreas nuclear dismantlement, empowerment of the ROK-U.S. alliance, establishment of North Korea Human Rights Act, cancellation of the 5.24 Measures and succession to the Lee Administrations policy toward North Korea. Additionally, North Korea heightened crisis by launching a long-range missile on December 12, 2012. North Koreas attempt to acquirerecognition as a nuclear state sought for amelioration of the relationswith the United States and economic aid through bilateral talks with the United States after the third nuclear test on February 12, 2013. The plenary session of Central Committee of the Workers Party of Korea adopted the Byungjin line of simultaneous development of nuclear and peoples economy on March 31, through which 26 Korea Institute for National Unifications International Conference on Strategies to Implement the Trust-building Process on the Korean Peninsula nuclear capacity enables toswitch resources to be invested in conventional military forces to light industry to improve peoples living standard. 7 North Koreas intention to be recognized as a nuclear state was backlashed by the alignment among South Korea, the United States and China. In particular, Xi Jinping, the leader of China, stated to Choe Ryong-hae, who visited China as a special envoy from North Korea, that In any situation, the denuclearization of North Korea is a general trend, turning down North Koreas attempt to justify its nuclear possession. The U.S.-China Summit on June 8 and the South Korea-China Summit reaffirmed the principle of intolerability to North Koreas nuclear development. In the beginning of the Park Administration, North Korea, faced with the failure in its intention to raise tension, chose the reverse means, including the resumption ofthe tour business in Kumgangsan as well as reopening of the Kaesong Industrial Complex to ameliorate the inter-Korean relations. Not mentioning the Byungjin line, Choe Ryong-hae emphasized peace and cooperation in the ceremony of the anniversary of the armistice on July 27. The short period of tranquility did not continue until North Korea notified delay of the reunion of separated families on September 21. North Korea reproached Park Geun-hye mentioning her name directly and restarted to highlight the Byungjin line. Although North Koreas intention to raise tension is alleged to attempt to control the way of the Parks policy in favor 7 However, it is not feasible in North Koreas economic difficulties lacking the accessible and sufficient resources internally. As long as North Korea clings to its nuclear weapons, a large-scale resource influx from outside is hardly expectable. ѹݵ ŷμ мȸ27 ______________________________________________________________________________________________ of North Korea, it is questionable that North Korea could elongate the tension between the two Koreas in spiteof the worsened condition at home and abroad. North Korea has difficulties by Kim Jong-uns demonstrative policies to show off his leadership without detailed strategy or vision. Furthermore, the check of China and the United States will for deterrence on provocations will not permit the Kim Jong-un Regime to set back to the situation prior to the spring of 2013 through inflicting crisis that is turned out to be failed. 8 The Current Implementation and Future Strategies of the Trust-building Process __ trust what?__ trust for what?__yp __ eeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeee Choi Jinwook ))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))) KINU cccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccc 2. Foreign situations around neighboring nations The phenomenon of the Asian Paradox is observed, where economic interdependence among Northeast Asian countries is getting developed while conflicts on historical and territorial issues take place in their political relations. 9 The United States judges that the global strategic center is transferred to the Asian-Pacific region with China rising, adopting as a pivot to Asia in order to protect the interests of the United States and its allies. It tries to strengthen bilateral alliances with Japan, Australia, Thailand and the Philippines within the region on the pressure of cutting its national defense cost, where the U.S.-ROK alliance is regarded as important. After the shelling of Yeonpyeong Islands in 2010, the United States concerned about tension in the Korean peninsula, evaluating South Koreas struggle to 8 Xi jinping, who attended the APEC Summit held in Bali, Indonesia, laid stress on Chinas stance against North Koreas nuclear possession and further nuclear tests in the summit with Park Geun-hye on October 7. Xi also emphasized the necessity of the six-party talks inorder to settle North Koreas nuclear issue. 9 Jinwook Choi et al., The visions and tasks of the Park Geun-hye governments policies on unification, diplomacy and national security., KINU standing project, 2013.8. 28 Korea Institute for National Unifications International Conference on Strategies to Implement the Trust-building Process on the Korean Peninsula communicate with North Korea to relieve the tension. The United States, however, sticks to the stance that the six-party talks would be meaningless without North Koreas preemptive measures on the denuclearization after the Agreement of February 29 foundered by North Koreas unilateral missile launch. China, who is anxious for absorptive unification by South Korea could amount to a direct threat to China as long as the United States continues its rebalancing policy to Asia, refused to put pressure on North Korea that might inflict instability inthe region. As North Korea conducted the third nuclear test and tried to heighten its provocative threat to the South on February 12, 2013, however, China took an unprecedentedly strong stance on North Korea. It not only cooperated in adopting the UN Security Council Resolution 2094 but also banned tourism to North Korea, placed a 20kg limit on the commodities that each person can carry into North Korea and placed sanctions on the Foreign Trade Bank. It was estimated that Chinas lukewarm attitude toward North Koreas provocative threats and nuclear development might contribute to strengthening the North Korea-China relations but could be burdensome in the gross by reactions from the neighbors and the U.S. pressure in turn, which may switch its stance on North Korea. When the tension in the Korean peninsula was aggravated by the shelling of Yeonpyeong Islands in 2010, China advocated for North Korea, responding to the U.S. military demonstration with ostentation of its power, which caused to reinforce the U.S.-ROK alliance combining with the U.S. policy to hold the rise of China in check. Moreover, the neighboring nations concerning about Chinas ѹݵ ŷμ мȸ29 __________________________________________________________________________ military extension to the East and South China Sea for the last several years chose to rely on the United States. It influenced the change of Chinas diplomatic policy. 10 Chinas switch in its stance after the third nuclear test was thought to play a crucial role in solving North Koreas nuclear issue through the cooperation among South Korea, the United States and China. The possibility of cooperation among South Korea, the United States and China is reflected in Japans frustration, who is concerned about the diminishing traditional alignment among South Korea, the United States and Japan which could be more effective to intervene in North Koreas nuclear issue while it was suffered from friction with South Korea. Isao Iijima, a special advisor to the Cabinet of Prime Minister ShinzoAbe, made a surprise visit to Pyongyang, indicating Japans embarrassment to diplomatic alienation by the alignment of South Korea, the United States and China. When the United States and China exposed a discord on North Koreas preemptive measures for denuclearization on September, 2013, however, the ROK-U.S.-China alignment seemed to be dimmed. In the 1.5 track for the six-party talk held inBeijing on September 18, North Korea, China and Russia sent the chief delegates while South Korea, the Unites States and Japan dispatched delegationscomposed mainly of scholars for a reason of North Koreas failure to implement its preemptive measures for denuclearization. In addition, the U.S.-Japan joint meeting on diplomacy and defense on October 3, the United States supported Japans right of collective self-defense and agreed that China should followthe international action 10 It is presumed that the ruthless nuclear test, militaryadventurism and lack of communication of the Kim Jong-un regime led Beijing to have reservations about the riskof Kim Jong-uns nuclear weapons compared the nuclear possession under Kim Jong-il. 30 Korea Institute for National Unifications International Conference on Strategies to Implement the Trust-building Process on the Korean Peninsula and secure the military transparency, which caused the backlash from Beijing. The aggravation of competition between the United States and China will affect North Korea issue negatively, which could be taken advantage of by North Korea. 3. Domestic situations South Koreans expected both toameliorate the inter-Korean relations and take a resolute stance on North Korea. It is hard to combine these seemingly contradictory factors. After the shelling of Yeonpyeong Islands in 2010, people are worried about North Koreas possible further provocations. 11 They, therefore, supported the South Korean governments attempt to communicate and implement humanitarian aid while opposing to unprincipled aid or economic cooperation and submissive attitude toward North Korea. In the same survey, most of South Koreans opposed to large-scale aid to North Korea without its apology to the provocations like the incidents of the sinking of the Cheonan warship and shelling of Yeonpyeon Islands. The reasons for popular support for the Park Administration may be resulted from the decisive approach to North Korea that tried to correct its mischiefs with principle and peoples aspiration for loosening tension in the Korean peninsula. 11 80% of the respondents reported to their anxiety about the present situation of national security. KBS Survey from August 6 to 7, 2012 with the valid samples of 1,027 male and female adults over 19 years in the nation. ѹݵ ŷμ мȸ31 _____________________________________________________________________________________________ If North Korea pretend to take a soft-line stance to stimulate South Koreans expectation to better the inter-Korean relations deceptively, it is possible to cause social controversy overinterpretations on the true intention of North Korea again. If North Korea keeps raising tension to arouse instability of national security, also, it would bring about conflict on the solutions to resolve the crisis. In either situation, there is a potential strife in South Korean society on the velocity and extent of North Korean policy. The Current Implementation and Future Strategies of the Trust-building Process __ trust what?__ trust for what?__yp __ eeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeee Choi Jinwook ))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))) KINU cccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccc IV. Policy direction of the Trust-building Process 1. Basic direction A. International consensus The key to efficient policy toward North Korea is to share the accurate analysis on North Koreas intentions with the neighboring nations, particularly the United States and China, and to make a consensus through policy alignment. Since the end of ColdWar, the United States, South Korea and China have played crucial roles in survival of North Korea. Their different estimations, however, was an obstacle to transformation of North Korea and solution to its nuclear development. Concerning with North Koreas political intentions, it was believed to be possible to frustrate North Koreas attempt to develop nuclear weapons by economic aid or pressure. Pyongyang took a vague stance on its nuclear weapons development in itself in the 1990s. After 2002, it still remained unclear on the possibility to abandon its maneuver to nuclear weapons development. Meanwhile the international community wasted time sticking to the negotiations with North Korea with a haze of expectation. Finally, 32 Korea Institute for National Unifications International Conference on Strategies to Implement the Trust-building Process on the Korean Peninsula North Korea proclaimed itself a nuclearstate in 2013, emphasizing that it is not negotiable. The endurance of North Korea has been underestimated with naive predictions that North Koreas nuclear threats and provocations would disappear by the collapse of North Korean system. In spite of serious economic and political difficulties, however, it could sustain its system with fierce social control and limited tolerance to market. North Korean leadership allocated selectively its meager resources to concentrate major power organizations, such as the Party, military authorities and State Political Security Department, or basic industries like war industry on geographic centers while neglecting marginal regions, peoples economy or non-political organizations to survive by themselves. The Current Implementation and Future Strategies of the Trust-building Process __ trust what?__ trust for what?__yp __ eeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeee Choi Jinwook ))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))) KINU cccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccc B. Strategic flexibility of North Korea policy It is desirable to hold flexibility in policy measures to solve problems in a gradual Trust-building Process rather than clinging to a certain policy or area. The former South Korean governments tended to adhere to consistency of policy measures, not of policy objectives, which brought inadaptability to the changing circumstances or North Koreas intention decreasing the efficiency of policies. It also led to misunderstanding that North Korea was changing according to South Koreas scheme. In that sense, flexibility in policy is necessary, not fixing its policy measures between hard-line and moderate stance or between decisive principle and tolerance. The alternative approach to various fields such as politics, military, economy, society and culture is necessaryrather than focusing on restricted areas with fixed priority. Overemphasis on national security could suppress ѹݵ ŷμ мȸ33 cooperative exchange and vice versa. Though social and economic exchange seems fruitful more quickly than political and military issues, of course, the variety of policy interest are needed in earlier stages. Gradual approach to treat tasks one by one as growing trust is more effective than swift and hasty way to several issues at a stroke. It might appear to be slow and inefficient but will accelerate the steps to further tasks. We have witnessed that the large-scale economic cooperation and aid to North Korea turned out unsustainable in discord with the level of trust. The Current Implementation and Future Strategies of the Trust-building Process __ trust what?__ trust for what?__yp __ eeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeee Choi Jinwook ))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))) KINU cccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccc C. Unification-oriented policy toward North Korea South Korea should push forward unification-oriented policy toward North Korea beyond the dichotomy between maintenance of the status quo and preparation for unification as before. The pending task of North Korea policy is to manage the territorial division to resolve conflict between both Koreas and pursue reconciliation and cooperation. However, it does not mean that the objective of policy is management of division in itself. Unification is the ultimate objective, which will also present a clear direction of diplomatic policy as well as North Korean policy. In various fields of North Korea policy such as socio-cultural exchange, economic cooperation, humanitarian aid, the imperative of unification should be conscious of. Humanitarian aid, amelioration of living standard of North Korean people and support for North Korean refugees settlement are supposed to contribute to expanding the mutual affiliation among the whole Koreans. In particular, ifhigher level of the transparency of food distribution will extend the numberof beneficiaries and size of the humanitarian aid to North Korea. Inorder to redress the problem of 34 Korea Institute for National Unifications International Conference on Strategies to Implement the Trust-building Process on the Korean Peninsula separated families, reunion meetings should be held on a regular basis, and exchange of recorded videos should be promoted actively. The efforts to build the basis of trust must be continued incessantly with the priority to change of North Korea. Internal atmosphere in favor of unification is necessary, including positive perception among people and public consensus on the cause and necessity of unification along with the role of education and media. Also, the infrastructure for unification policy needs to be reorganized. Although North Korea policy is a difficult task to gain tangible outcomes, strategy establishment and organization of infrastructure for the policy should not be neglected. It involves action plans on main agents in charge, specific tasks and method which is backed by material and human resources in good quality. Experts in the field of North Korea policies, information and inter-state communication must be maintained and reinforced, while efforts must be madeto establish and expand the network of scholars, media, civil groups, as well as groups linked to the government. Above all, a close cooperative systemmust be maintained between North Korea policies control towers and respective governmental departments. At the external level, unification-oriented diplomacy should be reinforced to turn the neighboring countries recognition of the abundant utility of unification such as regional tranquilization and political advantages. Then South Korea should learn the neighbors diverse ideas on unification and try to resolve the differences together. ѹݵ ŷμ мȸ35 ^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^ The Current Implementation and Future Strategies of the Trust-building Process __ trust what?__ trust for what?__yp __ eeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeee Choi Jinwook ))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))) KINU cccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccc 2. Tasks and implementation strategies The Trust-building Process strives to solve the pending problems on the process of trust-building rather than presenting strict phases which is useful to explain the policy clearly but is hard to accord with reality risking flexibility of implementing the policy. 12 The Current Implementation and Future Strategies of the Trust-building Process __ trust what?__ trust for what?__yp __ eeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeee Choi Jinwook ))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))) KINU cccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccc A. Feasible tasks independent on political issues Though North-South dialogue and cooperation is hardly possible in the vortex of nuclear threats and tension, there are feasible tasks to be implemented that are independent on responses from North Korea. Especially, non-political and low-cost exchange in some fields such as academics, art and culture, and sports can be prioritized. Also, it would be helpful to provide necessity goods, clothes, medical items, and nutritional aids for infants and pregnant mothers by means of the international organizations. Such nutritional aids include vitamins, biscuits, and powdered milk, which is distinguished from fertilizer and food provisions. Northeast Asia Peach Cooperation Plan to discuss the construction of DMZ Peach Park, disaster relief, nuclear safety, environmental issues, terrorism, humanitarianism, etc. will contribute to development of the inter-Korean relations by encouraging the international cooperative atmosphere. The Human rights issue in North Korea also needs constant attention from the international community. South Koreas drive for the international cooperation will not only draw support from the international community but also contribute to public 12 Ryoo Kihl-jae, minister of unification,the press conference on August 21, 2013. 36 Korea Institute for National Unifications International Conference on Strategies to Implement the Trust-building Process on the Korean Peninsula consensus for its policy toward North Korea. The Current Implementation and Future Strategies of the Trust-building Process __ trust what?__ trust for what?__yp __ eeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeee Choi Jinwook ))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))) KINU cccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccc B. Tasks depending on North Koreas responses. The 5.24 measures and UNSC resolution for sanctions should be terminated ultimately to activate exchanges and cooperation, for which North Koreas corresponsive measures is essential. In order to resume Mt. Kumgansan tour business on which North Korea put emphasis, Pyongyang should apologize and promise the preventive measures from recurrence as the death of a tourist in Mt. Kumgansan. The cancellation of the 5.24 measures should forego North Koreas apology on the sinking of the Cheonan warship and shelling of Yeonpyeong Island. In the resumption of the six-party talks, North Koreas preemptive measures is also essential, and then the UNSC resolution for sanctions could be examine to terminate as North Koreas progress to its denuclearization. If North Korea has difficulty making an apology on the Cheonan warship incident, it must prove its sincerity to take measures such as holding reunion ceremonies of separated families on the regular basis or returning South Korean prisoners detained in North Korea. Even if North Korea does not take any corresponsive measure, South Korea could not give up its efforts to communication and cooperation but need to demand the Norths responses. ѹݵ ŷμ мȸ37 ________________________________________________________________________________________ The Current Implementation and Future Strategies of the Trust-building Process __ trust what?__ trust for what?__yp __ eeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeee Choi Jinwook ))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))) KINU cccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccc C. Tasks by field in accordance with North Koreas progress of denuclearization North Koreas tangible progress of denuclearization should proceed before the inter-Korean relations enter the full-out phase of reconciliation and cooperation. Despite the discrepancy in the level of trust among respective fields of politics, military, economy and socio-cultural sectors, the tasks from all the areasshould be treated simultaneously. ? Politics: Establishment of inter-Korean communication and the South-North Joint Office of Representatives. ? Military: North Koreas claim to its denuclearization, establishment of the verification system to check North Koreas nuclear disarmament, exchange of military information, mutual visit to military drills and movement. ? Economy: Construction of the Second Kaesong Industrial Complex, training of North Korean economic workforce, joint development of underground resources in North Korea, Expansion of North Koreas infrastructure of electricity, transportation, communication, etc., Aid to enable North Korea to join the international financial organizations and to enter exclusive industrial zones and establishment of South-North Exchange and Cooperation Offices in Seoul and Pyongyang. ? Humanitarian and socio-cultural sectors: Holding reunion ceremonies of separated families on the regular basis, improvement of North Korean peoples welfare, and expanding exchanges in academics, art and culture and sports. ? International relations: South-North cooperation in the international organizations, cooperation through the international NGO for aid to North 38 Korea Institute for National Unifications International Conference on Strategies to Implement the Trust-building Process on the Korean Peninsula Korea, support of the international community for ameliorating the inter-Korean relations and establishment of the multilateral cooperative system of national security. The Current Implementation $$$$$$$$$$$$$$$ and Future Strategies of the Trust-building Process __ trust what?__ trust for what?__yp __ eeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeee Choi Jinwook ))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))) KINU cccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccc D. Tasks for North Koreas denuclearization and economic reform On the basis of North Koreas denuclearization and economic reform, the sustainable peace is established in the Korean peninsula and the full-out preparation for unification started through the South-North economic community. ? Economic community: Inter-Korean summit and working-level talks on the regular basis, arms control and establishment of the peace structure. ? Establishment of peace: Complementary economic cooperation, assistance to North Koreas economic development. The Current Implementation and Future Strategies of the Trust-building Process __ trust what?__ trust for what?__yp __ eeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeee Choi Jinwook ))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))) KINU cccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccc V. Conclusion In spite of tension heightened by North Korea and the strained inter-Korean relations, the North Korea policy of the Park Geun-hye Administration receives considerable support more than any former government in South Korea at home and abroad, including the United States and China. The present South government enjoys high popularity with the social conflict in South Korean society relieved to a great degree. It is an impressive phenomenon in that the solid internal consensus and international alignment are indispensable in efficiency of North Korea policy. According to a survey carried out by MBC on August, 2013, after six months from the inauguration, 77.4% of the respondents reported support ѹݵ ŷμ мȸ39 '''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''' for the South Korean governments maneuver on the inter-Korean relations, which was incomparably higher thanthe Roh Moo-hyun Administration of 41.9% support for its policies on unification, diplomacy and national security, and then the Lee Myung-bak Administration of 27.5% of support for its policy toward North Korea. Notably,the support rating for North Korea policy was higher than the approval rating for Park of 65.8% by 11.9%. In South Korean society, North Korea policy is one of the major barometers to distinguish the political affiliations between the ruling party and opposition or between conservatism and progressivism. Thus, itindicates the decrease in the social conflict around North Korea policy. Despite high popular support for the Trust-building Process, it could not rule out questions on possibility to trust-building between the two Koreas. However, it is not a matter of possibility but inevitable process to proceed with the development of the inter-Korean relations and consolidation of unification. That is why the Park Administration initiated the struggle to construct trust, and it should be continued. As a matter of fact, nothing is easy in the issuesof core visions of nation, autonomy or peace. The Trust-building Process will develop the South-North relations into the unified Korea as a trust society in the future. The Current Implementation and Future Strategies of the Trust-building Process __ trust what?__ trust for what?__yp __ eeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeee Choi Jinwook ))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))) KINU cccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccc end ----------------------------------------- sc http://www.kinu.or.kr/eng/news/news_01_01.jsp?bid=ENGNEW&page=1&num=70&mode=view&category= $$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$ KOR REơUNIFICATION II ̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡ %%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%% korean and german re--unification intro by dr yong k park ##################################################### 2013 seoul pppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppp ooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooo ch xviii--s--ccc ppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppp sc http://www.kinu.or.kr/eng/news/news_01_01.jsp?bid=ENGNEW&page=1&num=70&mode=view&category= $$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$ Korea Institute for National Unifications International Conference on Strategies ((((((((((((((((((((((( to Implement the Trust-building ̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡ Process eeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeee on the Korean Peninsula ̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡ __ trust what?__ trust for what?__yp __ eeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeee Date 2013. 10. 29 %%%%%%%%%%%%%%% ѹݵ ŷμ ϰ ^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^ The Trust-building Process on the Korean Peninsula and Developing Inter-Korean Relations __ trust what?__ trust for what?__yp __ eeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeee Session1 ^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^ Presentations ^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^ ? ѹݵ ŷμ ¿ ^ $$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$ The Current Implementation $$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$ and Future Strategies of the Trust-building Process ^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^ __ trust what?__ trust for what?__yp __ eeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeee ? ѹݵ ŷμ ϰ ȭ $$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$ The Trust-building Process on the Korean Peninsula $$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$ and Institutionalizing Inter-Korean Relations __ trust what?__ trust for what?__yp __ eeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeee Session1-1 $$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$ ѹݵ ŷμ ¿ $$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$ The Current Implementation $$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$ and Future Strategies of the Trust-building Process $$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$ __ trust what?__ trust for what?__yp __ eeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeee Choi Jinwook l ^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^ KINU ^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^ ѹݵ ŷμ мȸ41 _______________________________________________________________________________ The Current Implementation and Future Strategies of the Trust-building Process __ trust what?__ trust for what?__yp __ eeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeee Choi Jinwook ))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))) KINU cccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccc ѹݵ ŷμ ¿ ppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppp ccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccc (Ͽ) . ڱδ ϰ ŷڰ ־ ¿ ߴ. 뼱 ķ Ⱓ ڱĺ ܱȺ , ࡯̶ ͺϿ 뼱 ӹؼ Ÿ ̻ ߻, յΰ 3 ٽ ߴ. Ŀ ġ ѹݵ ״. 簳 6ȸ 簳 õ ߼ ̻갡 ҽŲ ڱ Ǹ ϰ ϸ ٽ Ű ִ. ϰ ұϰ ڱ å 볻 ް , ϰ ȭ ݺϴ Ͼ ȭ ̴. 8 ѹݵ ŷμ ¸ ϰ µ ֺ м ѹݵ ŷμ Ѵ. 42 Korea Institute for National Unifications International Conference on Strategies to Implement the Trust-building Process on the Korean Peninsula )))))))))))))))))))))))))) The Current Implementation and Future Strategies of the Trust-building Process __ trust what?__ trust for what?__yp __ eeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeee Choi Jinwook ))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))) KINU cccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccc . ѹݵ ŷμ ǿ 1. ѹݵ ŷμ ǿ ѹݵ ŷμ  ϸ ϰ迡 ҽŰ Ǽ ȯ ϴ ȵǾ. ϰ ϴ ϴٰ ϱ⸦ ݺϿ ϰ ٺ ŷ ̶ Ͽ. ϰ迡 ҽŰ Ǽ ȯ ؼ ҽ Ѿ Ѵٴ ̴. ϰ ŷ ƴϳ ϰ ؼ ̴. ſ ϰ迡 ŷ ߿伺 ޵DZ Ͽ å Ű ŷڡ ڱΰ ó̴. å , Ģ, γ å ѷΰ ǰ ̷, ѹݵ ŷμ ŷڶ ָ ϰ ִ. °, ȭ Ⱥ ̺й ̻ ǹ̰ ϰ ϰ Ѵٴ ̴. ѹݵ ŷμ ưư Ⱥ ŷڸ ν ϰ踦 Ű, ѹݵ ȭ Ű, ư Ϸ å̴. ѹݵ ŷμ ϰ踦 ġϰų θ θ Ѵ. ٹ ġ ȿ ϰ踦 Ѽ ܽŰ ٴ ε ȭ ؼ ŷڱ Ѵ. ÿ ϰ谡 Ǵ ϴٰ ٽ ʵ θ ʰ ŷڼؿ ° ϰ踦 Ű ѹݵ ŷμ мȸ43 Ѵ. ŷڴ Ϲ 纸 ǹϴ ͵ ƴϸ ȭå ƴϴ. ൿ ׵ ܰ ̴. ѹݵ ŷμ ǥ ߱Ѵ. ù°, ҽ Ǽȯ ݺ ϰ踦 İ Թ ϴ ο ϰ ȭŰ ̴. °, ϰ踦 ῡ  ŷڸ Ӱ ȭ ٲپ ̴. °, ִ ϰ ѹ ü Ƽ ȭϿ ̸ ̴. ѹݵ ŷμ Ģ ԰Ѵ. ù°, ִ ̴. å ȭ , ȭ ̺  å å мϿ ?Ű ϰڴٴ ̴. ȭ Ӹ ƴ϶, Ⱥ , ϴ ȭ , پ о߿ . °, ȭϴ å̴. ѱ å ȭؾ Ѵ. ùٸ ϰ ϴ ⿡ å ?Ѿ Ѵ. Ǵ Ȳ å ȭŴν ѹݵ Ȳ ɵ . å ȭ ο ȭ ƴ϶ ϵ 츮鼭 å ϰ ϴ . °, ȸ ̴. ѹݵ ŷμ ؼ ȸ ʿ ̿ پ ʿ ̴. ̸ ؼ ѱ ŷڱ ȸ ޾ƾ ̴. 44 Korea Institute for National Unifications International Conference on Strategies to Implement the Trust-building Process on the Korean Peninsula iiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiii The Current Implementation and Future Strategies of the Trust-building Process __ trust what?__ trust for what?__yp __ eeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeee Choi Jinwook ))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))) KINU cccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccc 2. ѹݵ ŷμ (1) 3 ٽ ȣ ڱ յΰ 2 12 3 ٽ ߰, ϸ鼭 ⸦ ״. ̿ ڱ ѹ̿ ﰢ̰ ¡ ϰڴٰ ߴ. ٹ⸦ ȭ ̴ ϰ ܾϰ, ٹ 뼱 Ұ ߴ. ڱδ ȣ Բ ɷ Ű ߴ. ٹ ȭй Ī Ͽ ̱ Ȯ ȭϰ ѱ Ÿݴɷ° Ű Ͽ. ̸ 2015 ۱ ȯ ñ⸦ ϰ ̴. GDP 2.53% 2017 2.8% ϰ Ѵ. (2) ŷڱ ŷڸ ϱ ؼ ٹ ġ Ȳ Ѽ ƹ ͵ ʰ ϰ踦 ġϱ ٴ õ Ϻ ؾ Ѵ. ⿡ Ű, پ ȭ ä Ȯ ε Եȴ. ߿ ȭ Ѵ١ ȭ ѹݵ ŷμ ߿ κ̴. ȭ ̴ ŷڸ ̴. 鿡 ذå ŷڰ ¿ ϴ Ѱ谡 ִ. ġ ̳ й δ ȭ 簳 ״. 1) ε ʱ ӵ Ⱥ ѹݵ ŷμ мȸ45 Ȱ ̷ ʾ 3 22 پ (6 7õ), 7 29 5 ΰü ơʵ Ǿǰ ߴ. 8 6 ϼ 604 ޷(67) ߴ. 2) ŷ ȭå ƴϴ. Ѱ 󿡼 Ģ ʿ ö Ģ װ, ʿ ߴ. ¡ ߴ. 4 25 ѿ ǹȸ ϸ鼭 (26 ) ߴ ġ ١ , ȣؿ ٷ 123 ֱ ٷڵ ȯ ġ ִ. 簳 󿡼 åӷ źϰ åӰ ߹ и ϸ鼭 , 7 ǹȸ ޾Ƶ. ȸ㿡 ߹ å ü Ͽ 鿡 Բ ϴ ߴ. 3) 1) 4 25 ¸ ذϱ ȭ ߰, ̸ ź δ ѱ ٷڸ ö״, 6 6 ȭȸ ȭ ѱ ȸ ߰, ̸ ǹȸ ֵǾ. ǹȸ ǥ ĵǾ, 7 4 ѱ ǹȸ ٽ ߰, 7 ȸ㿡 ħ 簳 ߴ. 2) Ǿǰ 264 5724޷, 299 5335޷, ͸ 39 4874޷, 1592 ̴. δ 1996 ų ϼ ּ 100 ޷ ̻ ε ؿ ݱ 2660 ޷ ƴ. 3) ٷ ö  ߴܻ° ߵ ϸ,  쿡 ο , ٷ , ȣ  Ѵ. 46 Korea Institute for National Unifications International Conference on Strategies to Implement the Trust-building Process on the Korean Peninsula cccccccccccccccccccccccccccccc The Current Implementation and Future Strategies of the Trust-building Process __ trust what?__ trust for what?__yp __ eeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeee Choi Jinwook ))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))) KINU cccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccc (3) ϰ ӵ ŷ ȭ ϴ ÿ ģ 밨 ʵ Ͽ. ϰ ŷڰ ٴ Ȳ ̽ ذϱ ٴ ϳ ذϸ鼭 ŷڸ ϰ ̽ ̵ϰ ϴ ̴. ѱ 簳 ȸ ̻갡 , ݰ  ʰ и ̷ ̴. 翡 ֵ 2013ƽþ ƽþ Ŭ Ǵȸ ѱ ۱ ϰ谡 ù Ȳ 밨 ġ Ϳ ̴. ƶ ¦ ȿ 븮 ȸ̳ Ը Ӱ ϰ ϰ Ǹ ŷڱ࿡ ذ ִ. (4) ߽ ڱδ ȸ ǿ ѹݵ Ⱥ ⸦ ذϰ, ѹݵ ذ Ͼ ȭ ȯ ϰڴ١ ̴. 4) å ߿伺 ̴. Ư, ̱ ߱ å . ڱ ѹ ȸ(5.7) ȸ(6.27) ѹݵ ŷμ ⿡ ؼ ϰ ̲ ´. Ư, ٹ ٴ ȭ¿ Ͽ 籹 ߴ. ڱ ־ ߴϰ ȭ ȯ ̿ ִ. ̱ ¿ 4) Ϻ, ?ѹݵ ŷμ?, p.12. ѹݵ ŷμ мȸ47 ȣ ǥ ߱ ȭ ȣ ū 򰡵ȴ. ڱ ȸ Ͽ յ Ͼ ȭ ϰ Ͼ ÿ ϰ . ʱ⿡ 糭, ڷ , ȯ, ׷, ε ġ, ϰ ŷڰ ʿ ȭ ġ, Ͽ ϰ ϴ ̴. (5) ϱ ڱ 4 , ູ, ȭ Բ ȭ ݱ̴. ǥ äõ 迵 ó̴. 5) ڱ 뼱࿡ ؼ ϱ ϰ ִ. ȭ ݱ ν Ͽ Ƴ å Ӹ ƴ϶ ⼺ и ϰ ִ. Ư, ѹ ȸ յȸǿ DMZȭ ν д 볻ܿ Ű Ͽ. ϰ ȭ ̴. ϱ ߻ Ϻ Ѿ ִ غ 5) ̸ ? , ȸ, ? 2010 ?۷ι , ȭ . ģ ߵǿ? Ǿ. ?빫 ?ΰ Բ ϴ , Ҿ ȸ, ȭ Ͼ ô? ? ? ȭġ, , ùλȸ, Ⱥü , â ȭ? ?迵 ? , ưư , ǰ ȸ, ϵ ? ?¿ ? , ȭ õ, ȸȭ , ϰ ? ?ȯ ?ǻȸ , ȭ, ȸ Ǽ, Ű ȭâ? 48 Korea Institute for National Unifications International Conference on Strategies to Implement the Trust-building Process on the Korean Peninsula ccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccc ǹѴ. DMZȭ UN ν ѱ ϱ ¿ ϴ ȿ ŵ ̴. ʳ Ϸ ̷M ˴ϴ. ٸ ƴ϶, ٰ ؾ մϴ١ ڱ ĺ ܱȺ ǥ ?ŷڿܱ ο ѹݵ?. 2012 11 5 ѹݵ ŷμ ѹ ΰ dzӰ Ӱ Ȱϸ, ڽ ̷ ִ ູ Ͻô մϴ. ӻ ô븦 ڽϴ. 2013 2 25 Ȯ Ⱥ ѹݵ ŷڸ ׾Ƽ ູ Դϴ. 94ֳ 3.1 , 2013 3 1 ǹ DZ ѹݵ ȭ ̷, ϳ Ǵ ̷ ϼȴٰ մϴ. 68ֳ , 2013 8 15 츮 ǵ ٺ ֽϴ. ȭڹȸ 16 üȸ ȸ, 2013 8 28 ѹݵ ŷμ мȸ49 The Current Implementation and Future Strategies of the Trust-building Process __ trust what?__ trust for what?__yp __ eeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeee Choi Jinwook ))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))) KINU cccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccc . ѹݵ ŷμ ȯ 1. µ 뼱 ķ Ⱓ ѹݵ ŷμ ũ ݹ . 2012 11 5 ܱȺ ǥ ̸ å Ҿ ϰ ִ , ࡱ̶ Ͽ. 12 1 ⱹ 6.15 10.4 , , , ѹ̵ ȭ, αǹ , 5.24ġ , ̸ å °  䱸ߴ. 2012 12 12 Ÿ ̻ ߻ν ״. 2003 2 12 3 ٽ ٱμ ް ̱ ȭ 谳 Ͽ. 3 31 ߾ȸ ȸǴ ٹ 뼱 äߴ. ٹ 뼱 ٹ 緡 ¿ Ե ڿ (ιλȰ ) ִٴ ̴. 6) ٱμ ǵ ѡ̡ ɷȴ. Ư, ߱ ּ 5 25 ߱ 湮 ֿ Ư翡 Ȳ ȭ 뼼١ ٺ ոȭ õ Ͽ. 6 8 ȸ 6 27 ȸ㿡 ٺ ٰ ҿ Ģ Ȯ Ͽ. ڱ ǵ ߴ. 簳 Ӹ ƴ϶ ݰ 簳 ϰ ȭ ϱ ߴ. ٹ 6) ׷ ڿ Ȳ ̴ ʰ, ⸦ ϴ Ը ܺڿ ̴. 50 Korea Institute for National Unifications International Conference on Strategies to Implement the Trust-building Process on the Korean Peninsula 뼱 , 7 27 翡 ֿش ȭ ߴ. ȭ ʾҴ. 9 21 25Ϸ 갡 ⸦ 뺸Ͽ. 10 4 ڱ ɿ ó Ǹ ϰ ѵ ϴ ٹ 뼱 Ͽ. ǵ ڱ å ڽŵ鿡 ٲپ ̳, 볻 ȭ ϰ ȭų ǹ̴. ̳ ø ü ް ִ. ߱ ̱ ϰ踦 2013 · δ. 7) The Current Implementation and Future Strategies of the Trust-building Process __ trust what?__ trust for what?__yp __ eeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeee Choi Jinwook ))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))) KINU cccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccc 2. ֺ Ͼ ȣ ſ , ġ Ⱥ 繮 乮 ӵǴ ƽþ з Ÿ ִ. 8) ̱ ߽ ߱ λ Բ ̵ ߴٰ , ̱ ͱ ȣϱ ƽþ å ϰ ִ. ̱ й Ϻ, ȣ, ±, ʸ ȭϰ ϰ , Ư ѹ̵ 7) ε׽þ ߸ ֵ APECȸǿ ߱ ּ 10 7 ڱ ɰ ȸ㿡 ߱ ٺ ߰ ٽ ݴ Ѵٴ Ͽ. ּ ÿ ذ 6ȸ ʿ伺 Ͽ. 8) , ?ڱ ϿܱȺå ?, Ͽ ð 2013.8. ѹݵ ŷμ мȸ51 ߽ϰ ִ. ̱ 2010 ݵ ѹݵ ϰ ȭ ѱ ȭ ϰ ִ. ׷ ̱ 2.29ǰ Ϲ ̻ ߻ ȭ ġ 6ȸ ǹϴٴ ϰ ִ. ߱ ̱ ƽþ å ӵǴ ѿ ߱ ȴٰ ϰ, ġ й źϿ. ׷ 2013 2 12 3 ٽ ϰ ̾ 볲 ߱ ѿ ʾ ȣ µ ־. ߱ Ⱥ Ǿ 2094ȣ äÿ ̾, ߱ , Ǵ ǰ 20kg ġ , ࿡ ġ ߴ. ߱ µ ȭ ٰ߿ ߱ ̿ ? ȭ ü ֺ ݹ߰ ̱ й ߱ δ ȴٴ 򰡿 δ. 2010 ѹݵ Ǿ ߱ εϸ ̱ Ͽ ÷ Ͽ. ̴ Ͱ Ʈʽ ȭ ߱ λ Ϸ ̱ å 鼭 ѹ̵ ȭ Դ. Ⱓ ߱ؿ ؿ ߱ ÿ Ҿϴ ̱ ϰ ߱ µ ȭ ƴ. 9) 3 ٽ ߱ ȭ ѡ̡ ٹ ῡ 밨 ̱⵵ Ͽ. ѡ̡ ɼ Ϻ 9) ٽ , ߱ ٹⰡ ٹ ٴ ξ ϴٰ δ. , ٹⰡ Ȯϴٴ ̴. 52 Korea Institute for National Unifications International Conference on Strategies to Implement the Trust-building Process on the Korean Peninsula Ȳ µ Ȯεȴ. Ϻ ϰ ܱ ѱ ߱ ޼ ° ѡ̡ ± ƴѰ ϴ ߴ. ѱ ߱ δ Ǵ ѡ̡ ٴ ȿ ִ ѡ̡ ± ȣϴ ƴѰ ϴ . ̻ Ϻ 湮 Ϻ ¿ ѡ̡ ӿ ٹ ǵǴ ƴѰ ϴ Ϻ ҿܰ Ȥ ̶ ִ. ׷ 2013 9 6ȸ 簳 ȭ ġ ѷ ̡߰ ̰ Ǹ鼭 ȭ ѡ̡ µ . 9 18 ¡ ֵ 6ȸ 1.5Ʈ ȸ ߱ , þƴ 6ȸ ǥ ؼ ̱, , Ϻ ȭ ġ ڵ ߽ ǥ İߴ. 10 3 ̡ ܱ ȸǿ Ϻ 縦 ϰ ߱ ൿ ؼ ϰ Ȯؾ Ѵ١µ Ϳ ߱ ݹ Ͽ. ̡߰ ȭ ĥ ̸ ̷ ִ. 3. 볻 ε ϰ 䱸 ϸ鼭 ϰ ǿϰ Ģִ ڼ Ѵ. ĩ ȣ ̴ Ҹ սŰ å ֿ ̴. ϰ谡 Ⱓ Ǿ Ǿ , ѿ νİ ϰ ȭ 밡 ٰ ִ. 2010 ε ɼ ѹݵ ŷμ мȸ53 ϰ ִ. 10) ȭ ȭ̳ ε  . ׷ Ģ ̳ , ѿ ڼ ⿡ ؼ ݴѴ. 翡 õ԰ 򵵿 Ը ؼ κ ݴѴ. ڱ å ޴ Ģִ ߸ ¿ ʴ Ͱ ѹݵ ȭŰ ϴ 뿡 ̶ ִ. ѱȸ ϰ 屸 ڱϱ ȭ , ǵ ؼ ѷ . , Ͽ ȺҾ 쿡 ȭ ع ѷ ߻ ִ.  Ȳ å ӵ ѷ ִ. The Current Implementation and Future Strategies of the Trust-building Process __ trust what?__ trust for what?__yp __ eeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeee Choi Jinwook ))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))) KINU cccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccc . ѹݵ ŷμ 1. ⺻ (1) ѿ ѸҸ ǵ Ȯ м ֺ, Ư ̡߰ ϰ å ѸҸ ȿ å ̶ ִ. ̱, ѱ, ߱ ߿ Ͽ. ׷ ǵ ¿ Ͽ 򰡴 ȭ ٰ ذ ü 10) 80% ȺȲ Ҿϴٰ ߴ. KBS. 2012 19 ̻ , ȿǥ 1,027, Ⱓ 2012.8.6-7. 54 Korea Institute for National Unifications International Conference on Strategies to Implement the Trust-building Process on the Korean Peninsula ߴ. ǵ 򰡿 , ѿ ̳ й ٹ ų ִٰ Ͼ. 90 ٹ ü Ͽ ȣ Ͽ, 2002 ٹ ɼ Ͽ ȣ Ͽ. ȸ 밨 Ѱ Ŵ޸ ð ߴ. ׷ 2013ʹ ٹ ϰ ٹ ƴ ϰ ִ. ¿ 򰡿 , ٹ ߰ ü Ҹ Բ ذ ̶ νϰ ϰ óߴ. ſ Ȳ ü 忡 ġ ü ־. ڿ ٽɺο ϰ ֺδ ü ϵ ġ . , , ο Ƿ ⱸ, ߽ , ٽɺι ڿ ϰ , ιΰ, Ƿ ġϿ. (2) å å ܰ Ư å ϰų Ư о߸ 켱 ϱ ٴ ŷ ӿ ذϴ ϴ ٶϴ. å åǥ ϰ ƴ å ϰ ϴ ־. ̴ ǵ ֺȯ ȭ ָ ʷ߰ å ȿ Ͻ Ű Ǿ. å ǥ ƴ å ܿ ѱ ǵ ϰ ִٴ ؼ ⵵ ߴ. ǹ̿ å °, Ģ ϳ ѹݵ ŷμ мȸ55 Ű ʰ ϴ ٶϴ. ϰ پ о Ư о߿ ߾ 켱 ϰų ٸ о߸ ڷ ̷ ٴ ġ, , , ȸȭ پ о߿ ÿ Ѵ. Ⱥ ġ ϸ ǰ ʹ ռ Ⱥ ĥ ִ. ȸ ġ о , ʱ⿡ پ缺 ʿϴ. ȵ  Ÿ ذϱ ٴ ϳ ذϰ ŷڰ ̸ ̵ϴ ٶϴ. ó , ŷڰ ̸ ӵ ̴. ŷ ؿ ʴ Ը ϰ̳ Ӱ ʴٴ ߴ. (3) å дܰ غ ̺й Ѿ ڰ ȭ å ؾ Ѵ. å ϰ ؼϰ ȭ ϴ д ȭӰ ϴ ̴. ׷ дܰ ü ƴϸ մ ȥ ּȭϴ Ͽ ̴. ̶ ǥ å Ӹ ƴ϶ ܱȺå ѷ ̴. ϰ ȸȭ, , ε å پ о߿ ̶ ǥǽ и ڰؾ Ѵ. ε , ֹ ǰ , Ż ֹε ģȭ Ȯ뿡 ⿩ϵ ؾ Ѵ. Ư, ε ̹ ġ Ȳ̳ ϰ ϱ Ͽ, й ȮǸ Ը Ȯ ̴. ̻갡 Ȯ 56 Korea Institute for National Unifications International Conference on Strategies to Implement the Trust-building Process on the Korean Peninsula cccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccc ȭ, ȭ Ѵ. ŷڱ ӵǾ ϸ ȭ ֿ켱Ͽ Ѵ. 볻 ģȭ ȸ Ⱑ Ǿ ̴. ģȭ ȸ νϰ, ʿ伺 븦 ϴ ȸ⸦ ǹѴ. ģȭ ȸ ؼ ߿ϴ. å ʿ䰡 ִ. å Ÿ о̳ ٰ å ࿡ Ȧ ؼ ȴ. , , и ׼ ÷ õǰ ̸ ޹ħ , ԵǾ Ѵ. å , , ϴȭ ϰ, а, а, ùδü, ΰ Ǵ å Ʈũ ϰ ܿ Ȯϴ µ ʿϴ. å Ʈ Ÿ ó ü Ǿ Ѵ. Ͽܱ ȭϿ ȭ ⿩ϸ ִٴ ϰ ֺ ν ȭǵ Ѵ. Ͽ ֺ ִ پ Բ Ȯ ϰ ̸ ֵ ؾ ̴. 2. ѹݵ ŷμ ܰ ϱ ٴ ŷ ϰ ȵ ذϰ Ѵ. ܰ Ȯ å ǿ ϱ ư å Ѽϱ ̴. 11) 11) Ϻ , ȸ, 2013 8 21. ѹݵ ŷμ мȸ57 (1) ϰ ġȲ̳ ٰ ϰ ִ ϰ ǵ ϰ Ű Ȳ 籹 ȭ ۿ . ȣ ο о߿ Ѵ. 籹 ȭä ̿ܿ ΰ ϰ Ѵ. Ư , м, ȭ, ġ ä ū о 켱 ִ. ⱸ ƿ 硯 Ƿǰ Ƿ ǰ ε Ѵ. 硯 Ÿΰ , ķ еȴ. UN ϴ DMZȭ 糭, ڷ , ȯ, ׷, ε ϱ Ͼȭ Ͽ ϰ ⸦ Ѵ. αǹ ȸ ؾ ̴. Ϸ ѱ å ȸ ̲ Ӹ ƴ϶ DZ ⿩ ̴. (2) ϴ ġ Ǿ ִ ϰ谡 ʺ ܰ踦 Ѿ ȰȭDZ ؼ ذ ؾ 5.24ġ Ⱥ ̸, ̸ ؼ ϴ ġ ڵ Ѵ. ϴ ݰ 簳 ߹ ġ ̿ܿ 3 ٽ Ⱥ 5.24ġ Ѿ Ѵ. 5.24ġ õ ħ ־ Ѵ. 6ȸ 簳 ġ ʿϸ, 58 Korea Institute for National Unifications International Conference on Strategies to Implement the Trust-building Process on the Korean Peninsula aaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaa ȭ Ⱥ ̴. 忡 õ ƴٸ 켱 ̻갡 ȭ, ȯ  Ǹ ؾ ̴. ϴ ġ ٰ ȭ ߴܵǴ ƴϳ 䱸ؾ ̴. (3) ȭ оߺ ϰ谡 ȭ ϱ ؼ ȭ ־ ̴. ġ, , , ȸȭ оߺ ŷڰ Ǵ ̰ , ÿ ̴. ?ġ о: ϴȭ ȭ, ǥ ġ ? о: õ, ü Ȯ, ȯ, Ʒ ⵿ ȣ ? о: 2 , η , ڿ , ¤ Ȯ, Ư , ϱ»繫 ġ ?εȸȭ о: ̻갡 ȭ, ֹ , мȭ ȭ Ȯ ? о: ⱸ , NGO, ȸ , ھȺ ü ѹݵ ŷμ мȸ59 (4) ȭ ȭ ѹݵ ȭ ǰ ü Ϸ غ ȭȴ. ?ü: ȸ, ǹȸ ȭ, ȭü ?ȭ: ȣ , . ϰ ұϰ ڱ å 볻 ް ִ. ̱ ߱ ȸ ڱ ѹݵ ŷμ ǥϿ. ε κ å ް  ȭǾ. DZݰ å ȿ ʼҰ ̶ ̴. 6 2013 8 MBC翡 77.4% ε ϰ迡 Ѵٰ 亯ߴ. ̴ ñ 빫 ܱȺо߿ 41.9% ̸ å 27.5% ġ̴. ָ å 65.8% 11.9%ٴ ̴. å ѱȸ ߴ, ϴ ߿ μ ϰ Ÿ. ڱ å , Ÿٴ å ѷ ߴٴ ̴. ѹݵ ŷμ ұϰ ϰ ŷ 60 Korea Institute for National Unifications International Conference on Strategies to Implement the Trust-building Process on the Korean Peninsula ccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccc Ѱ ǹ ƴϴ. ׷ ŷ ɼ ؼ ƴϴ. ϰ Ұ ̱ ŷڸ ױ ߰ ̷ ӵǾ ̴. ǻ ŷ Ӹ ƴ϶ ϰ迡 ٽ , , ȭ . ϰ ŷ ϰ踦 Ű ӿ ѱ ڿ ŷڻȸ ߵ ؾ ̴. The Current Implementation and Future Strategies of the Trust-building Process __ trust what?__ trust for what?__yp __ eeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeee Choi Jinwook ))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))) KINU cccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccc end aaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaa sc http://www.kinu.or.kr/eng/news/news_01_01.jsp?bid=ENGNEW&page=1&num=70&mode=view&category= $$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$ KOR REơUNIFICATION II ̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡ %%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%% korean and german re--unification intro by dr yong k park ##################################################### 2013 seoul pppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppp ̡ ooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooo ch xviii--s--ccc ppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppp sc http://www.kinu.or.kr/eng/news/news_01_01.jsp?bid=ENGNEW&page=1&num=70&mode=view&category= $$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$ Korea Institute for National Unifications International Conference on Strategies ((((((((((((((((((((((( to Implement the Trust-building ̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡ Process eeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeee on the Korean Peninsula ̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡ __ trust what?__ trust for what?__yp __ eeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeee Date 2013. 10. 29 %%%%%%%%%%%%%%% ѹݵ ŷμ ϰ ^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^ The Trust-building Process on the Korean Peninsula and Developing Inter-Korean Relations __ trust what?__ trust for what?__yp __ eeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeee Session1 ^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^ Presentations ^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^ ? ѹݵ ŷμ ¿ ^ $$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$ The Current Implementation $$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$ and Future Strategies of the Trust-building Process ^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^ __ trust what?__ trust for what?__yp __ eeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeee ? ѹݵ ŷμ ϰ ȭ $$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$ The Trust-building Process on the Korean Peninsula $$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$ and Institutionalizing Inter-Korean Relations __ trust what?__ trust for what?__yp __ eeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeee Session1-1 $$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$ ѹݵ ŷμ ¿ $$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$ The Current Implementation $$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$ and Future Strategies of the Trust-building Process $$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$ __ trust what?__ trust for what?__yp __ eeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeee Choi Jinwook l ^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^ KINU ^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^ end uuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuu sc http://www.kinu.or.kr/eng/news/news_01_01.jsp?bid=ENGNEW&page=1&num=70&mode=view&category= $$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$ KOR REơUNIFICATION II ̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡ %%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%% korean and german re--unification intro by dr yong k park ##################################################### 2013 seoul pppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppp ̡ ooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooo ch xviii--s-- ddd ppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppp sc http://www.kinu.or.kr/eng/news/news_01_01.jsp?bid=ENGNEW&page=1&num=70&mode=view&category= $$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$ Korea Institute for National Unifications International Conference on Strategies ((((((((((((((((((((((( to Implement the Trust-building ̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡ Process eeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeee on the Korean Peninsula ̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡ __ trust what?__ trust for what?__yp __ eeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeee Date 2013. 10. 29 %%%%%%%%%%%%%%% Session1-2 $$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$ ѹݵ ŷμ __________________ ϰ ȭ $$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$ __ trust what?__ trust for what?__yp __ eeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeee ___________________________________________________ The Trust-building Process on the Korean Peninsula ^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^ and Institutionalizing ^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^ Inter-Korean Relations $$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$ __ trust what?__ trust for what?__yp __ eeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeee Park Ihn-Hwi l ^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^ Ewha Womans University ooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooo ѹݵ ŷμ мȸ63 oooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooo The Trust-building Process on the Korean Peninsula cccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccc and Institutionalizing Inter-Korean Relations $$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$ __ trust what?__ trust for what?__yp __ eeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeee Park Ihn-hwi aaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaa Ewha Womans University eeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeee ____________________________________________________________________________ I. Introduction The Park Geun-hye administration was launched in midst of a challenging diplomatic security environment. Leadership changes in all of Northeast Asian states, tensions following North Koreas inauguration of its third successor, competition between China and the U.S.(G2), global economic crisis, and increase in Northeast Asian states mutual distrust all contributed to an undesirable setting to launch an administration. In such environment, the international community as well as South Korean citizens showed a high level of expectation for the newly launched administrations North Korea policy, probably because President Park was the only leader who had met with late Kim Jong-il former Chairman of North Korea, possessed a wide-reaching network in the international community, and also due to the fact that she had chosen the Trust-building Process on the Korean Peninsula as a key agenda for her North Korea policy, during her campaign. Moreover, during last years 18 th presidential election, public opinion showed that although North Koreas irrational behavior, including its nuclear issue, was on the increase, it would nevertheless, be undesirable to let inter- 64 Korea Institute for National Unifications International Conference on Strategies to Implement the Trust-building Process on the Korean Peninsula Korean relations stagnate, like it did during the past five years under the Lee Myung-bak administration. The Park Geun-hye administration promoted a relatively distinctive North Korea policy centered on the Trust-building Process. After months since the Park administrations inauguration, initial assessments on the Trust-building Process have begun to surface. Some commend that Trust-building Process was able to manage the security tension that North Korea has caused in the first half of the year, and that the reactivation of the Kaesong Industrial Complex exemplifies how the Trust-building Process was able to successfully take secure its roots. 1 On the other hand, others point out that the cancellation of the reunion of separated families, and North Koreas harsh rhetoric toward South Korea demonstrates that it is still too early to objectively assess the Trust-building Process. At present, there may be various assessments of the Trust-building Process in the international community and among South Korean citizens. However, given that the North Korea problem will require long-term consistent efforts, it is undesirable to evaluate the governments policies on separate, one-off occasions. Regarding inter-Korean relations, various unpredictable challenges willsurface in the future. Therefore, the important thing for the South Korean government is to set a long-term vision and a detailed roadmap and maintain a consistent stance toward North Korea. It appears that the current administration is very conscious of this fact. Therefore, if the Park administrations first few months focused on settling the Trust-building Process, the next stage is to deeply consider what efforts 1 Yonhap News, 6 Months of the ParkGeun-hye Administration, August 23, 2013 ѹݵ ŷμ мȸ65 aaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaa must be made to bring the policy to fruition. In this context, this research aims to discuss the problems associated with the next stage of the Trust-building Process, which is, the institutionalization of inter-Koreanrelations. Until now, previous administrations have put much efforts to institutionalize inter-Korean relations with the aim of forging a relationship that can withstand unexpected variables, but to no avail. This paper attempts to answer what the Park administration must to institutionalize inter-Korean relations and realize its goal of fostering peace between South and North Korea. The Trust-building Process on the Korean Peninsula cccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccc and Institutionalizing Inter-Korean Relations __ trust what?__ trust for what?__yp __ eeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeee Park Ihn-hwi aaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaa Ewha Womans University eeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeee ____________________________________________________________________________ II. The Background and Meaning of the Trust-building Process 1. Post-Cold War Inter-Korean Relations and the Trust-building Process Two observations can be maderegarding the security environment on the Peninsula at the time the Park Geun-hye administration took office. The first is that North Koreas nuclear issue has entered a new level of complexities, and the second is that the possibility of conflict between the U.S. and China has increased, making South Koreas unification diplomacy toward the two states more important than ever. Regarding the first point, in April 2012 North Korea stipulated in its Constitution that it is a nuclear state, and for the next year it has devised strategies aimed to heighten tensions in a manner that was never before seen throughout the entire post-Cold War era.In particular, North Koreas third nuclear test that took place on 12 February, the day of 66 Korea Institute for National Unifications International Conference on Strategies to Implement the Trust-building Process on the Korean Peninsula President Park Geun-hyes inauguration and one day prior to President Obamas State of the Union speech, has shifted the dimension of the Korean Peninsulas security environment. North Korea has invested much of its national power in changing the Northeast Asian security environment to its favor, with the aim of stabilizing the Kim Jong-un regime early in his rule. Unsurprisingly, the U.S., China, Japan and other states with a vested interest in the Northeast Asian region are also working to restructure the security environment to favor their respective national interests. For twenty years after the end ofthe Cold War, two arguments have repeatedly surfaced every time North Koreas nuclear issue came into the limelight. The first is the view that the realization of the Korean Peninsulas denuclearization depends on South Koreas efforts and policies. The other is that whether North Korea abandons its nuclear weapon depends entirely on North Koreas will and has little or nothing to do with South Koreas efforts. It can be stated that these two conflicting arguments have coexisted during the past twenty years. When viewing the ideological character of the two arguments, the former is known to be a relatively progressive perspective, and the latterto be a more conservative one. The position of the former argument emphasizes that the international community led by South Korea and the U.S. can resolve North Koreas nuclear issue depending on what policies it adopts. Inthe context of the present situation, it means that if South Korea adopts a proactive engagement policy and the U.S. suggests normalizing relations with North Korea and agrees to discuss a peace system, North Korea will take corresponding steps. Conversely, conservatists claim that North Koreas longtime intention has always been to acquire a nuclear state status, and it ismoving step by step according to its ѹݵ ŷμ мȸ67 set timetable with no regard to the efforts of the outside world. In a realistic sense, after North Koreas third nuclear test, more and more people in the South Korean society appears to be interpreting North Koreas nuclear issue from the latters stance. Next, regarding the increasing role of the United States and China, the so-called G2, the new order in Asia and the international community cannot but be an important variable when it comes to the problem on the Peninsula. Actually, although powerpolitics is not an uncommon characteristic of international politics following the modern international order, it is clearly distinct from the past 19 th century European order, 20 th century Cold War order, and the American unipolar structure in the post-Cold War era. For the G2, more than any other cases of power politics, it is evident that both cooperation and conflict coexist between the two. Given that issues concerning the Korean Peninsula are probably the highest points of contention between the two states, the influence of China and the U.S. on the Korean Peninsula will increase in accordance with Chinas rise. Therefore, an important point concerning the Korean Peninsula is that as South Korea gains more freedom over the North Korea problem, the influence imposed by China and the U.S. will correspondingly increase. Therefore, a situation arises in which South Koreas ability to prevent the interests of the U.S. and China from clashing and converge the three states views on North Korea is becoming a vital task. In consideration of the Korean Peninsulas security environment, the Park Geun-hye administration claims that a vicious cycle of promise and annulment that has distinguished inter-Korean relations since the Korean 68 Korea Institute for National Unifications International Conference on Strategies to Implement the Trust-building Process on the Korean Peninsula War is due to the lack of a minimum level of trust in each others actions. Therefore, the Park administration states that amidst continuing inter-Korean tensions and when trust is at an all-time low, the time is ripe to implement the Trust-building Process. 2 Actually, Northeast Asias security environment has improved slightly during the post-Cold War era, and many attempts have been made to improve inter-Korean relations. The Park administration explains that despite such efforts, the reason why inter-Korean tensions persist is because a trust infrastructure had not been established. In particular, it is known that President Park Geun-hye has a firm belief that the South Korean governments previous approaches, both hard-line policies and the engagement policy termed the Sunshine Policy have failed to induce genuine changes in North Korea. The Trust-building Process on the Korean Peninsula was established in this context. Despite North Koreas roguish behavior and extreme tensions in inter-Korean relations, the majority of people in South Korea wish for an improvement in inter-Korean relations, and a prefer North Korea policy to be one of peace rather than physical sanctions, in order to build a foundation for peace on the Peninsula. Although skepticism regarding North Koreas nuclear abandonment is increasing and a degree of public opinion even call for nuclear possession, the denuclearization of the Korean Peninsula is the South Korea governments clear objective, and the citizens belief that peace on the Peninsula should be established through a peaceful and mutually beneficial way has not changed. 2 Ministry of Unification, Trust-Building Process on the Korean Peninsula(August 2013), p.7. ѹݵ ŷμ мȸ69 ppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppp 2. The Meaning of Trust and Peace The following will discuss the meaning of trust when it is converted to policy. Individual states and regions have different ways to understand and define peace according to their own historical background and political, economic features. From the view of European traditions, in a broad sense, the social condition peace allows social members to realize their own interests. It embraces the dimension of the emancipation as well as political liberty and economic affluence among the social members. In the meantime, in some regions such asmany African countries which lack regime security and societal security, peace is defined as the minimum conditions of survival and protection from extreme violation of human rights. 3 In this sense, the realization of peace on the Korean Peninsula should reflect its regional specificity toa full extent. Trust, therefore, is a core factor in constructing the peace of Korea based on the specific regional features. In the history ofhitherto the inter-Korean relations, tangle with the numerous promises and declarations between both Koreas, emphasis was placed on reciprocal mutual interests, institutional norms and leaders commitment with the intentions to achieve peace. Each of them, however, foundered with the various reasons intoa vicious cycle which led to the realization that we had been poor at trust-building, the most crucial factor to achieve peace on the Korea Peninsula. It suggests that the Trust-building 3 Regarding the different meanings of security and peace, see Alan Collins, Contemporary Security Studies (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2010), Part I. 70 Korea Institute for National Unifications International Conference on Strategies to Implement the Trust-building Process on the Korean Peninsula Process should focus on securing trust than any other components in inter-Korean relations. Simply speaking, process means gradual and incremental steps to peace. President Park stated in the last presidential election that small components of peace amount to a large peace through gradual phases at any levels and the ultimate trust and peace accumulate for the relative process in the long term, 4 unlike some values such as interests or promise which could flicker out by chance. She added that trust is not as tangible as specific incidents or accomplishment in some tasks while trust is a stable value that requires gradual process. The view that trust and peace between the two Koreas must be obtained gradually is becoming gaining more persuasion as North Korea increases its tension-building behavior. With North Koreas increasing determination to develop its nuclearweapons and corresponding skepticism among the public whether North Korea will abandon its nukes, improvement in inter-Korean relations and peace on the Peninsula will require sophisticated and various strategies. Asstated above, as the significance of the U.S. and Chinas roles increases, it will be important to gather the two states interests in a gradual but progressive manner. III. Institutionalization of the Trust-Building Process 1. Key Policies of the Trust-Building Process 4 Ministry of Unification, ibid, p. 13. ѹݵ ŷμ мȸ71 cccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccc The Park Geun-hye Administration isstriving to apply the value of trust to its diplomatic policy as well as North Korea policy. The well-known examples of its policies are the Trust-building Process for the Korean Peninsula, the Northeast Asia Peace and Cooperation Initiative for the Northeast Asian region and Middle-power Diplomacy at the global level. The following is a list of foreign policies, including the Trust-building Process promoted by the Park administration related to Trustpolitik. Park Administrations foreign strategies by strategies and means Policy Levels Policy Areas Policy Means Korean Peninsula Developing inter-Korean relations Trust-building Process on the Korean Peninsula Northeast Asia Traditional bilateral diplomacy ROK-U.S. alliance, ROK-China, ROK-Japan, and ROK-Russia relations North Koreas nuclear issue Six-Party Talks (acquiring limited independent flexibility) Major pending issues Mini-multilateralism Overcoming the Asia Paradox Northeast Asia Peace and Cooperation Plan International community Multilateral diplomacy Middle-power diplomacy, ODA and Cultural diplomacy Economic diplomacy Respecting existing FTA, Economic-friendly diplomacy 72 Korea Institute for National Unifications International Conference on Strategies to Implement the Trust-building Process on the Korean Peninsula 1) Policy Areas of Security and Peace In order for the Trust-building Process to institutionalize inter-Korean relations, it is important to clarify what aspect of the North Korean policy it emphasizes. In thisrespect, two core issues, first being security and peace, and second being economic cooperation and socio-cultural exchange, will be discussed. Firstly, in the realm of security and peace, there are largely of five key agendas. First, the Trust-building Process aims to establish a permanent communicative channel that can deal with a variety of dimensions and areas to develop inter-Korean relations and peace. Under the principle that communications should continue even in times of war, the South Korean government expressed its will to acknowledge North Korea as a partner for talks, negotiations and cooperation. Second, in terms of security, it is noteworthy that the nuclear issue which had been discuss at the level of the international community is being brought down and addressed as an inter-Korean agenda. Addressing the nuclear issue between the two Koreas will be based on the premise that South Korea will work very closely with both China and the U.S., and thus the capacity and will of the South Korean government will be critical. On this note, if previous governments denuclearization policy is thought of as having been somewhat one-dimensional (simple), the denuclearization policy in the future will require a multi-dimensional (multi-layered) strategy that can encompass various different policies as well. Under no circumstances should South Koreas principle of denuclearization be modified, and if ѹݵ ŷμ мȸ73 _____________________________________________________________________________________________ needed, it has to push forward the denuclearization policy in a broader sense to include the U.S. discussion on nonproliferation. This paper however, will not further elaborate on thispoint as it digresses from the theme of the study. Third, the Trust-building Process in principle wishes for the resumption of the Six-Party Talks aspart of its efforts to pursue denuclearization. Some argue that the Six-Party Talks have proved itself useless, and that a different channel of communication is needed. Nevertheless, the Six-Party Talks is the only international consultative group dealing with North Koreas nuclear issue. Even if there is an alternative channel, the resumption of the Six-Party Talks should be a prior condition for the next step forward. Thus, the South Korean government, which strives to restart the Six-Party Talks based on the Trust-building Process, suggests strategically preparing a complementary consultative group. Mini-multilateralism is one of the alternatives which South Korea proposed, referring to various forms of multi-lateral strategic consultative systems among South Korea, North Korea, the United States, China and Japan. 5 Fourth, the Trust-building Process seeks to actively utilize the ROK-U.S. alliance, which is a major diplomatic and national security asset. It is indicative of South Koreas strategic stance, actively utilizing the R.O.K-U.S. alliance while developing its independent defense capacity. At the moment, the issue of delaying the transfer of wartime operational control (OPCON) is being discussed betweenSouth Korea and the U.S., and therefore it is difficult to foresee what problems may surface in R.O.K-U.S. 5 Even after the Park Geun-hye administration declared the importance of the "Mini-Multilateralism", there has been some negative views on that. But it is knows that the Park government has a strong standpoint to implement the mini-multilateral meetings in particular with the U.S. and China. See, Yonhapnews, "the North Korea has to show a sincereness of the inter-Korean dialogue," May 27, 2013. 74 Korea Institute for National Unifications International Conference on Strategies to Implement the Trust-building Process on the Korean Peninsula relations. Nonetheless, what matters is that South Korea is able to utilize the transfer of OPCON as a chance to enhance its defense no matter what conclusion the negotiations will reach. Finally, the Trust-building Process makes it very clear that South Korea will strengthen its capacity for unification. It may be necessary to modify the current governments official unification policy, including Unification Plan for One National Community, or the Basic law in Inter-Korean Relations. In addition, South Korea expressed its intention to enhance education for unification, use overseas Koreans as assets for unification and seek international alignment in order to strengthen its capacity for unification. 2) Policy Areas of Economic Cooperation and Socio-cultural Exchange The two pillars of economic cooperation and socio-cultural exchange can be discussed in relation to seven different policy areas. First, South Korea has made it clear that itwould provide active assistance to North Koreas situation concerning withhuman rights. North Koreas human rights situation poses many different implications, but South Korea has stated it will continue humanitarian aid regardless of political circumstances. South Korea has shown exceptional interest in the so-called humanitarian selective aid which is targeted atthe societys most vulnerable groups including women, infants, children, etc. Another aspect of human rights issues is the problem of separated families and South Korean prisoners of war in North Korea. ѹݵ ŷμ мȸ75 eeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeee Second, the Park administration has emphasized the developmental growth and internationalization of the Kaesong Industrial Complex, which had not been closed even under South Koreas conservative, and remained the symbol of the inter-Korean cooperation. She maintained that if North Korea isready to accept the global standard, the Kaesong Industrial Complex can expand even more. The successful operation and development of the Complex will be ableto occupy the core position of the South-North relations if both Koreas consolidate mutual trust and expand its areas for cooperation. Third, a variety of the inter-Korean socio-cultural exchange projects including academic exchanges is important. Exchanging and sharing knowledge, sports, information, culture, etc.is crucial in order to effectively combine heterogeneous societies in the long run. The Trust-building Process is very conscious of the importance of socio-cultural exchange, which will become the foundation for unification. Fourth, the Trust-building Process sets up an Environmental community on the Korean Peninsula through a policy of Green Detente toward North Korea. Inter-Korean economic cooperation will be implemented in ways to minimize environmental destruction for the survival of the ecological system on the KoreanPeninsula. Taking the environment into consideration is desirable especially given that North Koreas abundant underground resources will be important in the future development of North Korea. Thus, policies emphasizing the Green Detente will attract much support both at home and abroad. 76 Korea Institute for National Unifications International Conference on Strategies to Implement the Trust-building Process on the Korean Peninsula Fifth, the Trust-building Process focuses on activating the domestic discourses on North Koreas human rights issues and establishing an international cooperativesystem. The approach to the human rights issues contributes to ameliorating political situations in North Korea, and also humanitarian aid to North Korea will needto be flexibly included in issues concerning human rights, which can lead to the realization of human security on the Korean Peninsula. The Trust-building Process is interested in socio-cultural exchange projects that are of common interests to both South and North Korean people. Sixth, if the Trust-building Process yields progress and secures a momentum in fostering minimum strategic trust, South Korea contends that it will push ahead with large-scale economic cooperation and infrastructure creation. In this situation, it is necessarythat South Korea takes advantage of the international economic environment, including participation in developing strategies in the three provinces of Northeast China and Siberia in Russia in the continuum of its engagement policy in North Korea. In particular, the development projects in the three provinces in Northeast China and Siberia in Russia are also one of South Koreas main strategic interests, which are expected to provide the South Korea economy a new growth engine. In this dimension, large-scale economic development projects are known as the so-call Korean version of the Marshall Plan, or Korean Vision Project. 6 Finally, it is suggested that a South-North joint office for cooperation and exchange is established in both Seoul and Pyongyang. 6 Ministry of Unification, ibid, p. 17 ѹݵ ŷμ мȸ77 eeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeee Although there might be different opinionsover what the prior conditions for the joint office should be, a permanent communicative office in the two capitals will play a positive role in settling peace on the Korean Peninsula. 2. Suggestions to Institutionalize Inter-Korean Relations Political will alone will not guarantee the success of the Trust-building Process. As mentioned above, it is necessary for the Trust-building Process to become institutionalized. This will be not be possible if each individual policy areas mentioned aboveare approached individually. Rather, institutionalization should be comprehensively approached by utilizing several policy directions. 1) How to revise Korea's Official Unification Policy? South Koreas official unification policy is Unification Plan for One National Community, which was established in 1989 through agreement among several political organizations in South Korean society. However, it has been many decades and inter-Korean relations have experienced many changes. Therefore, the Unification Plan for One National Community should be modifiedto achieve and develop the Trust-building Process. Although social dialogue and consensus should be made in terms of how it should be modified, a few things are certain. Notably, it is important that after it was first revised in 1989, South Korea and North Korea joined the United Nations as separate states, and since then, both states have acquired a strong sense of statehood. Whether it is accepted or not, that an identity ofindividual statehood formed in both South Korea and 78 Korea Institute for National Unifications International Conference on Strategies to Implement the Trust-building Process on the Korean Peninsula North Korea is indisputable. Future modifications should take this point into consideration, and much efforts must be made to overcome the sense of individual statehood between South and North Korea. After the end of the Cold War and twenty years onward, North Koreas nuclear issue has emerged as a core problem for South and North Korea. Thus, South Koreas policy for unification should prepare a detailed roadmap to solve the nuclear issue. Itis debatable whether the Unification Plan for One National Community should include the nuclear issue. Furthermore, it might be an inappropriate discussion because the solution is beyond South Koreas will and capacity. Nevertheless, the South Korean government should publically present its position regarding the issue of addressing North Koreas nuclear issue in the context of Korean unification. For the last few decades the security environment on the Korean Peninsula has dramatically changed. Animportant change has been Chinas rise, and the fact that the U.S. and Chinas role in Korean unification has significantly increased. As globalization increasingly connects internal politics with international diplomacy, unification will emerge as an issue concerning international politics. It isimperative to formulate a vision and the means to resolve diplomatic challenges that will surface in the future. Last but not lease, it is necessary to examine whether relevant laws and principles, including the Development ofInter-Korean Relations Act need to be modified. ѹݵ ŷμ мȸ79 ----------------------------------------------------------------------------- 2) Establishment of Permanent Dialogue Channels President Park Geun-hye mentioned that communications should continue even in times of war emphasizing the necessity of inter-Korean dialogue. 7 Not only will it decrease the discrepancy between the two states perceptions, but it will also clarify the difference in positions and thoughts. Diplomatic dialogue is effective in converging the gap of differences, and also in increasing mutual understanding. Thus, the crucial starting point of institutionalization of inter-Korean relations is to secure a permanent dialogue channel. The policy of the Trust-building Process considers the value of trust in both its objectives and measures of the North Korea policy. That is to say, the trust which is accumulated in the process of the North Korea policy will be an asset that will yield the capacity to take further steps of the process. Then, permanent inter-Korean dialogue is at the core of the Trust-building Process, in which both regular talks on a quarter or monthly basis as well as irregular talks on separated families or the Kaesong Industrial Complex will need to be held. 3) A Systemic Crisis-Management on the Korean Peninsula One of the most challenging factors in inter-Korean relations is the expansion or reproduction of crises. Various levels and types of crises have occurred on the Korean Peninsula.Inter-Korean crises were sometimes restricted to a certain area, but most have shown a tendency to expand into other areas. More importantly, the expansions of crises have occurred across 7 Yonhap News, "Will talk to North Korea, " Apr 12, 2013. 80 Korea Institute for National Unifications International Conference on Strategies to Implement the Trust-building Process on the Korean Peninsula two dimensions: vertical expansion and horizontal expansion. 8 Vertical expansion of crises indicates that a once it breaks out, certain crisis leads to not only the problem within the issue but also further conflicts or failure in the past agreements and promises among both Koreas and the international community. Such vertical expansions of crises have aggravated the already strained inter-Korean relations and have acted as a major factor blocking improvements in inter-Korean relations. In such situation, one essential task is to promptlysecure an inter-Korean crisis-management system with the viewto institutionalize the Trust-building Process. It can include developing Joint crisis-management committee. It could take the form of a meeting to effectively manage crises between South and North Korea, and at the same time, it is necessary for the South Korean government to form a government organization that can systematically respond to various North Korea problems.In addition, given that problems on the Korean Peninsula are also distinguished as a problem in Northeast Asia, measures should be sought to effectively manage the crisis situation through discussions with the U.S. and China. The Trust-building Process on the Korean Peninsula cccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccc and Institutionalizing Inter-Korean Relations $$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$ __ trust what?__ trust for what?__yp __ eeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeee Park Ihn-hwi aaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaa Ewha Womans University eeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeee ____________________________________________________________________________ 4) 'Networked Interdependence' of the Two Koreas It could be stated that previous governments North Korea policies have been grounded on the Western theory of functionalism. 9 Whether the South Korean government adopts soft-line stance or hard-line, both were grounded on the logic that adopting a pacificatory policy would 8 Park Ihn-hwi(in Korean), "Theoretical Background and Internationalization of the Trust-Building Press on the Korean Peninsula" Unification Policy Studies, Vol. 22. No. 1(June 2013), p. 42. 9 Park, ibid, p. 37, 38. ѹݵ ŷμ мȸ81 ''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''' change North Korea. Such a functionalistic approach to inter-Korean relations, however, has been criticized in various aspects. These criticisms are based on various contexts, but it generally points out that a functionalist approach carries with it inherent limitations in that the Korean Peninsula is very different from Europe, where such an approach proved to be successful. It also accredits the distinct nature of the North Korean society. A new logical basis, therefore is demanded, one of which is Networked Interdependence. It is applicable when it is impossible for one agent in inter-Korean relations to induce change in its counterpart, and when situations arise it which it is less favorable to induce change in a specific policy area, but more desirable to promote various policies in various fields at the same time. 10 Moreover, in addition to the South Korean government, many entities such as South Korean enterprises, civil society, and civilians also pursue an engagement policy toward North Korea, and on an international level, foreign governments, foreign companies, international organizations and NGOs are also potential entities. In this light, theorizing Networked Interdependence and developing policies will greatly aid developing inter-Korean relations. In order to realize Networked Interdependence, it is imperative that South Korea establishes strategiesand the vision related to intangible networks in inter-Korean relations. To this end, South Korea must devise an institutional roadmap to implement, verify and gauge the situation and steps of Networked interdependence. A general overview of North Korea policy 10 For reference see, Kim Sang-bae(in Korean), "Korea's Network Diplomatic Strategy: Agent-Network Theory," National Strategy, Vol. 17, No. 3(2011). 82 Korea Institute for National Unifications International Conference on Strategies to Implement the Trust-building Process on the Korean Peninsula governance is needed, along with an improvement in the domestic level of institutionalization. In addition, institutionalization of inter-Korean relations needs to be conceptualized fromthe perspective of Networked Interdependence and relevant policies must be formulated. These efforts will harmonize the value of trust which is central to the Trust-building Process. Given that trust cannot arbitrarily appear and disappear, a Networked Interdependence targetedat North Korea will need to be implemented. The Trust-building Process on the Korean Peninsula cccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccc and Institutionalizing Inter-Korean Relations __ trust what?__ trust for what?__yp __ eeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeee Park Ihn-hwi aaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaa Ewha Womans University eeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeee ____________________________________________________________________________ 5) How to Measure Trust? One of the most essential tasks to institutionalize the Trust-building Process is to devise ways toconnect different levels of trust-building efforts. According to the ParkAdministration, initial stages of the North Korea policy will be marked by maintaining humanitarian aid and direct talks. Then at a specific stage, economic cooperation and socio-cultural exchanges will be promoted. When a degree of trust is formed, a North Korean version of the Marshall Plan, including large-scale infrastructure projects will be implemented. This indicates that there are various levels of trust between South and North Korea, as well as North and the international community, and it is therefore important to explain in detail how these various steps will be distinguished from one another. It is also important to prepare for how to measure and gauge the gradual process of trust-building. That isto say, it is necessary to find ways to visualize trust. Given that unlike other political goals, trust is a value-imbedded goal, thus visualization may nothave to take a clear and specific ѹݵ ŷμ мȸ83 eeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeee form. Nevertheless, in order for the Park administration to promote a successful North Korea policy for the nextfive years, it will need to clearly identify whether trust was formed or not to the general public. It will also need to present objective evidence to explain or make the public understand why it has or has not been formed. North Koreas responses or popular surveys could be good indicators. The Park Administration needs to strategically evaluate what objective evidence it can provide to prove that trust was formed between the two Koreas as a product of the Trust-building Process. IV. Other Critical Considerations 1. Emphasizing the International Cooperation The Korean unification process has international characteristics which go beyond the Northeast Asian region. Not only is international cooperation with neighboring states such as the United States and China an indispensable part of the unification process, but international organizations also play critical roles. Thus, the institutionalization of the Trust-building Process should put great weight on international cooperation. Although the Park Administration already has policies which emphasize various cooperative systems with the international community, including the Northeast Asian Peace and Cooperation Initiative and Middle-Power Diplomacy, it is important to forum an international consensus and coordinate policies with the international community on South Koreas unification policy. 84 Korea Institute for National Unifications International Conference on Strategies to Implement the Trust-building Process on the Korean Peninsula When considering the efforts made to institutionalize the Trust-building Process at the international level, a specific type of governance is needed which can promote unification diplomacy to highlight how important it is to achieve unification. In addition to the Six-Party Talks which deals with North Koreas nuclear problem, a Korea Economic Cooperation Dialogue, or a similar institutionalized channel for communication can be established to address engagement policies including aid. In addition, the Trust-building Process intends to actively draw on overseas Koreans to prepare for unification, and as such, it is important to provide the means of utilizing them as an asset for unification. 2. The Role of the National Assembly and Making North Korea Policies At present it is highly inconceivable that North Korea will suddenly decide to change drastically or abandon its nuclear weapons. Ultimately, North Korea must be induced to make the strategic decision of giving up its nuclear weapons and change. At this point, the National Assembly is expected to play an active role. For the reference, when considering the U.S. numerous Regime change policies which have been aimed at various states, the role of the National Assembly had played a critical part in the processes. Although North Korea should hardly be regarded as a target state of regime change policy, former examples of the regime change policy are suggestive ofthe North Korea policy in a broader sense. 11 When considering factors such as consistent execution of the engagement policy, gaining public wide consensus, and the political 11 Park Ihn-hwi (in Korean), America's Foreign Policy of Regime Change and Its Implication to Korea," The Studies of International Affairs, Vol. 12, No. 2 (June 2012). ѹݵ ŷμ мȸ85 ----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- complexities of the North Korea policy, it looks desirable for South Koreas policy toward North Korea to go through stages of the legislative process after full discussion in the National Assembly. In fact, the U.S. policy of regime change created a variety of policies, after a very comprehensive policy development process that was followed by sufficient discussions in Congress, and in many cases, this legislative process was a key factor in leading this policy of regime change to success. V. Conclusion During the last 20 years since the end of the Cold War, North Korea was devoted to a nuclear weapons program strategy for the survival of its system. South Korean governments in the past pursued a variety of policies toward North Korea, but failed to both elicit changes in North Korean behavior and to solve the nuclear issue. Rather, the more South Korea tried to pursue a more aggressive policy toward North Korea, the more it tended to fall into a dilemma in which North Korea showed an even more powerful will to possess nuclear weapons. In this context, the Park Geun-hye government emphasizes the Trust-Building Process on the Korean Peninsula, in which unlike in the past, a new value of trust is applied to South Koreas North Korea policy. The Trust-Building Process on the Korean Peninsula is a policy that aims to develop inter-Korean relations through a concept oftrust that was not considered as a strategic objective nor means in South North Korea policies until nowand through an approach of gradual trust-building process. 86 Korea Institute for National Unifications International Conference on Strategies to Implement the Trust-building Process on the Korean Peninsula While creative and strategic aspects of the Trust-Building Process on the Korean Peninsula, ishighly commendable, the Park Geun-hye governments North Korea policy is likely to face many challenges to overcome in the future. After the initial launch of the government, the South Korean people and the international community are assessing that the Trust-Building Process on the Korean Peninsula has rooted successfully in its own way. Now the key challenge will befor inter-Korean relations to solve the challenges of institutionalization in order for the Trust-Building Process on the Korean Peninsula to move forward to the next stage. Some of the key challenges for the institutionalization of inter-Korean relations is to once again organize laws related to unification, to secure regular dialogue channels between the two Koreas, and to establish a crisis management system on the Korean Peninsula. Hopefully the Park administrations North Korea policy, which is in its nascent stages, solves these problems with prudence, eventually leading to success in inter-Korean relations and peace on the Korean Peninsula. The Trust-building Process on the Korean Peninsula cccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccc and Institutionalizing Inter-Korean Relations $$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$ __ trust what?__ trust for what?__yp __ eeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeee Park Ihn-hwi aaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaa Ewha Womans University eeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeee ____________________________________________________________________________ end eeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeee sc http://www.kinu.or.kr/eng/news/news_01_01.jsp?bid=ENGNEW&page=1&num=70&mode=view&category= $$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$ KOR REơUNIFICATION II ̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡ %%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%% korean and german re--unification intro by dr yong k park ##################################################### 2013 seoul pppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppp ooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooo ch xviii--s-- ddd ppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppp sc http://www.kinu.or.kr/eng/news/news_01_01.jsp?bid=ENGNEW&page=1&num=70&mode=view&category= $$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$ Korea Institute for National Unifications International Conference on Strategies ((((((((((((((((((((((( to Implement the Trust-building ̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡ Process eeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeee on the Korean Peninsula ̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡ __ trust what?__ trust for what?__yp __ eeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeee Date 2013. 10. 29 %%%%%%%%%%%%%%% Session1-2 $$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$ ѹݵ ŷμ __________________ ϰ ȭ $$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$ __ trust what?__ trust for what?__yp __ eeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeee ___________________________________________________ The Trust-building Process on the Korean Peninsula ^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^ and Institutionalizing Inter-Korean Relations $$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$ __ trust what?__ trust for what?__yp __ eeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeee Park Ihn-Hwi l ^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^ Ewha Womans University ooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooo ѹݵ ŷμ мȸ87 eeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeee The Trust-building Process on the Korean Peninsula cccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccc and Institutionalizing Inter-Korean Relations $$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$ __ trust what?__ trust for what?__yp __ eeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeee Park Ihn-hwi aaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaa Ewha Womans University eeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeee ____________________________________________________________________________ ѹݵ ŷμ ϰ ȭ $$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$ $$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$ (ȭڴб) . Introduction ڱ δ ε Ͽ ſ ܱȺȯ濡 Ͽ. ǥ δ Ͼ ü, 3 ҾȰ, ߰(G2) ȭ, ۷ι ħü, Ͼ 鰣 ҽ ε Ե . 츮 ε ȸ ̷ Ȳ Ӱ ڱ ο å 밨 Ǿµ, 濡 , ȸ Ʈũ Ȯ , ŷμ Ͽ å ٽ ڸ ִ Ǵܵȴ. 18 뼱 ټ ε ٹ ̼ ൿ ȭ ׷ٰ ؼ, 5Ⱓ ̸ ó ϰ谡 Ϻ Ǵ ٶ ʴٴ Ҹ Ÿ⵵ Ͽ. ڱ δ ŷ μ ٽ ϴ ſʹ ټ å ϰ Ǿ, 鼭 ŷ μ(trust-buildingprocess)ʱ 򰡸 ѷ پ ǰ ǰ ִ. Ϻ ε ݱ ߱ ص ȺҾ ΰ , ׸ ̿ 簡 鼭, ŷμ ʱ ϰ ִ 88 Korea Institute for National Unifications International Conference on Strategies to Implement the Trust-building Process on the Korean Peninsula eeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeee 򰡸 ִ. 1) ÿ Ϻ 鿡 ϸ ̻갡 , 츮 θ ٽ ϱ 鼭, ŷμ 򰡸 ⿡ ̸ٴ ̰ ִ. 츮 ΰ ȸ ŷμ ѷ پ 򰡰 ִ. ϰ Ⱓ ģ ʿ ϴ å о ߻ϴ ߽ 츮 å ϴ ٶ ʴٰ Ѵ. Ŀ ϰ迡 ó ġ پ Ÿ ִ. ߿ 忡 ε ϰ å Ľ ϴ ʿ ٰ . δ ̷ ϰ ִ Ǵܵȴ. ׷ٸ, ʱ ưưϰ Ѹ ִ μ ʱ , ܰ迡  ϴ° ʿ ̶ . ̷ 濡 ʱ ܰ踦 Ѿ ŷμ ܰ ؾ ȭ(institutionalization) ؼ ϰ Ѵ. ݱ δ ϰ ȭ ִµ, ̴ ߺ 鸮 ʴ ϰ 踦 ϱ ̾. ε ŵ ߴ. ׷ٸ, ̿ ŷ ǥ ִ ڱ ο ϰ ȭ ̷ϱ  ← ϸ  ؾ ΰ? ̷ Ѵ. 1)Yonhapnews,6 Monthsofthe ParkGeun-hyeAdministration,Aug23,2013 ѹݵ ŷμ мȸ89 ''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''' The Trust-building Process on the Korean Peninsula cccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccc and Institutionalizing Inter-Korean Relations $$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$ __ trust what?__ trust for what?__yp __ eeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeee Park Ihn-hwi aaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaa Ewha Womans University eeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeee ____________________________________________________________________________ . The Backgound and Meaning of the Trust-Building Press 1. Post-Cold War Inter-Korean Relations and the Trust- Building Press ڱ ΰ ϴ ѹݵ Ⱥȯ Ư¡ Ұ ڸ ִ. ϳ ٹ ο ϰ ִٴ ̰, ٸ ϳ 浹 ɼ Ŀ鼭 ̱ ߱ Ͽܱ ߿伺 ߿ ٴ ̴. 켱 ο Ͽ, 2012 4 ڱ ٺ̶ ȭϿ, 1⿡ ģ Ⱓ Ż ü ñ⿡ ʰ ⸦ Ű ߴ. ٵ ڱ Ӱ 2013 Ͽ յ 2 12 3 ѹݵ ȺȲ 20 ٸ ִ. ʱ ȭ ǥ ѿ ѹݵ Ͼ Ⱥȯ װ , ̱, ߱, Ϻ Ͼ ذ踦 ִ ֿ ߽ Ͼ Ⱥȯ Ӱ ¥ ִ. 츮 ȸ 20Ⱓ ٹ Ұ ݺ ϰ ִ. ϳ ѹݵ ȭ õ 츮 ° å ޷ ִٴ ð̰, ٸ ϳ 츮 ° ϰ ޷ ִٴ ð̴. ٸ 20 븳 Դٰ 90 Korea Institute for National Unifications International Conference on Strategies to Implement the Trust-building Process on the Korean Peninsula eeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeee ִ. ̷ ð ̳ , ð ̰, ð ˷ ִ. ѱ ̱ ߽ ȸ ѿ  å ٰĿ ٹ ִٴ ϰ ִµ, Ȳ ǥڸ ȭå(engagement policy)ǽϰ ̱ ȭü Ǹ ؼ Ϲ̰ ȭ Ѵٸ ⿡ ϴ ̶ ̴. ̿ʹ ޸ ڵ ̹ ǵ ٺ Ȯ , ܺ ° ϰ Ÿ ̺ ư ִٰ Ѵ. ׷ 3 ٽ 츮 ȸ ° ϰ ϴ þ ̰ ִ. , ̱ ߱ Ͽ, G2 ˷ ۷ ƽþƿ ǰ ִ ο ѹݵ ߿ ƴ . 뱹ġ(powerpolitics) ٴ ݺ Ÿ ġ Ư¡ ϳ, 19 , 20 , Ż ̱ܱ(the American unipolarstructure) и ̰ ִ. G2  뱹ġٵ °  ε巯ٴ ߰ϰ ȴ. ̱ ߱ ġ ֿ ٸ ѷΰ ް ȴٸ, ٷ ѹݵ ̶ , ߱ λ üȭǸ ɼ ̱ ߱ ѹݵ Ŀ ִ ̴. ѹݵ Ͽ ߿ ѷ ѱ ϸ Ҽ, ̱ ߱ ũ Ѵٴ ѹݵ ŷμ мȸ91 . ѹ Ͽ ѱ, ̱, ߱ ذ谡 ũ 浹 鼭  (howto converge) ֵ İ ִ ̽ ϰ ִ Ȳ̴. ̻ ѹݵ ѷ Ⱥ ȯ Ͽ, ڱ δ ʳ ӵǰ ִ -ı⡯ Ǽȯ ϴ ٷ ѱ ̿ ൿ ּ ŷڰ ڸ ϰ ֱ ϰ ִ. ̿ ȭǰ ְ ÿ ŷڰ ־ Ȳ ̾ ŷμ ؾ ̶ ϴ ̴. 2) Ż Ͼ Ⱥȯ ݾ Ǿ, ѹݵ ٿ ذ 谳 õ ⵵ , ׷ ұϰ ӵǴ ϰ ٺ ڡ Ǿ ϱ ̶ ϴ. Ư ڱ ݱ 츮 ΰ å ȭ ޺å ⵵ , ʵ ȭ ϴ ߴٴ ν ϰ ִ ˷ ִ. ѹݵ ŷμ ̷ 濡 Ǿ. ش Ż Ѱ ص 忡 ұϰ, ټ ε ϰ谡 ñδ DZ⸦ ϰ , ̳ 簡 ƴ ȭ å Ͽ ѹݵ ȭ ʼ ⸦ ϰ ִ. Ⱑ Ұ ִٴ ȸǷ Ȯǰ , Ϻ ٺ ǰ ִ Ȳ, ѹݵ ȭ 츮 ǥ̰ ȭӰ ȣ Ǵ ѹݵȭ Ǿ 2)MinistryofUnification,Trust-BuildingPressonthe KoreanPeninsula(Aug 2013)p.7 92 Korea Institute for National Unifications International Conference on Strategies to Implement the Trust-building Process on the Korean Peninsula ------------------------------------------------------------------------------- Ѵٴ 츮 ε ų信 . 2. The Meaning of the trust and process 캻 ٿ ڱ δ ġ (value-oriented) å ŷμ ϰ ִµ, ׷ٸ Trustpolitik å ȯǴ Ȳ ü  ǹ̸ 캸 ϰڴ. ġ Ư¡ ȭ ϰ ϴ ̴. 뿡 ڸ, ȭ ſ پ ȸ ذ 谡 ִ ȸ ̶ ǹ̰ ȴ. ȭ پ ǰ, ư ġ dz (emancipation) ȴ. , ټ ī ó ּ (regimesecurity) ȸ Ⱥ(societalsecurity) ̷ ȭ ּ ǰ ش αı ȣ ϱ⵵ Ѵ. 3) ѹݵ ȭ ѹݵ Ư ݿǾ ̴. ̷ ƶ ŷڡ ѹݵ Ư ѹݵ ȭ ϴ ٽ μ ǹ̸ . ݱ ̿ Ͽ Ӱ , ȭ ̷ﳻڴٴ ȣ ͡(reciprocal mutualinterest) Ͽ Թ(institutional norm) (leaders committment) ִ. ǿ پ 3) Regarding the different meaningsof security and peace see, Alan Collins, ContemporarySecurityStudies(Oxford; OxfordUniversityPress,2010),PartI. ѹݵ ŷμ мȸ93 ؼ ıǾ, ̷ Ǽȯ ڿ 츮 ݱ ѹ Ȳ ȭ ̷ϱ ߿ ŷڡ ״ Ȧ ߴٴ ̾ ̴. ̷ ѹ ŷμ ̿ ȮǾ ȭ , ٸ Һٵ ŷڡ Ұ ñ ȮǾ Ѵٴ ϰ ִ ̴. μ ȭ ̰ܰ ̶ ǹ̸ . ڱ δ ѹݵ ŷμ ϴ , ȭ ׿ ū ȭ ̷ ٴ ְ, ̷ ñ ŷڿ ȭ ̷ ƴ϶ μ ȴٰ ִ. 4) , , ġ ǿ ܳ ְ ڱ , ŷڴ ڱ ܳų ƴ϶, ϴ μ ưٴ ϰ ִ. ŷڿ ѹݵ ȭ μ ٵǾ Ѵٴ ֱ ߱ϴ Ⱑ Ǹ鼭 ִ δ. ٹ ߿ ȭϸ ȭҼ, ̿ ɼ ִٰ ϴ þ þ, ѹݵ ȭ ϰ پ ܿ õ 䱸ϰ ֱ . ռ ٿ ѹݵ ȭ ̱ ߱ ߿ϸ ߿ ̵ ٸ ذ踦 ŽŰ Ű ϴ ܰ 䱸 Ǵܵȴ. 4)MinistryofUnification,ibid, p.13. 94 Korea Institute for National Unifications International Conference on Strategies to Implement the Trust-building Process on the Korean Peninsula eeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeee The Trust-building Process on the Korean Peninsula cccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccc and Institutionalizing Inter-Korean Relations $$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$ __ trust what?__ trust for what?__yp __ eeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeee Park Ihn-hwi aaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaa Ewha Womans University eeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeee ____________________________________________________________________________ . Institutionalization of the Trust-Building Press 1. Key Policies of the Trust-Building Press ̻ å ǹ̸ ִ ڱ å ٸ å ŷ ġ Ϸ ǰ ִ. ˷ ٿ ѹݵ ŷμ, Ͼ Ͼȭ±(Northeast AsiaPeaceand Cooperation Initiative), ׸ ۷ι ܱ ߰߱ ܱ . ŷμ ڱ ׸ å å Ÿ Ʒ <ǥ 1> . <ǥ 1> ڱ å å å å å ѹݵ ϰ ѹݵ ŷμ Ͼ ڿܱѹ̵, ߰, /ѷ ȭ ٹ 6ȸ(κ 츮 Ȯ) ֿ ұԸ (mini-multilateralism) ƽþз غ Northeast Asia Peace and Cooperation Initiative ۷ι ڿܱ Middle-PowerDiplomacy,ODA/ȭܱ ȭ ܱ FTA, Economy-first Diplomacy (1) Policy Areas of Security and Peace ŷμ ϰ ȭ ŵα ؼ ѹݵ ŷμ å ϰ ִ å ֿ Ȯ ľ ʿ䰡 ִ. Ⱥ ȭ оߡ ȸȭ оߡ ٽ ̽ ϰ 캸 Ѵ. ѹݵ ŷμ мȸ95 켱 Ⱥ ȭ о߿ Ͽ ü 5 ٽ ִ. ù°, ŷμ ϰ ȭ پ ģ ȭ ü踦 ϰڴٰ ִ. ߿ ȭ Ѵٴ Ģ Ʒ, 츮 δ ȭ, , Ʈʷ ϰڴٴ ִ. °, Ⱥ о߿ 츮 ָ ݱ ݵ  ؿ ǵǴ ٹ ٷ ڴٴ κ̴. ٳǸ ٷ ڴٴ ٵ ѹ ſ å Ǹ ϴ ̾ ̿ 츮 ɷ° ȴ. ̿ ؼ ݱ 츮 ΰ ȭ (ܼ) ȭ̾ٸ δ ȭ ѷ پ å ִ () ȭ ʿ ٰ Ǵܵȴ. ⺻  쿡 츮 ȭ Ģ  ǰ, ʿ ̱ Ȯꡯ DZ ؿ ԽѼ ؿ ȭ å ʿ䰡 . ٸ ۿ Ͽ  Ƿ ü Ǹ ʱ Ѵ. °, ŷμ ȭ ߱ϱ ȯ Ģ 6ȸ 簳 ϰ ִ. Ϻο ϸ 6ȸ ̹ Ǿٰ ϸ鼭, ٸ â ߵǾ Ѵ ϰ ִ. 6ȸ ذϱ ϴ ṵ̈, ٸ ġ ܳ ϴ 6ȸ 簳ǰ ٸ ܰ Ѿ Ѵٰ . ѹݵ μ 츮 ⺻ 6ȸ 簳 96 Korea Institute for National Unifications International Conference on Strategies to Implement the Trust-building Process on the Korean Peninsula ----------------------------------------------------- 鼭, ÿ ̸ ϱ ü غ ϰ ִ. 츮 δ ̷ 濡 6ȸ ϴ ǹ â ϳ ұԸ (mini-multilateralism) å ִµ, ѹ, Ϲ, , پ ȸ ü ؾ Ѵٴ ǹ̷ صȴ. 5) °, ѹݵ ŷμ ѹ̵̶ 츮 ܱȺ ڻ Ȱϰڴٴ ִ. 츮 Ű 鼭 ÿ ѹ̵ Ȱϰڴٴ Ľ ؼȴ. ˷ ٿ ۱DZ ȯ ٽ ϴ ѱ ̱ ΰ ̾, ̿ Ȯϱ ϱ⿡ Ȳ̴. ٸ ߿ ۱ 翬 ǰ п ϴ, ̸ 츮 ȭ ȸ Ȱؾ Ѵٴ ̴. ټ°, ѹݵ ŷμ 츮 ȭ ϰ ٴ и ִ. 츮 å üϹȡ(?) Ͽ ϰ⺻ پ ȵ Ȳ ʴ´ٴ ̸ ʿ䰡 ̴. ϱ ȭϰ, ܵ ڻ Ȱϸ, ȸ Ͽ 츮 ȭؾ Ѵٴ ü ִ. 5) Even after the Park Geun-hye administration declared the importance of the Mini-Multilateralism, there has been some negative views on that. But it is know that the Park government has a strong standpoint to implement the mini-multilateral meetings in particular with the U.S. and China. See, Yonhapnews,the NorthKoreahas to show a sincereness of the inter-Korean dialogue,May27,2013 ѹݵ ŷμ мȸ97 (((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((( (2) Policy Areas of Economic Cooperation and Sociocultural Exchange Ⱥ ȭ о߿ Բ ϰ ٸ ū о߿ Ͽ ü 7 ٽ å о߸ ŷ ִ. ù°, پ αǻȲ ؼ ϰڴٴ и ִ. پ α Ȳ ǹ̸ ÿ ִµ, 켱 ġ ε ڴٰ ϰ ִ. , , Ƶ ȸ ִ ̴. α ٸ ̻갡, , ̻갡 ذ ڴٰ . °, ȭ ϰ ִ. ݱ ñ⿡ ʾҰ, ¡ ڸҴ. ڱ δ ޾Ƶ غ Ǿִٸ, Ȯ ų ִٴ ̴. ̿ ŷڰ ̰ о߰ Ȯ ȴٸ,  ٽ ڸ δ. °, м پ ȸȭ ִٴ ϰ ִ. , , , ȭ ȯϰ ϴ ̶ ȸ ȿ ϱ ſ ߿ ̴. ̷ Ͽ, ŷμ ȸȭ ߿伺 Ȯ νϰ ִ Ǵܵȴ. ġ ΰ ڱ, , ȭ ϱ ϴ ſ ߿ Ѵ. 98 Korea Institute for National Unifications International Conference on Strategies to Implement the Trust-building Process on the Korean Peninsula '''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''' °, ŷμ ׸Ʈ ѹݵȯü ֿ å ִ. ѹݵ °踦 ϸ鼭 ȯظ ּȭϴ ڴٴ ľ ȴ. ϰ ִ dz ڿ  ·ε Ǵ Ȳ ȯ湮 ǽ ٶ Ǵܵȴ. ̷ ƶ ׸Ʈ ϰ ִ å ܵȴ. ټ°, ŷμ α Ȱȭ ȸ ü ϰڴٰ Ͽ. α ġ Ȳ Ű 鵵 ְ, ÿ ѿ αǹ Բ Խ ټ ϰ ϴ ٶϴٰ Ѵ. ε , α ȵ Ѽ ѹݵ ΰȺ ̶ ϰ ϴ ͵ ʿ䰡 ־ δ. ѹݵ ŷμ ֹ ο ȸȭ ʿ伺 ϰ ִ. °, ѹݵ ŷμ ̰ ̿ ŷ Ȯȴٸ, Ը ° ִٴ ǻ縦 и ִ. ѹݵ ѷ ȯ Ȱϴ ٶѵ, ̷ 3 ص å ȭ ϰڴٴ ԵǾ ִ. Ư, ߱ 3 þ ص 츮 ſ μ, ̷ å ִٸ ϰ 츮 ο 嵿 ִٴ 򰡵ȴ. ̿ ѹݵ ŷμ мȸ99 Ը ѱ ÷ Ҹ ѹ Ʈ ˷ ִ. 6) , 翡 ϱ»繫 ġ ϰ ִ. 翡 繫Ҹ ġѴٴ ǹ̸ ϰ . 󼳻繫 ġ ΰ پ , ŷڰ θ Ȯϰ engage ִ å̶, ŷ ϳ 翡 »繫Ҹ ġϴ ѹݵ ȭ ȴ. The Trust-building Process on the Korean Peninsula cccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccc and Institutionalizing Inter-Korean Relations $$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$ __ trust what?__ trust for what?__yp __ eeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeee Park Ihn-hwi aaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaa Ewha Womans University eeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeee ____________________________________________________________________________ 2. Suggestions to Institutionalize the Inter-Korean Relations ̻ ŷ μ å ġ ŵ . п ʱ ̷ ŷμ ܰ ȭ(institutionalization) ʿ䰡 ִ. ׷ٸ Ұ å ϳ ؼ ȭ ̷ﳻ Ұ ̰, ȭ ϴ Ǵܵȴ. (1) How to revise the Koreas Official Unification Policy? 츮 ѹüϹȡ̴. ˷ ٿ 1989 츮 ȸ ġ µ Ǹ , ݱ 򰡸 ް ִ . õ ʳ Ӹ ƴ϶ ϰ迡 6)MinistryofUnification,ibid, p.17 100 Korea Institute for National Unifications International Conference on Strategies to Implement the Trust-building Process on the Korean Peninsula ־ ȭ ־ٴ ʿ䰡 ִ. ŷ μ ǹ ִ ؼ ѹüϹȡ ʿϴٰ Ǵܵȴ. 뿡 ؼ ȸ ǿ ǰ ʿ ϰ, ݵ ؾ , ٵ 1989 ó ѱ UN Ͽ ݱ ð 帣鼭 ȭǾٴ Ȯ ν ʿ䰡 ִ. 츮 ϵ Ȥ ʵ ̿ μ ü ȭ ̴. Ӱ ̷ ݿϿ, غϴ ȿ ؼ ؾ ̴. Ż 20Ⱓ ٹ ϰ ٽ Ǿ. 츮 å ٹ ذ ü εʰ ־ Ѵ. ѹüϹȡ ӿ ٹ ԽŰ Բ ְ, 츮 ο ߱ ִ. ٹ ذ ɷ Ѿ ̱ 츮 Ϲȡ ϴ ϴٰ ִ. ŷ μ ٹ ذ 츮 ֵ ڼ ϰ ִ Ȳ , ڼ ʴ  ·ε ٹ Ϲ̶  óؾ ΰ 츮 Ѵٰ . ʳⰣ ѹݵ ѷΰ ִ ȺȲ ũ ȭߴ. ٽδ ߱ λ Ͽ ϰ ̱ ߱ ũ ߴٴ . ȭ ġ ġ Ἲ ѹ ѹݵ ŷμ мȸ101 ġ μ ü ϰ ȴ. ܱ  ذ ΰ õǾ ̴. ܿ ϰ(Development of Inter-Korean Relations Act) Ͽ ʿ Ģ ʿ䰡 ʿϴٰ Ǵܵȴ. (2) Establishment of a Permanent Dialogue Channels ڱ ߿ ȭ Ѵ١ ȭ ʿ伺 ؼ ŵ ִ. 7) ȭ ʿ伺 ν ̱ ؼ ʿ,  ̰ ִ Ȯϱ ؼ ݵ ʿ ٰ . ܱ迡 ȭ ̸ ŽŰ ȿ ⵵ , ΰ Ȯ Ͽ 濡 ̴ ̴. ̷ ϰ ȭ ߿ ȭäΡ Ȯϴ ̶ Ѵ. ѹݵ ŷμ å ŷڡ ġ å ǥ å ܡ̶ ϰ ִ. , پ å ̿ ŷڰ ׿ , ÿ ׷ å ŷڡ Ȱϰڴٴ ǹ̸ ÿ ִ ̴. ׷ٸ, ϴȭ ϻ ŷμ ִ å ٽ ̶ ִ. ̻갡 ܡ Ư Ǵ ȭ , ̿ б⺰ 7)Yonhapnews,Will talk to NorthKorea,Apr12m2013. 102 Korea Institute for National Unifications International Conference on Strategies to Implement the Trust-building Process on the Korean Peninsula '''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''' Ȥ ȸ ȭŰ ʿ ̴. (3) A Systemic Crisis-Management on the Korean Peninsula ѹݵ ϳ Ȯ Ȥ ꡯ(expansion ofreproduction ofcrisis) ϰ ʹ. ̿ پ ذ (level andtype) Ⱑ ߻Ѵ. ׷ ݱ ϰ踦 , Ư ߻ ش ȿ ӹ ʰ, ٸ Ⱑ ȮǴ Ư¡ Դ. Ȯ̶ ִµ, ߿ ̷ Ȯ Ȯꡯ(vertical expansion) ȾȮꡯ(horizontal expansion)̶ Ǿٴ ̴. The Trust-building Process on the Korean Peninsula cccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccc and Institutionalizing Inter-Korean Relations $$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$ __ trust what?__ trust for what?__yp __ eeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeee Park Ihn-hwi aaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaa Ewha Womans University eeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeee ____________________________________________________________________________ 8) Ȯ Ư Ⱑ ߻ () ߻ ش ȿ Ǵ ƴ϶, ſ ̿ Ȥ Ѱ ȸ ̿ ӵ δ ȿȭȴٴ ǹ̴. Ⱦ Ȯ Ư Ⱑ () ش ȿ ӹ ʰ, ٸ å α ޼ Ǿ о߿ ϰ θ Űų ߴϰ ٴ ǹ̴. ̷ Ȯ ݱ 踦 Ű ϰ ȭŰ ߿ ̶ Ѵ. ̷ Ȳ ŷν ȭ , 츮 ؾ ٽ ϳ ̿ ýۡ ż Ȯ ϴ ̶ . ⸦ ȿ ϴ 8) ParkIhn-hwi(in Korean),Theoretical BackgroundandInternationalization ofthe Trust-BuildingPresson the KoreanPeninsulaUnificationPolicyStudies,Vol. 22.No.1(June2013),p.42. ѹݵ ŷμ мȸ103 '''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''' ȸ(Ī) ȸ Ǿ , ̿ ÿ 츮 ο پ ý ϴ ͵ ʿϴٰ . ѹݵ Ͼ μ ü Բ Ƿ, Ư Ⱑ ߻ ̱ ߱ Բ ϴ ȿ ϴ ȵ Բ ̴. (4) Networked Interdependence of the Two Koreas ݱ ΰ å ǡ (functionalism) ̷ Ǿٰ ص ƴ . 9) ȭ 忡 å̰ Ȥ 忡 å̰, ⺻ ȭ å ؼ ׷ å ȭŰ ٴ ̴. , ̷ ϰ ѷΰ DZ ߴ. ̷ ⿡ پ ڸ ְ, ٽ ѹݵ ΰ , ѻȸ Ư Ѱ谡 ִٴ ̴. ̷ 濡 å ϴ ο 밡 ʿ ̴µ, ϳ Ʈũ ա ִ. Ʈũ ա ̿ Ư ڰ ȭ ֵϴ Ұϰ, Ư å ȭ ϱ ٴ پ å ôٹ ѻȸ ȭѾ ϴ Ȳ ϰ 9)Park,ibid, p.37,38. 104 Korea Institute for National Unifications International Conference on Strategies to Implement the Trust-building Process on the Korean Peninsula ִ. 10) Ӹ ƴ϶ å(engagement policy) ϴ ü 츮 δ 츮 , ùλȸ, ΰ پ ü ϰ ְ, ܱ, ܱ, ؿ NGO,ⱸ پ ü Ѵٴ , Ʈũ ա ̷ȭ å ϰ ū Ǵܵȴ. Ʈũ ȭ ؼ, ٵ ̿ ʴ Ʈũ հ ʿϴ. ̸ ؼ 츮  װ ܰ踦 Ʈũ , ˰, ΰ ε õǾ ̴. å Źͽ , 츮 ȭ Ű, ϰ ȭ Ʈũ ա̶ ϰ å ϴ ʿϴٰ Ǵ ȴ. ̷ ŷڡ ġ å ٽ ִ ŷν͵ ȭ ̷ ִµ, ŷ ܰ ڱ ܳ ܰ迡 ڱ ƴϱ , Ʈũ õ ʿ ϴ Ǵܵȴ. The Trust-building Process on the Korean Peninsula cccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccc and Institutionalizing Inter-Korean Relations $$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$ __ trust what?__ trust for what?__yp __ eeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeee Park Ihn-hwi aaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaa Ewha Womans University eeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeee ____________________________________________________________________________ (5) How to Measure the Trust? Trust-buildingprocess ȭ ̷ϱ ߿ ϳ, ̿ ŷڰ ܳ ܰ  ؼ Ѵ. ڱ å ʱ⿡ ε ϰ ȭ ϴٰ, ܰ谡 Ǹ ° ȸȭ Ȱȭϰ, ̷ ܰ 10) For reference see, KimSang-bae(in Korean), Koreas Network Diplomatic Strategy:Agent-NetworkTheory,NationalStrategy,Vol.17,No.3(2011). ѹݵ ŷμ мȸ105 ٽ ŷڰ ܳ Ǹ Ը ϴ NorthKoreanversionofMarshallplan ִٰ ִ. ׷ٸ ̿ Ѱ ȸ ̿ ŷڸ ׾ư 谡 ִٴ ε, ܰ  ȭ ִ ؼ ü ʿϰ . ŷڰ Ǵ ܰ ϰ ִ ΰ غؾ Ѵ. trust  visualize ΰ ִ. trust ٸ å ǥ ޸ value Ƿ, Ȯ · visualize ʾƵ ִ. ׷ٰ ϴ 5 ڱ ̰ ȿ å ϱ ؼ ε鿡 ̿ ŷڰ ܳ١ Ȥ ŷڰ ܳ ʾҴ١ ̰, ε鿡 ϰ ظ ٰŰ ٰŰ ־ ̴. 츮 å ŷڡ ְ, ε 縦 ؼ ŷڸ ̴. ̷ ڱ trust-building process ϴ ̿ ŷڰ Ǿٴ 򰡸 ִ ٰŰ ΰ ʿϰ . . Other Critical Considerations 1. Emphasizing International Cooperation ѹݵ ȭ ѹݵ پѴ . ̱̳ ߱ ֺ Ұ UN 106 Korea Institute for National Unifications International Conference on Strategies to Implement the Trust-building Process on the Korean Peninsula ⱸ ҵ κ ȴ. ̷ ŷμ ȭ ̶ ߿ϰ ؾ ̴. ̹ ڱ ΰ Ͼȭ±̳ ܱ߰߱ å ǥ ȸ پ ü ϰ , Ư 츮 å̾ ȸ å ϴٰ ִ. ŷμ ȭ ü , Ͽܱ ߿伺 Ͽܱ ִ Źͽ غ ʿϴٰ . ٹ ٷ 6 ȸ㡯 å ִ ڸ´ȭ(KoreaEconomicCooperationDialogue) ȭ â ̴. ܿ ŷμ ܵ غ Ȱϰڴ Ƿ, 츮 غ ܵ ڿ Ȱϴ ʿ䰡 ִٰ . The Trust-building Process on the Korean Peninsula cccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccc and Institutionalizing Inter-Korean Relations $$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$ __ trust what?__ trust for what?__yp __ eeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeee Park Ihn-hwi aaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaa Ewha Womans University eeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeee ____________________________________________________________________________ 2. The Role of the National Assembly and Making North Korea Policies ȭ ϰų ڹ ϱ⸦ ϴ Ұϴ. ᱹ ȭ ֵ ϴµ, ̿ Ͽ ȸ Թ ȴ. ̱ ȸ üȯå(Regime changepolicy) , Թ ſ ߿ ٴ ݰ ȴ. üȯå ϴ target state ϱ κ , ÿ 츮 ȸ ѹݵ ŷμ мȸ107 å ǹ̿ üȯå̶ , ̱ ʸ ϴ ȴٰ Ǵܵȴ. 11) ϰ å , , å ִ å ռ ε , å 츮 ȸ Ǹ Թȭ ܰ踦 ġ ٶϴٰ . ̱ üȯ å ſ å ȸ Ǹ ģ , پ å °, ̷ Թ üȯå ̲ ٽ Ұ Ǵ 찡 Ҵ. . Conclusion ĵ 20 ü ٰ Ͽ. ̷ 츮 ε پ å Ͽ, ȭ ̲ ذϴ Ͽ. 츮 ΰ å ϸ Ҽ ٺ ̴ Ȳ Ͽ. ̷ 濡 ڱ δ ſ ޸ Ӱ ŷڡ ġ å ѹݵ ŷ ϰ ִ. ŷμ ݱ å ǥ ʾҴ ŷڡ ŷ ױ⡯ process ϰ ̷ ڴٴ å̴. ŷμ ִ â̰ 11) ParkIhn-hwi (in Korean),Americas ForeignPolicyofRegimeChangeandIts Implication to Korea,TheStudiesofInternational Affairs,Vol.12, No.2(June 2012). 108 Korea Institute for National Unifications International Conference on Strategies to Implement the Trust-building Process on the Korean Peninsula ϸ鼭, ڱ å غؾ ϰ ̴. ʱ⸦ 鼭, 츮 ΰ ȸ ŷμ Ѹ ִٴ 򰡸 ִ. ٽ ŷμ ܰ Ѿ ؼ ϰ谡 ȭ ذؾ ̴. ٽ ϰ, ̿ ôȭä Ȯϸ, ѹ ý ϴ ϰ ȭ ٽ Ѵ. ʱ ܰ迡 ӹ ִ ڱ å ذϿ, ϰ ѹ ȭ ̲ ֱ⸦ Ѵ. The Trust-building Process on the Korean Peninsula cccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccc and Institutionalizing Inter-Korean Relations $$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$ __ trust what?__ trust for what?__yp __ eeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeee Park Ihn-hwi aaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaa Ewha Womans University eeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeee ____________________________________________________________________________ end iiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiii sc http://www.kinu.or.kr/eng/news/news_01_01.jsp?bid=ENGNEW&page=1&num=70&mode=view&category= $$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$ KOR REơUNIFICATION II ̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡ %%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%% korean and german re--unification intro by dr yong k park ##################################################### 2013 seoul pppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppp ̡ ooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooo ch xviii--s-- ddd ppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppp sc http://www.kinu.or.kr/eng/news/news_01_01.jsp?bid=ENGNEW&page=1&num=70&mode=view&category= $$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$ Korea Institute for National Unifications International Conference on Strategies ((((((((((((((((((((((( to Implement the Trust-building ̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡ Process eeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeee on the Korean Peninsula ̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡ __ trust what?__ trust for what?__yp __ eeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeee Date 2013. 10. 29 %%%%%%%%%%%%%%% Session1-2 $$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$ ѹݵ ŷμ __________________ ϰ ȭ $$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$ __ trust what?__ trust for what?__yp __ eeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeee ___________________________________________________ The Trust-building Process on the Korean Peninsula ^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^ and Institutionalizing Inter-Korean Relations $$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$ __ trust what?__ trust for what?__yp __ eeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeee Park Ihn-Hwi l ^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^ Ewha Womans University ooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooo end ^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^ sc http://www.kinu.or.kr/eng/news/news_01_01.jsp?bid=ENGNEW&page=1&num=70&mode=view&category= $$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$ KOR REơUNIFICATION II ̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡ %%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%% korean and german re--unification intro by dr yong k park ##################################################### 2013 seoul pppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppp ̡ ooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooo ch xviii--s --eee ppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppp sc http://www.kinu.or.kr/eng/news/news_01_01.jsp?bid=ENGNEW&page=1&num=70&mode=view&category= $$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$ Korea Institute for National Unifications International Conference on Strategies ((((((((((((((((((((((( to Implement the Trust-building ̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡ Process eeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeee on the Korean Peninsula ̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡ __ trust what?__ trust for what?__yp __ eeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeee Date 2013. 10. 29 %%%%%%%%%%%%%%% ѹݵ ŷμ ȭ $$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$ The Trust-building Process on the Korean Peninsula $$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$ and Establishing Peace $$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$ __ trust what?__ trust for what?__yp __ eeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeee Session2 ^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^ Presentation__s $$$$$$$$$$$$$ ? ѹݵ ŷμ $$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$ ٹ ذ $$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$ The Trust-building Process on the Korean Peninsula $$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$ and Directions to Resolve North Korea's Nuclear Issue__toward__ $$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$ __ trust what?__ trust for what?__yp __ eeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeee ? DMZ ȭ ѹݵ ȭ ^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^ Creating the DMZ World Peace Park and its Implications for Peace on the Peninsula ^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^ ? ѹݵ ŷڱ ȭ $$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$ __The Trust-building Process on the Korean Peninsula $$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$ and __ Directions to Establish Trust __toward__ $$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$ and Peace on the Korean Peninsula__toward__ ^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^ __ trust what?__ trust for what?__yp __ eeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeee Session2-1 $$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$ ѹݵ ŷμ ^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^ ٹ ذ ttttttttttttttttttttttttttt The Trust-building Process on the Korean Peninsula $$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$ and Directions to Resolve North Korea's Nuclear Issue __toward__ $$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$ __ trust what?__ trust for what?__yp __ eeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeee Han Yong-sup l mmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmm Korea National Defense University ''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''' ѹݵ ŷμ мȸ113 ------------------------------- The Trust-building Process on the Korean Peninsula $$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$ and Directions to Resolve North Koreas Nuclear Issue __toward__ $$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$ __ trust what?__ trust for what?__yp __ eeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeee Han Yong-sup ^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^ Korea National Defense University '''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''' I. Introduction As military tension reached its peak in the first half of 2013, the relationship between North and South Korea and the state of affairs on the Korean Peninsula experienced the mostdangerous moment since the Korean War. Looking back over the 20 years of the post-Cold War era, there have been the Six-Party Talks held for the reconciliation and cooperation of the two Koreas, South-North nuclear negotiation and US-DPRK nuclear negotiation. However, North Korea has proceeded with its nuclear development based on militarism, and there has been periodical rise of military tensions on the Korean Peninsula. With North Koreas nuclear tests in October, 2006, May 2009, and February 2013, the confrontational structure between the two Koreas (or the one between North Korea and the international community) has become more acute. North Koreas military provocation in 2010 and the threats to initiate a nuclear war have led the tension between the two states to reach its peak. However, since the end of the Cold War, the South Korean government has been putting efforts to alleviating the tension on the Korean 114 Korea Institute for National Unifications International Conference on Strategies to Implement the Trust-building Process on the Korean Peninsula peninsula, and North Korea has joined such efforts when they deemed it necessary. Agreement on Inter-Korean Reconciliation and Non-aggression, and Cooperation (Basic Agreement) was adopted during the South-North Summit talks held between 1991 and 1992, and the Joint Declaration on the Denuclearization of Korea was agreed upon by the two states. During the Kim Dae Jung administration and the Roh Moo Hyun administration, the cooperation between the two countries saw great improvement with their promotion of the Sunshine Policy. Despite such efforts, the Sunshine Policy lost its driving force and support within South Korea. The reasons behind such loss of support were that the Kim Jong Il administration had been violating the human rights and lives of its citizens for the past 20 years with the promotion of militarism, and that the administration was devoted to nuclear development by investing its national power on the development of nuclear weapons and missiles. North Korea set unprecedented belligerent militarism as their political goal, and targeted not only South Korea but also the world as its subject of violence. With its efforts in the development of nuclear weapons and missiles, North Korea was able to declare itself as a Nuclear State and announced that it was successful in miniaturization, weight reduction, and diversification of nuclear weapons. Consequently, North Korea is now threatening South Korea and the United States with its nuclear weapons, and is stating that if South Korea does not like such threats, it should remove the US Forces in Korea, so that South Korea will be able to independently unify with North Korea under the guidance of the North. In spite of this, The Park Geun Hye administration announced that it would promote the Trust-building Process on the Korean Peninsula by pursuing both pressure against nuclear development of the North and ѹݵ ŷμ мȸ115 communication and cooperation despite the Norths provocative actions and threats on the initiation of a nuclear war. 1 The Trust-building Process is the fruit of the political leaders vision which acknowledges the shortcomings of the previous Sunshine Policy, Non-nuclear, Opening, 3000 Policy, and promotes the right balance between pressure against nuclear development, denuclearization, and communication and cooperation with North Korea. In other words, this process is based on the self-reflection that the Sunshine Policy was not able to gain trust from both the domestic and the international community as it abruptly promoted the improvement of the relations between the two Koreas without considering national security. It was not able to induce any behavioral changes in the Norths national security, and there is an evaluation that the Lee Myung Bak administration led to the worsening of the Norths nuclear issues by promoting denuclearization without considering how these policies towardNorth Korea would be affected. Despite the Park administrations promotion of the new policy path with regards to the Trust-building Process, the current military situation on the Korean Peninsula is rather bleak. Considering that the Norths nuclear arsenal is the biggest hindrance to the Trust-building Process, there is a need for an accurate and methodical diagnosis and solutions on how to solve North Koreas nuclear issues and build trust between the two Koreas. Hence, this paper will compare and evaluate related states stances on North Koreas nuclear issues, study and propose the necessary policy goals and step-by-step approaches for the success of the Trust-building Process. It will also discuss the new strategies for North Koreas denuclearization. 1 Inaugural Address of President Park Keun Hye 2013.2.25 116 Korea Institute for National Unifications International Conference on Strategies to Implement the Trust-building Process on the Korean Peninsula The Trust-building Process on the Korean Peninsula $$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$ and Directions to Resolve North Koreas Nuclear Issue __toward__ $$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$ __ trust what?__ trust for what?__yp __ eeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeee Han Yong-sup ^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^ Korea National Defense University '''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''' II. Evaluation on the Trust-building Process toward North Koreas Nuclear Weapons Since the end of the Cold War, the South Korean government has been putting efforts into building military credibility on the Korean Peninsula and denuclearizing North Korea. There have been a number of talks and negotiations on the relationship between North Korea and the international community, but can it be said that the North has developed credibility in its relationship with the rest of the world and South Korea? The short answer is no, North Korea has beenunsuccessful in earning credibility from South Korea or the international community with regards to its nuclear activities. During the process of implementing the Joint Declaration of Denuclearization of the Korean Peninsula in 1992, North Korea evaded mutual inspection between the two Koreas and accepted IAEAs inspection which it deemed relatively easier. However, it limited the number of nuclear facilities to be reported, and nuclear weapons development took place in secret facilities that were not reported to the IAEA. As is stated in the Joint Declaration of Denuclearization of the Korean Peninsula, the detailed regulations of the inspection were to be negotiated at the Joint Committee on Nuclear Control of the Korean Peninsula. However, North Korea evaded these inspection regulations, and when South Korea and the United States declared the resumption of the Team Spirit Drill, it withdrew its membership from the Nuclear Non-Proliferation treaty (NPT). This broke the trust between the two Koreas and the international credibility of North Koreas denuclearization. By withdrawing its membership from the NPT in March 1993, North Korea imposed its first nuclearthreat. Although it agreed to the ѹݵ ŷμ мȸ117 """""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""" Geneva Agreed Framework at negotiations held in North Geneva, it proceeded with nuclear development which was banned by the Geneva Agreed Framework. It was found that North Korea proceeded with nuclear development in major nuclear facilities which were moved to areas outside of Yong Byon. North Korea resumed operation of nuclear facilities against the promises made by the Geneva Agreed Framework, continuously produced nuclear substances, and when it was caught developing uranium bombs by building uranium concentration facilities, North Korea terminated the Geneva Agreed Framework and again withdrew its membership from the NPT. To relieve the second nuclear threat, the Six-Party Talks have been held from 2003 to 2008, 9.19 Joint Statement and 2.13 Measures have been agreed upon. However, soon after such efforts, North Korea violated the 9.19 Joint Statement of the Six-Party Talks, did not report on its nuclear materials, and rejected inspection. Also, by proceeding with three nuclear tests, it finally announced that it was able to miniaturize, reduce the weight of, and diversify its nucleararsenal. It discarded all of the established nuclear agreements and led the international community to completely lose what little hope and trust that was left by threatening South Korea and the United States with nuclear weapons. North Korea not only lost trust by from the participants of the Six-Party Talks including South Korea, the US, China, Russia, and Japan and the international community, but worsened it by withdrawing of the agreements and its progression and regression since the 1990s. North Korea periodically repeated the process of tension creation-negotiation-agreement-infringement- and tension creation, and some political scholars pointed out that North Koreas nuclear weapons related suchbehavior as a vicious cycle of 118 Korea Institute for National Unifications International Conference on Strategies to Implement the Trust-building Process on the Korean Peninsula provocation-crisis-negotiation-dismantling of negotiation-provocation. 2 As a result of North Koreas repetitive violation of agreements and creation of tensions, its nuclear capabilities have strengthened, and the outside worlds frustration and distrust on whether North Koreas nuclear issues can be resolved through negotiations intensified. Finally, as the Kim Jong-un regime stated in North Koreas Constitution, and boasted, that the possession of nuclear weapons is the greatest achievement of Kim Jong Il, and that it is compelling the international communitys acceptance of North Koreas nuclear possession as fait accompli. North Korea is taking the initiative in claiming that if further nuclear negotiations were to be held, the international community including the United States should acknowledge North Korea as a Nuclear State, and only future nuclear development programs can be the subject of negotiation. The logic of North Korea on its possession of nuclear weapons is as follows: We can live without normalizing relations with the United States, but cannot live without nuclear control. Onlywhen the nuclear threat and nuclear umbrella on South Korea from the United States is completely eliminated will we no longer need nuclear weapons. 3 Without the settlement of the United States hostile policies toward Korea and its nuclear threat, we will not give up our nuclear weapons for 100 years. It is a mistake to think that 2 Jun Byoung-Kon North Koreas 2.13 Agreement Implementation Trend and Prospect, Institute of Foreign Affairs and National Security Major International Issues Analysis, 2007.6.12 3 Statement of DPRK Ministry of Foreign Affairs Spokesperson. 2009.1.12. Yonhap News, 2009.1.12 ѹݵ ŷμ мȸ119 normalization of the relations between Korea and the United States can be an appropriate compensation for giving up nuclear weapons. 4 Subsequently, North Korea made clear that it equipped itself with nuclear control for its autonomy and survival 5 , and stated that it will continuously strengthen its nuclear power. Also, it stated to the international community (which considers negotiation as a viable tool to solve nuclear problems) that there will not be any bargaining on nuclear development for economic benefits. 6 Although North Korea revealedsome nuclear facilities to the IAEA and a few experts from the United States, and dismantled its cooling towers during the process of fulfillment of the Geneva Agreed Framework, or the 9.19 Joint Declaration, it can beseen that North Korea continued its nuclear development through concealing, dispersing, and putting the core facilities of the nuclear program underground. Thus, as most of North Koreas nuclear weapons, fissile materials and nuclear development programs have been kept secret, it was unable to receive even minimal trust from the outside world. After the termination of the Six-Party Talks in 2008, none of the nuclear development program could be accessed from outside. Thus, in order to build trust from the outside world toward North Korea, there is a need to improvetransparency and public disclosure about North Korea's nuclear program, and the establishment of a system that can powerfully control North Koreas nuclear facilities, behavior, weapons and materials in an irreversible and predictable way. 4 Statement of DPRK Ministry of Foreign Affairs Spokesperson. Normalization with the United States and Nuclear Problems are Separate Issues.Yonhap News,2009.1.17 5 Cheon Seong-Whun, The Kim Jong Un Regimes Byungjin(Parallel Development) Policy of Economy and Nuclear Weapons and the April 1 st Nuclearization Law KINU Online Series CO 13-11. Statement of DPRK Ministry of Foreign Affairs Spokesperson, Nuclear Possession is not an economic bargaining tool, Yonhap News, 2013.3.16. 120 Korea Institute for National Unifications International Conference on Strategies to Implement the Trust-building Process on the Korean Peninsula As it can be seen, trust has not been established between North Korea, South Korea, the United States, and the international community, and distrust from the international community against North Korea is worsening. What measures should be taken, then, tobreak this vicious cycle, and build trust between North Korea and South Korea or the international community? First, in order to build trust between the two Koreas, North Korea should regard South Korea as a concerned party of North Koreas nuclear problems. If North Korea regards only the United States as its subject for communication, fundamental hindrance exists in building trust between the two Koreas. In the Helsinki Process which started in 1973, there was strong distrust between the liberal camp led by the United States and the communist camp led by the Soviet Union, and there was military confrontation between the two. However, as both camps regarded each other and all states as concerned parties, it then became possible to initiate and complete the trust. 7 Thus, in order to build trust regarding North Koreas nuclear issues, the two Koreas and the United States should participate in the process as concerned parties. Only when all relevant statesparticipate in the process, would it seem plausible that relevant security benefits and nuclear problems could be proposed an agenda. Through mutual negotiations, agreements can be made, and relevant parties can ensure the procedure to verify the agreement. Secondly, trust was often broken because North Korea did not carry out the agreements made in documents between the two Koreas or during the Six-Party Talks. In order to build military trust concerning nuclear weapons, concerned parties of the negotiation should build the mindset that through checking the fulfillment of agreement, trust can be strengthened, and a 7 James Macintosh, Confidence Building in the Arms Control Process: A Transformational View (Canada: Department of Foreign Affairs and Trade, 1996), pp.31-61 ѹݵ ŷμ мȸ121 system a system can be established to verify whether North Korea is adhering to the agreement 8 Thus, if the Six-Party Talks were to be resumed, there is a need to be a verification agreement and a verification committee. Third, when the relationship between conventional military areas and nuclear areas are acknowledged, and agreement on the elimination of North Koreas nuclear weapons is established to a certain extent, there is a need to proceed with the establishment of an agreement on a comprehensive Trust-building Process which includes conventional military power. In other words, when an alternative framework is agreed upon on concerning the resolution of North Korea's nuclear problem, it is necessary to discuss the issues with establishing a peace system on the Korean Peninsula, including ways to solve problems concerning conventional military power. Fifth, there is a need for institutionalization to build multilateral trust concerning the nuclear North through enhancing transparency, public disclosure, predictability, and verifiability regarding nuclear issues. It is necessary to include the IAEA in addition to the participants of the Six-Party Talks in the multilateral verification committee. III. Three-Step Trust-building Process to Resolve North Koreas Nuclear Problems This chapter will look into the approaches in solving North Koreas nuclear problems in accordance with the Trust-building Process to improve the relation between the two Koreasas proposed by the Park Geun Hye 8 Cheon Seong-Whun, North Koreas Nuclear Inspection and Reverification of Arms Control. (Seoul: Korea Military and Social Institute, 1994), pp.22-24. 122 Korea Institute for National Unifications International Conference on Strategies to Implement the Trust-building Process on the Korean Peninsula administration. Comprehensive and general step-by-step approach will be proposed using existing researches on establishing military trust on the Korean Peninsula and on solutions for North Koreas nuclear problems. As was discussed in the previous chapter, at present, distrust rather than trust exists between the two Koreas, between North Korea and the United States, and between North Korea and the international community. As North Koreas nuclear problems and military tension is worsening, distrust is becoming even stronger. Thus, in order tobuild trust between the concerned parties regarding North Koreas nuclear problems, it is first necessary to check the minimal will tobuild trust between the concerned parties through a Trust-Seeking process. Second, if such minimal will to build trust is confirmed, they should proceed to the Trust-building Process. Third, when diverse Trust-building Processes have taken, as the last step, institutionalization of trust process should take place. 1.The First Step: Trust- Seeking Process concerning North Koreas North Koreas Nuclear Issues During the Trust-Seeking Step ofthe Trust-building Process, intentions to build trust are sought between the two Koreas, and they become a credible subject of communication. In order for this to take place, North Korea has to express its willingness to abide by the mutual or international agreements concerning nuclear problems that North Korea once participated in and unilaterally terminated. For example, a declaration to return to the NPT, abiding by the Joint Declaration on the denuclearization of the Korean Peninsula and the Joint declaration at the Six-Party Talks, and expressing its willingness to shutdown its nuclear facilities, nuclear development and ѹݵ ŷμ мȸ123 """"""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""" nuclear experiments, and declare a moratorium on the development and testing of long range missiles. In relation to this, it is important that North Korea does not stick to its past behavior, such as the reactivation of the nuclear facilities in Yong Byon. It would be troublesome if North Korea tries to separate the common stance between South Korea and the United States, or to separate stances among South Korea, the United States, China, Japan, and Russia. Simultaneously, South Korea should receive reconfirmation from North Korea to comply with the Joint Declaration of Denuclearization on the Korean Peninsula, and express its willingness to engage in talks between the two Koreas, and clarify that South Korea will actively and comprehensively solve problems concerning North Koreas nuclear weapons and long range missiles. 2.The Second Step: Trust-building Process concerning North Koreas nuclear issues Once North Korea expresses its willingness to abide by the existing agreements and to build trust through participating in bilateral talks with South Korea or multilateral talks, the Six-Party Talks with South Korea, North Korea, the United States, China,Russia and Japan should be held to negotiate on the ways to build trust in the field of nuclear weapons. Concerning the nuclear weapons issue, the Six-Party Talk should be held to solve the problem by offering economic assistance from South Korea, the US, China, Russia and Japan in exchange for North Koreas verifiable elimination of nuclear weapons. Though more details will be provided in the next chapter, this includes borrowing the methods used in the Cooperative 124 Korea Institute for National Unifications International Conference on Strategies to Implement the Trust-building Process on the Korean Peninsula Threat Reduction (CTR) which was established in 1991 between the United States and the Soviet Union to dismantle nuclear weapons, and to reallocate nuclear scientists and technicians.North Koreas nuclear threat and capabilities should be examined by the five states, and they should demand North Korea to report all its nuclear facilities, nuclear materials and weapons. Based on the report made by North Korea, the five states and the IAEA should jointly make a complete liston North Koreas nuclear situation. When North Korea finishes its report,an international inspection team including South Korea, the US, China,Russia, Japan and IAEA should be established to verify North Koreas situation regarding nuclear weapons. A joint package should be made which offers economic assistance to North Korea from South Korea, the US, Russia, China, and Japan in exchange for North Koreas agreement on reporting on and having their nuclear weapons inspected. The size of economic assistance should be agreed though negotiations. In order to boost the effectiveness of the Six-Party Talks, it is essential that Chinas economic assistance to North Korea be included. Once North Korea finishes its report on its nuclear information, a baseline inspection of 30-90 days should be carried out to verify the completeness and accuracy of the report. As a condition offered to North Korea for agreeing with the inspection, South Korea, the US, China, Japan, and Russia can negotiate on energy, humanitarian, and economic assistance. When the complete list is formed after the verification process, an international inspection team including the five states and the IAEA will be formed to verify the elimination of North Korea's nuclear program. Conditions for North Korea to accept nuclear elimination inspection, including the size and the content of economic assistance should be discussed among South Korea, the United States, China, Japan and Russia to ѹݵ ŷμ мȸ125 $$$$$$$$$$$$$$ form a package, which will be negotiated with North Korea. The discarded nuclear materials will be sent out to the United States. Human resources originally allocated to nuclear development will be reallocated to the civil technology sector, and this should be fully supported by the five states. Of course, such elimination inspection and economic assistance will be processed throughout several years. In terms of international relations, the United States will first offer safeguard toward North Korea, and the participants of the Six-Party Talks should declare anirreversible agreement to promise to guarantee North Koreas safety. 9 When North Koreas denuclearization is agreed, a separate peace forum which will turn the armistice into a peace system, which will include the two Koreas, China and the United States and where negotiationswill be held on the methods to be taken for maintenance of peace on the Korean Peninsula. This means that in the conventional military sector, the Trust-building Process and arms control will be dealt with in a bigger scale of a peace system negotiation of the Korean Peninsula. Military trust building and disarmament will be negotiated at the Four-Party Talk. Between the two Koreas, agreements should be made on the ways in which the five measuresfor arms control which were agreed upon in the Inter-Korean Basic Agreement in 1992, and the verification committee will be formed. In addition, regarding arms control and trust building, North Koreas conventional military power, military power of the US Forces in Korea, South Koreas conventional military power should all be on the negotiation table, and comprehensive agreement should be deduced. In a nutshell, it would be advisable that only if achievements are shown in the Six-Party Talks in terms of denuclearization of North Korea, 9 Charles Wolf, Jr. and Norman D Levin, Modernizing the North Korean System: Objectives, Method, and Application (Santa Monica, CA: RAND, 2008), pp.37-45 126 Korea Institute for National Unifications International Conference on Strategies to Implement the Trust-building Process on the Korean Peninsula should the Four Party Talks be held. On August 2009, when the Lee Myung Bak administration proposed a Grand Bargain toward North Koreas nuclear issues, South Koreas stance was that in order to solve North Koreas nuclear problems the means of nuclear elimination should be shaped during the Six-Party Talks, and then the Korea Peace Forum should be held to negotiate on the establishment of peace system. 10 However, North Korea wanted to simultaneously hold the Six-Party Talks and Four-Party Talks, and China showed a similar stance. The only way for North Korea's nuclear problems to remain in focus is for them to be addressed before stating talks on building a peace system. 3. The Third Step: Institutionalization of Trust-building Process regarding North Koreas nuclear issues If nuclear elimination of North Korea is almost settled during the second step, and simultaneous trust building takes place addressing issues regarding the conventional military, the institutionalization oftrust can take place. During this step, summit talks and defense secretary talks should be periodically held to institutionalize inter-Korean talks. Also, North Koreas denuclearization will be realized and human resources reallocation will be taking place in North Korea. The outside worlds trust toward North Koreas nuclear weapons will also enter the process of institutionalization. Continuous efforts on arms control and on institutionalizing peace system on the Korean Peninsula will be made by the two Koreas. 10 President Lee Myung Bak, The 64 th UN General Assembly Keynote Address, 2009.9.23. http://www.president.go.kr. President Lee Myung Bak, US CFR/KS/AS Cosponsored Luncheon Speech, 2009.9.21 http://www.president.go.kr. ѹݵ ŷμ мȸ127 """""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""" In order to completely achieve North Koreas denuclearization through institutionalizing the Six-Party Talks, it is important to promote the chief delegate of the Six-Party Talks from assistant secretary to secretary, and avoid the discontinuation of the talks.Periodical talks should be held, for example, every 3 months. Also, the Six-Party Talks should not only be held in Beijing, China, but alsoin other participant countries capital cities when the talk becomes more institutionalized. There is a need to benchmark the Helsinki Processs system of holding European Security Cooperation Talks in each states capital cities. North Korea-US, North Korea-Japan normalization should take place only after the Trust-building Process has been institutionalized. By the time North Koreas nuclear problems are solved, the six states of Northeast Asia should institutionalize the Six-Party Talk as a Northeast Asian version of Helsinki Process, 11 and the agenda for the talks should be expanded to deal with multilateral security cooperation among the six states of Northeast Asia. .Negotiation StrategiesToward North Korea In order for the three step process that was introduced in the previous chapter to be realized, a delicate negotiation strategy toward North Korea is needed. Now that the nuclear ability of North Korea and war threats have become realistic problems, it would be ineffective to implement strategies which unconditionally assist North Korea as was the case of the past Sunshine Policy. On the other hand, strong and consistentpolicies toward 11 Park Jong Chul et al., Theoretical Basis and Tasks for Policy on the Prosperity of Peace, (Seoul: KINU, 2003). pp. 146-156. 128 Korea Institute for National Unifications International Conference on Strategies to Implement the Trust-building Process on the Korean Peninsula North Korea will only intensify tensionswith North Korea, and not induce denuclearization, peace and the stability of the Korean Peninsula. Thus, in order to induce North Korea to medium to long term denuclearization talks, both pressure strategy and incentives are required for negotiation. Before North Korea entersinto the nuclear negotiation, South Korea should put pressure against North Korea using international assistance, and at the same time establish South Koreas own pressure strategies against North Korea. Also, when North Korea enters talks, a rough draft on the kinds of negotiations North Korea will go through should be provided. If negotiation begins, the three step trust process should be taken to address North Koreas security and the nuclear issues. In this chapter, negotiation strategies will be proposedfor the period before nuclear negotiation and after nuclear negotiation. 1. Before Nuclear Negotiation Begins: Deterrence and PressureStrategy Plan A. Deterrence Strategy toward North Korea How will South Korea induce North Korea to have talks and deal with the situation when North Korea is threatening South Korea and the United States with its nuclear weapons? First, the most urgent issue would be to deter North Korea from using its nuclear weapons. However, as South Korea does not have nuclear weapons, it is necessary for South Korea to reconfirm with the United States that itwill grant nuclear restraint to South Korea based on the Mutual Defense Treaty between South Korea and the United States. In relation to this, the US Defense Ministry clarified its assurance of providing a nuclear umbrella to South Korea every year since the formation of the Combined Forces Command in 1978 through joint ѹݵ ŷμ мȸ129 $$$$$$$$$$$ declaration at the ROK-US Security Consultative Meeting. In October 2006, after the first nuclear test of North Korea, the United States reassured its security promises with Korea by stating that it will provide South Korea with containment and strengthen its pressure with all forms of itsmilitary abilities including its nuclear umbrella, conventional ability to attack, and missile defense ability. 12 In February 2013, after North Koreas third nuclear test, voices arose stating that Korea should independently equip itself with nuclear weapons in response to the strengthenednuclear capabilities of North Korea. Two-thirds of the citizens supported South Koreas independent equipment of nuclear weapons. 13 Some even argued that the USFKtactical nuclear weapons that were withdrawn in December of 1991 should be brought back to South Korea. Regarding this issue, the South Korean government stated that it will adhere to the nuclear-free policy, and the US government clarified that even without having to bringing back tactical nuclear weapons, the US can provide credible containment power withits nuclear weaponsand state of the art conventional weapons and missile defense systems. In March 2013, in response to the nuclear war threat posed by North Korea, the United States tried to send a warning to North Korea and ensure containment credibility to South Koreans by deploying the B-2, B-52, F-117 and demonstrating that it has the power and ability of a nuclearattack during the Key Resolve ROK-US Combined Training Exercise. Sucha display of containment power by the United States is regarded as being effective in suppressing North Koreas nuclear intimidation and threat, and there is a strong need for the United States to periodically demonstrate its military power as long as North 12 Ministry of National Defense, 2010 White Paper on National Defense, (Seoul: Ministry of Defense, 2010), pp.305-307. 13 The ASAN Institute for Policy Studies, Public Survey, 2013.2.13-15. 130 Korea Institute for National Unifications International Conference on Strategies to Implement the Trust-building Process on the Korean Peninsula Koreas nuclear threat is existent. It isnecessary to continue the containment strategy that was agreedupon during the ROK-US SCM which was held in October 2013. B. Pressure Strategy Toward North Korea As long as North Koreas nuclear intimidation and threat continues, economic sanctions against North Korea should be continuously strengthened. Until now, South Korea, the US and Japan have vigorously implemented economic sanctions against North Korea for North Koreas missile and nuclear tests. What has damaged the effectiveness of economic sanctions was Chinas continuous economic assistance toward North Korea. China has been providing North Korea with economic aid despite North Koreas nuclear tests and war threats, to maintain friendly DPRK-China relations. Such assistance led not onlyto the continuation of North Koreas misbehavior, it also reduced the effectiveness and pressureof the sanctions against North Korea enacted by the international community. Thus, as long as North Korea continues its nuclear development, the international community, including China, should vigorously abide by the resolutions of the UN Security Council. It was questionable whether China was taking part in economic sanctions against North Korea until the end of 2012, but in February 2013, complying to the international communitys request to abide by the UN Security Councils resolution 2087 and 2094, China has for the first time ordered relevant government branches and corporations to vigorously abide by the economic sanctions against North Korea. 14 Meanwhile, after North Koreas third nuclear test, as voices and criticism arose arguing that economic assistance should be discontinued to the Kim 14 http://www.baidu.com ѹݵ ŷμ мȸ131 '''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''' Jong Un administration (which is continuing nuclear weapons development and war threats) the Chinese government, unlike in the past, urged North Korea to denuclearize by engaging in negotiations with the United States and South Korea, and is showing a sincere attitude concerning economic sanctions against North Korea. It is necessary to implement an omnidirectional pressure strategy when North Korea is showing resistance against economic sanctions and continuously developing nuclear power and posing stronger threats against South Korea and the international community. Also, North Koreas continuous development of nuclear capabilities and instillation of a confrontational position against the United States is to turn the North Koreas nuclear game into one between itself and the United States. What should be kept in mind here is that even if DPRK-US talks and the Six-Party Talks are initiated, North Korea will not eliminate its nuclear program, and it will demand recognition as a nuclear state and only negotiate on freezing further nuclear development. If North Korea is aiming for the approaches similar to the DPRK-US Geneva Agreed Framework, South Korea will be the one to bear all the nuclear threats. To prevent such situation, it is necessary for the pressure strategy against North Korea to be continued based on international cooperation. C. South Koreas Independent Pressure Strategy against DPRK How will South Korea be able to block North Koreas strategy to exclude South Korea and actively participate in the nuclear negotiation from the beginning? South Korea should be regarded as a fearful counterpart in the areas of nuclear power and missiles. In other words, even if South Korea 132 Korea Institute for National Unifications International Conference on Strategies to Implement the Trust-building Process on the Korean Peninsula cannot develop nuclear weapons itself, as long as South Korea is equipped with the ability to strike first or to defend itself against nuclear missile attack from North Korea, North Korea will accept South Korea as a concerned party of negotiation. In regards to this issue, experts argue that South Korea should be equipped with the ability to strike first as a means of self-defense which is a form of deterrence by denial and use a missile defense system to reject North Koreas use of nuclear weapons. 15 Only after South Korea is equipped with what it calls the Kill Chain from detection to destruction, will North Korea be deterred from using nuclear missiles and will regard South Korea as a concerned party of negotiation. Also, the South Korean government should develop state of the art conventional military power and cognitive ability on the battlefield, including awareness which can intercept or nullify the nuclear weapons of North Korea by fully utilizing the economic and diplomatic power it possesses as a global state, and civil technological abilities which are 40 times stronger than those of North Korea. When South Korea improves its ability to attack and defend against nuclear missiles of North Korea nationwide, North Korea will enter the path of trust building and arms control rather than an exhaustive arms race. 1. After the Initiation of Nuclear Negotiation: Cooperative Threat Reduction Strategy toward North Korea 15 Ham Hyeongpil, North Koreas 3rd Nuclear Test and South Koreas Response, National Security Strategy, March 2013, Korea Research Institute for Strategy, 2013. ѹݵ ŷμ мȸ133 """"""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""" If North Korea enters the denuclearization negotiation, a cooperative threat reduction strategy among South Korea, the US, Russia, China, and Japan should be formed through the Six-Party Talks. The key to this strategy is to negotiate on North Koreas denuclearization and economic assistance toward North Korea by the five states asa package deal. In other words, in exchange for North Koreas promise to complete the elimination of nuclear weapons and materials, and nuclear development program, the five states will assist North Korea in the process ofthe elimination process. Inspections on the elimination process should be carried out by an inspection team that consists of the five states and the IAEA. 16 This plan is very similar to the Cooperative Threat Reduction (CTR) program that assisted the Soviet Union, especially Ukraine, Russia, Bellerose, Kazakhstan with $300 million to $400 million every year since 1992. This program was established based on the law that was passed by the Republican Senator Richard Lugar and Democrat Senator Sam Nun in 1991 based on the bipartisan agreement for the elimination of nuclear weapons and chemical weapons, safe maintenance of fissilematerials, alternative vocational training for the nuclear technology related technicians, and the establishment of a civilian Science Technology Center. 17 In 2002, the CTR Program was expanded to Global Partnership against the Spread of Weapons and Materials of Mass Destruction with the participation of G8 (the US, Canada, England, France, Germany, Italy, Japan, Russia). From 1992 to the end of 2012 250 tons of destroyed fissile materials weresent to the United States from the 16 Refer to Peace on the Korean Peninsula and Denuclearization of North Korea: Applying Cooperative Threat Reduction, (KINU Research Monograph 11-07, (Seoul: KINU,2011) Park Jong Chul, Son Gi-Woong, Gu Bon-hak, Kim Young-ho, Cheon Bong-Geun. 17 Amy F. Woolf, Nuun-Lugar Cooperative Threat Reduction Programs: Issues for Congress, CRS Report for Congress, Congressional Research Service, 97-1027 F, March 23,2001. 134 Korea Institute for National Unifications International Conference on Strategies to Implement the Trust-building Process on the Korean Peninsula Soviet Union, and the safe elimination of nuclear weapons and the job changes of nuclear technicians were evaluated to be surprisingly successful. President Park Geun Hye is showing a positive opinion toward the application of such a CTR toward North Korea. 18 If a step-by-step elimination of North Koreas nuclear weapons and job changes for those who were working in nuclear development could take place through negotiating with North Korea using a package program that offers economic assistance and nuclear elimination, sucha process could be referred to as Koreas Trust-building Process in terms of North Koreas nuclear issues. Also, if cooperative threat reduction production is initiated on the Korean Peninsula, financial cooperation fromthe G8 Global Partnership for North Koreas nuclear and chemical elimination may be granted to South Korea. . Conclusion This dissertation was carried out with the research question on how the Park Geun Hye administrations Trust-building Process should deal with North Korea when it is threatening to declare a nuclear war, and how it should resolve North Koreas nuclear problems and build trust in the security realm. The difference in the understanding and stance between North Korea and South Korea is too big regarding the nuclear issue, and the fact that North Korea does not even regard South Korea as a concerned party in its denuclearization shows that there are many obstacles facing Trust-building Process. Also, as North Korea developed its nuclear weapons violating international and inter-Korean agreements, trust has been lost, and as North 18 Joongang Ilbo, President Park, North Korea to follow Pakistans Decision, 2013.4.27 ѹݵ ŷμ мȸ135 '''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''' Korea demands its recognition as a Nuclear State, its denuclearization through talks is becoming more and more difficult. Thus, in order to lure North Korea into the denuclearization negotiations, rather than simply clinging onto talks, a two track strategy, in which deterrence and pressure, communication and cooperation strategies are both simultaneously promoted, seems to be the most effective strategy toward North Korea. While containing the Kim Jong-un administration and pressuring North Korea with economic sanctions through international cooperation, South Korea should simultaneously and independently develop the ability to reject North Koreas use of nuclear missiles by building its power to strike first as well as a missile defense ability. As a consequence of using such strategies, when North Korea realizes that it would be difficult to survive with the use of nuclear weapons, other paths should be offered to lure the state into negotiations so thatthe three step Trust-building Process can be suggested regarding its nuclear development. The first step of the Trust-building Process is leading North Korea to freeze its existing nuclear development programs, and to declare a moratorium on the nuclear and missile testing. Only in this situation will North Korea consider South Korea to be a fearful communication counterpart and accept South Korea to actively participate in the nuclear negotiations and Trust-building Process in the field of national security. Also, if the talks are negotiated through the Six-Party Talks, the second step of the Nuclear Trust-building Process should be taken, and this shall be referred to as the trust building step. During the trust building step, in order to solve problems concerning North Koreas nuclear weapons, cooperative threat reduction strategy is proposed, and South Korea, the US, China, Russia and Japan should form a package for economic 136 Korea Institute for National Unifications International Conference on Strategies to Implement the Trust-building Process on the Korean Peninsula assistance and engage in North Koreas denuclearization of North Korea. The formation of an inspection team consisting of the five countries and the IAEA for verifying the process of denuclearization of North Korea has been proposed. If such negotiations are successful and enter the third step of the institutionalization of trust, denuclearization will be completed, and security talks will be regularly held, so mutualnational safety can be ensured without nuclear weapons. In order to establish the Trust-building Process, as can be seen in the Europes Helsinki Process, three components should operate cooperatively. The first component is the strong will of the political leader tobuild trust, the second component is the expert communitys active and sustainable participation and contribution, and the third component is the political leader and the military authorities active discussion, development and application of practical negotiation strategies. These three components should be applied to the same degree to North Korea. Thisis because although the role of the leader is great, in order for the Trust-building Process to be supported and institutionalized in a wider scope, the military authorities understanding and support is essential. If these three components and effective strategies toward North Korea mutually interact, the Trust-building Process will operate smoothly in the future. The Trust-building Process on the Korean Peninsula $$$$$$$$$$$$$ and Directions to Resolve North Koreas Nuclear Issue __toward__ $$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$ __ trust what?__ trust for what?__yp __ eeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeee Han Yong-sup ^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^ Korea National Defense University '''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''' end uuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuu sc http://www.kinu.or.kr/eng/news/news_01_01.jsp?bid=ENGNEW&page=1&num=70&mode=view&category= $$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$ ѹݵ ŷμ мȸ137 ________________________________________________________________ KOR REơUNIFICATION II ̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡ %%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%% korean and german re--unification intro by dr yong k park ##################################################### 2013 seoul pppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppp ̡ ooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooo ch xviii--s --eee ppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppp sc http://www.kinu.or.kr/eng/news/news_01_01.jsp?bid=ENGNEW&page=1&num=70&mode=view&category= $$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$ Korea Institute for National Unifications International Conference on Strategies ((((((((((((((((((((((( to Implement the Trust-building ̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡ Process eeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeee on the Korean Peninsula ̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡ __ trust what?__ trust for what?__yp __ eeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeee Date 2013. 10. 29 %%%%%%%%%%%%%%% ѹݵ ŷμ ȭ $$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$ The Trust-building Process on the Korean Peninsula $$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$ and Establishing Peace $$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$ __ trust what?__ trust for what?__yp __ eeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeee Session2 ^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^ Presentation__s $$$$$$$$$$$$$ ? ѹݵ ŷμ $$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$ ٹ ذ $$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$ The Trust-building Process on the Korean Peninsula $$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$ and Directions to Resolve North Korea's Nuclear Issue__toward__ $$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$ __ trust what?__ trust for what?__yp __ eeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeee ? DMZ ȭ ѹݵ ȭ ^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^ Creating the DMZ World Peace Park and its Implications for Peace on the Peninsula ^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^ ? ѹݵ ŷڱ ȭ $$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$ __The Trust-building Process on the Korean Peninsula $$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$ and __ Directions to Establish Trust __toward__ $$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$ and Peace on the Korean Peninsula__toward__ ^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^ __ trust what?__ trust for what?__yp __ eeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeee Session2-1 $$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$ ѹݵ ŷμ ^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^ ٹ ذ ttttttttttttttttttttttttttt The Trust-building Process on the Korean Peninsula $$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$ and Directions to Resolve North Korea's Nuclear Issue __toward__ $$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$ __ trust what?__ trust for what?__yp __ eeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeee Han Yong-sup l mmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmm Korea National Defense University ''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''' The Trust-building Process on the Korean Peninsula $$$$$$$$$$$$$$$ and Directions to Resolve North Koreas Nuclear Issue __toward__ $$$$$$$$$$$$$$ __ trust what?__ trust for what?__yp __ eeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeee Han Yong-sup ^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^ Korea National Defense University '''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''' ѹݵ ŷμ $$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$ ٹ ذ ^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^ ѿ뼷 $$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$ (б) cccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccc . 2013 ݱ⿡ ѹݵ Ⱑ ְ Կ Ѱ ѹݵ 6.25 ̸. Ż 20 ȸ ȭؿ , , Ϲ̰ , ٹ ذϱ 6ȸ ñ ־ ұϰ, ġ ٰϿ ٰ ؿ ѹݵ ֱ Ǵ . ϰ ٴɷ ϱ 2006 10, 2009 5, 2013 2 ٽ Կ Ȥ ȸ ᱸ ÷ Ǿ, Ư 2010 ѿ 絵 ϰ, ݳ⿡ ڱ Կ ְ ̸ Ǿ. ׷ Ż ѱδ ѹݵ ȭ ؿ, ѵ ʿϴٰ ϴ ¿ ϱ⵵ ߴ. 1991-92 ̿ ȸ ֵǾ ? ȭؿ Ұħ, ¿ Ǽ(⺻Ǽ)? äõǾ, ذ ?ѹݵ ȭ ? ǵDZ⵵ , ο 빫 νô뿡 ޺å ϱ⵵ ߴ. ׷ ұϰ, ޺å ѱ ° Ұ Ǿµ, ū 138 Korea Institute for National Unifications International Conference on Strategies to Implement the Trust-building Process on the Korean Peninsula cccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccc ġ뼱 20 ֹε αǰ Ű ̻ ߿ ν ٰ߿ Ա ̴. 迡 ʾ ȣ ġǥ ġ ɰ 踦 ° 鼭 ٰ ̻ϰ ߿ ٺ ϰ ٹ ȭ, 淮ȭ, ȭ ߴٰ ϰ Ǿ. ᱹ ѱ Ӹ ҹ , Ͽ ٰ ϰ , ̱ ѹ ̱ öŰ ֵ ϰ ̶ ϸ鼭 ϰ ִ ̴. ̷ 濡 ѱ ڱ δ ڰ ұϰ, δ ٿ й 鼭 ٸ δ ȭ ϰڴٴ ѹݵ ŷ ħ ǥ ִ. The Trust-building Process on the Korean Peninsula $$$$$$$$$$$$ and Directions to Resolve North Koreas Nuclear Issue __toward__ $$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$ __ trust what?__ trust for what?__yp __ eeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeee Han Yong-sup ^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^ Korea National Defense University '''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''' 1)ѹݵ ŷμ ѱ ޺å ١桤3000 å νϰ ٿ ȭ, ȭ ְ ϰڴٴ ġ 깰̴. , ޺å Ⱥ ä ϰ Ϻ ϰ ߱ ܷκ ŷ ϰ, Ⱥо ൿȭ س ߴٴ ݼ, ̸ ΰ å̶ ū ׸ å 켱 ν ϰ谡 Ǿ, ٹ ɰ ʷϿٴ 򰡿 ϰ ִ. ڱ ѹݵŷμ ο å뼱 ħ ұϰ ѹݵ ȺȲ ʴ. ѹݵŷμ ɸ Ǵ Ұ , ٹ  ذν ŷڸ س ΰ 1)ڱ ӻ, 2013.2.25. ѹݵ ŷμ мȸ139 Ȯϰ ü ܰ ع ؾ ʿ䰡 ִ. ׷Ƿ ݱ ѹݵ ǵǾ Դ ٹ ñ 񱳡ϰ, ڱΰ ѹݵ ŷμ Ű ؼ ٺо߿  åǥ ܰ躰 ٹ ؾ ؼ Ͽ غ Ѵ. ƿ﷯ ȭ ѹݵ Ⱥŷμ ϱ ؼ ο Ѵ. . о ŷڱ࿡ Ż ѱ δ ѹݵ ŷڸ ϰ ȭ Ű Դ. ׵ ٹ ؼ ǰ ־µ Ѱ , Ѱ ȸ ̿ ٿ ؼ ŷڰ Ǿٰ ִ°?Ѹ ϸ, ٺо߿ ־ Ѱ ȸ ŷڸ ߴٰ ִ. 1992 ѹݵ ȭ ȣ ȸϰ ϴٰ IAEA ߴ. IAEA Ű ٽü ̳ ѽװ, ٹ нŲ, IAEA Ű нü Ǿ. ѹݵȭ𿡼 ϱ Ǿ ־, ȸϰ ٹ ϴٰ ѹ ǸƮ Ʒ 簳 Ȯ Ż Ҵ. ̷ν Ѱ, ȭ ŷڰ Ҵ. 1993 3 Ȯ(NPT) Ż ν 1 140 Korea Institute for National Unifications International Conference on Strategies to Implement the Trust-building Process on the Korean Peninsula ((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((( ⸦ ϰ, ̾ ֵ Ϲ׹ 󿡼 ׹(Geneva AgreedFramework) Ͽ ׹ǿ ٹ ߰, ̿ ֿ ٽü Űܼ и ٰ ߴ 巯. ׹ǿ ߴ ٽü Ǯ , ٹ Ͽ, Ư ü ǼϿ ź ߵ, ׹Ǹ ıϰ NPTκ ٽ ŻϿ. 2 ⸦ ؼϱ 2003 2008 6ȸ Ǿ, 9.19 2.13ġ ǵǾ, ̾ 6ȸ 9.19 ϰ, ٹ Ű ʰ Ҵ. ׸ ٽ ʳ ν ᱹ 2013 3 ٹ ȭ, 淮ȭ, ȭ ״ٰ ϰ, ѹ 籹 ؼ ν Ǹ Ű, ٿ ̶ ִ ŷڸ . 1990 ٹ ؼ Ÿ , ݺؿν ѹ߷ 6ȸ ȸ ŷڸ ƴ϶ ȭ״. ̿ ---- ֱ ݺ,  ġڴ ٰ --ϰŸ-Ǻر- Ǽȯ ϱ⵵ ߴ. 2) ݺ ݰ ٴɷ Ǿ ذ ΰ ܺμ ҽ ߵǾ. ħ ٺ ִ ϰ ν ܺμ迡 ؼ ٺ 2) , ???? 2.13 ????, ܱȺ ֿ䱹м, 2007.6.12. ѹݵ ŷμ мȸ141 Ƿ ޾Ƶ ϰ ִ. ֵȴٸ, ̱ ȸ ٺ ϰ, α׷ ؼ ִٰ ġ ִ. ٿ ü 鿩ٺ . ̱ ȭ ̴ ư ־ پ ̴ . ̱ ŵǰ ٿ ٹⰡ ʿ ̴. 3) ̱ å ٺ û̴ 100 츮 ٹ ̴. ̰ ȭ 밡 Ѵٸ ū ̴. 4) ̾ ֱǰ ȣϱ پ ߾5) и ϰ, ٹ ȭ ħ . ð ¹ٲٴ ̶ ٹ Ǯ ̶ ϴ ȸ ⸦ ⵵ ߴ. 6) ׵ ׹ , 9.19 Ϻ ٽü IAEA ̱ Ҽ 鿡 ϰų ð ž ϴ ൿ ̱ , ׵ α׷ ٽ ü ȭ, , л и ٰ Դ ִ. ٹ ٹ, ٰα׷ κ 3) ܹ 뺯 . 2009.1.12.????մ????, 2009.1.12. 4) ܹ 뺯 . ̱ ȭ ٹ . ????մ????, 2009.1.17. 5) , ???? ٹ 뼱 41 ٺ ????, Ͽ ((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((( OnlineSeriesCO13-11. 6) ܹ , ٺ ƴϴ١, ????մ????, 2013.3.16. 142 Korea Institute for National Unifications International Conference on Strategies to Implement the Trust-building Process on the Korean Peninsula п Ա ܺηκ ּ ŷڵ Ͽ , Ư 6ȸ ߴܵ 2008 Ŀ ٰα׷ ܺ κ ܵǾ. ׷Ƿ ٿ ܺ ŷڸ Ű ؼ ٿ ǰ, Ǹ, Ұ ٰ ü, ϰ ִ ý ʿ ̴. ̿ ٹ ؼ Ѱ, Ϲ̰, Ѱ ȸ ŷڱ ϰ , ȸ ѿ ҽ ȭǴ ̰ ִ. ̷ Ǽȯ Ȥ Ѱ ȸ ٹ ؼ ŷڸ ϱ ؼ ؾ ΰ? ù°, ѷΰ ŷڰ DZ ؼ ٹ ڷ ؾ ̴. ̱ ٹ ȭ ڷ ϴ ŷڱ࿡ ֿ Ѵ. 1973⿡ ۵ Ű μ , ̱ ߽ ҷ ߽ ҽ ߰ ġ ־, Űμ ڷ ߱ ŷμ ۵ ־ ϼ ־ٰ ִ. 7) ٺо ڸ ϱ ؼ , ̱ ݵ ڷ ؾ ϰ, õǴ ؾ߸ Ⱥ Ͱ ٹ ȣ Ÿ Ǹ ǰ ϵ ñ ν ŷμ  ִٰ Ÿ ϴ. 7) James Macintosh,ConfidenceBuildingin the ArmsControlProcess:ATransforma-tional View(Canada: DepartmentofForeignAffairsandTrade,1996),pp.31-61. ѹݵ ŷμ мȸ143 °, ݱ , Ȥ 6ȸ㿡 ǵǾ ν ŷڰ Ǿµ, ٺо߸ ŷڱ DZ ؼ Ǵڵ ࿩ θ Ȯν ŷڰ ȭ ִٴ ν , ࿩θ Ȯϴ ü ݵ ʿ䰡 ִ. 8) 6ȸ 簳ȴٸ, ٺо ŷڱ ǹ ȸ ϴ ʿϴ. °, ٺо߿ 緡 о 輺 νϰ, ⿡ ǹ ۼǸ 緡 о߱ ڱ ǹ ϴ ͵ ʿ ̴. ٽ ڸ, ٹ ذῡ ü ӿũ ǵǸ, 緡ı繮 ذ ѹݵ ȭü ๮ Բ ǵ ʿ䰡 ִ. ټ°, ٺо߿ , ɼ ν ٿ ŷڸ ڰ ȭ ϴ. ⱸ 6ȸ ̿ܿ IAEA Խų ʿ ִ. . ٹ ذ 3ܰ ŷμ 忡 ڱ ΰ ϰ踦 Ű ѹݵŷμ ߾ ٹ ذϱ ٹ ϰ Ѵ. ѹݵ ŷڱ࿡ ٹ ذ Ȱν ٹ ܰ躰 ̴. 8), ???? ٻ ????. (: ѱȸ, 1994),pp.22-24. ____________________________________ 144 Korea Institute for National Unifications International Conference on Strategies to Implement the Trust-building Process on the Korean Peninsula aaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaa 忡 ٿ , Ϲ , Ѱ ȸ ŷںٴ ҽ ϰ ٹ ȭʿ ҽ ִ ̴. ѹݵ ٹ Ͽ ŷڸ ؼ ù° ּ ٰ ŷڱ Ȯϴ ŷڸܰ谡 ϴ. ° ڰ ּ ŷڱ ȮεǸ ٺо߿ ŷڱܰ Ѵ. °, پ ŷڱġ Ǹ ܰ迡 ŷμ ȭϴ ܰ谡 ʿ ̴. The Trust-building Process on the Korean Peninsula $$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$ and Directions to Resolve North Koreas Nuclear Issue __toward__ $$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$ __ trust what?__ trust for what?__yp __ eeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeee Han Yong-sup ^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^ Korea National Defense University '''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''' 1. 1ܰ: ٰ ŷ ܰ ѹݵ ŷμ ܰ迡 ŷڱ ǵ Žϰ ǰ ȭ ޾Ƶ̰ ȴ. ؼ Ϲ ⼱ ߴ ٰ Ȥ ǹ ؼϰڴٴ ǥؾ . , NPTͼ, ѹݵ ȭ ؼ, 6 ȸ ؼϰڴٰ ϰ, ٽü ߴܰ ٰ , ٽ ߴ, Ÿ ̻ ߰ 丮 Ѵ. ̿ Ͽ ٽü 簡 ǿ ¸ ȵ ̴. ѱ ̱ иŰ ų, ѹϷ 5 пŰ å . ̿ ÿ ѱ κ ѹݵ ȭ ؼħ Ȯιް, ϴȭ ϰڴٴ ǻ縦 鼭, ѱ ٰ ̻ ذ ϰڴ õ ʿ䰡 ִ. ѹݵ ŷμ мȸ145 The Trust-building Process on the Korean Peninsula $$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$ and Directions to Resolve North Koreas Nuclear Issue __toward__ $$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$ __ trust what?__ trust for what?__yp __ eeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeee Han Yong-sup ^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^ Korea National Defense University '''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''' 2. 2ܰ: ٺо ŷڱܰ 1ܰ迡 籹 Ǽ ǥϰ ȭ Ȥ ڴȭ ؼ ŷڱ ϰڴٴ õϰ Ǹ, ߷ 6ȸ Ͽ ٺо ŷڱ ȿ س. ٹ ؼ 6ȸ Ͽ ⸦ Ǻη ѹ߷ 5 ѿ ϴ ذ õѴ. ̰ 忡 ϰ 1991⿡ ̱ ҷ ȭ ̿ ٹ ٰ ϱ (CTR:Cooperative ThreatReduction) ̴. ɷ¿ ؼ ѹ߷ 5 򰡸 ǽϰ, ѿ ٽü ٹ , ٹ⸦ Űϵ ˱Ѵ. ٽŰ ޾ ѹ߷ 5 IAEA(International AtomicEnergyAgency) Ʈ . ٽŰ ġ ѹ߷ϰ IAEA ϴ (international inspection team) Ͽ ٿ Ȱ Ѵ. ٿ Űϰ ޴ ѹ߷ 5 ѿ Ŀ Ű , Ѱ Ը ǿ ̸ Ѵ. ⿡ 6ȸ ȿ ̱ ߱ ԽŰ ʼ 䱸ȴٰ ϰڴ. ٽŰ ġ Ǹ, ٽŰ Ȯ θ ϱ 30-90 ʻ(baseline inspection) ǽѴ. ʻ ε, ϱ ѹϷ 5 Ǹ ִ. ʻ ٿ Ʈ , ѹ 146 Korea Institute for National Unifications International Conference on Strategies to Implement the Trust-building Process on the Korean Peninsula ____________________________________________________________________ Ϸ 5 IAEA ϴ Ͽ ǽϰ Ǵµ ̶ (elimination inspection) ޾Ƶ̴ ѹϷ 5 ѿ Ը 뿡 ؼ 5ڰ Ű Ѱ ϵ Ѵ. ׸ ٹ ̱ ϵ Ѵ. ٰ߿ ϰ ִ ηµ μ б η ȯ ϵ 5 ̵ ϰ ȴ. ٿ Ⱓ ļ ǰ ̴. о߿ 켱 ̱ ġ ϰ, 6 ȸ 鰣 Ұħ ν ѿ . 9) Ⱑ ǵ ѹݵ ü ȭü ȯϱ ȭ , Ѱ ̱, ߱ ϴ 4ȸ Ͽ ѹݵ ȭü Ͽ ǿ ̸. , о߿ ־ ŷڱ ū Ʋ ѹݵ ȭ ü󿡼 ٷٴ ̴. 4ȸ㿡 ѹݵ ŷڱ ϰ ȴ. Ѱ 1992 ϱ⺻Ǽ ǵǾ 5 ġ ü ϱ Ǹ ϰ Ѱ ⱸ ġѴ. ƿ﷯ 4ȸ㿡 ŷڱ ؼ 緡 ° ѹ̱ , ѱ 緡 ̺ ÷ Ǹ ϵ Ѵ. ü , ȭ 6ȸ ̰ Ǹ ѹݵ ŷڱ ȭü 4 ȸ ٶϴ. 2009 8 ̸ ΰ ٿ ׷ (grandbargain) ѱ ٹ 9) Charles Wolf,Jr. and NormanD.Levin, Modernizingthe NorthKoreanSystem: Objectives,Method,andApplication(Santa Monica,CA:RAND,2008),pp.37-45. ѹݵ ŷμ мȸ147 ϱ 6ȸ㿡 Ŀ , ѹݵ ȭ Ͽ ȭü Ѵٰ ϴ ̾ . 10) ݸ鿡 ȸ ȭü ȸ ÿ ϴ ְ, ߱ ǥ , ٹ Ǵ ȭüȸ ֵǾ ٹ ̴. 3. 3ܰ: ٰ ŷȭ ܰ 2ܰ迡 ٿ Ⱑ ǰ, 緡 繮 ؼ ٹ ŷڱ ̷ Ǹ, ܰ ŷ ȭ ܰ ϰ ȴ. ܰ迡 ̸ ȸ ȸ ϵ ν ϴȭ ȭ ܰ迡 ̸ ȴ. Ⱑ ޼ǰ ٰ Ű Ƿ ٿ ܺ ŷڴ ȭǴ ܰ ϰ ȴ. ƿ﷯ ѹݵ ȭü Ȯ ϰ ؼ ȭ . 6ȸ ȭ ȭ ϰ ޼ϱ ؼ 6ȸ ǥ ޿ ݻų ʿ , ȸ ߴ 3 1ȸ Ⱓ ̸ Ͽ ȸ ϵ ؾ Ѵ. ߱ ϰ 6ȸ ƴ϶, 6ȸ ȭǸ ȸ 鼭 6ȸ ϴ . Űμ ȸ 鼭 Ⱥ 10) ̸ , 64 UNȸ , 2009.9.23. http://www.president.go.kr. ̸ , US CFR/KS/AS , 2009. 9.21. http://www. president.go.kr. 148 Korea Institute for National Unifications International Conference on Strategies to Implement the Trust-building Process on the Korean Peninsula cccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccc ȸǸ ߴ ġŷ ʿ䰡 ִ. Ϲ ŷ μ ȭ ܰ迡 ̷ ʿ䰡 ִ. ٹ ذ Ͼ 6 Ͼ Űμμ 6ȸ ȭŰ , 11) ȸ Ͼ ڰ Ⱥ¹ Ȯų ʿ䰡 ִ. The Trust-building Process on the Korean Peninsula $$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$ and Directions to Resolve North Koreas Nuclear Issue __toward__ $$$$$$$$$$$$$$ __ trust what?__ trust for what?__yp __ eeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeee Han Yong-sup ^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^ Korea National Defense University '''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''' . 3忡 ٹذ 3ܰ ŷμ ϱ ؼ ʿϴ. ٴɷ° ٰ , ޺ å ȭ ϴ ȿ ̴. Ϻ å Ḹ ų , ȭ ѹݵ ȭ ̴. ȭȸ ϱ ؼ й ϸ鼭, ٸ δ μƼ긦 ϴ ϴ ʿϴ. ȭ ѱ й ϸ鼭 ÿ ѱ й Ͽ ϵ Ѵ. ƿ﷯ ȭ  ġ ȭ ѿ 뺸ϵ Ѵ. Ǹ ⿡ Ⱥ ٹ ذ 3ܰ ŷμ 11) ö , ????ȭå ̷ ʿ ??????(: Ͽ, 2003). pp. 146-156. ѹݵ ŷμ мȸ149 ϵ Ѵ. 忡 ķ Ͽ Ѵ. 1. : й (1) ѿ ٹ ѹ 籹 ϰ ִ Ȳ ѱ  óϸ, ȭ ΰ?켱 ٹ ⸦ ϵ ϴ ñ ̴. ׷ ٹⰡ ѹ̵Ϳ ٰϿ ̱ پ ѱ ְڴٴ Ȯϴ ʿϴ. ̿ Ͽ δ 1978 ѹ̿ձɺ â ų ѹ̿ʾ ȸ ѱ ٿ õϿ Դ. ׷ٰ 2006 10 1 ٽ , ̱ ٿ, 緡 Ÿݴɷ ̻ ɷ ɷ ν ѱ Ȯ ϰ ȭ ͡ ϸ鼭 ̱ ѹݵ Ⱥ Ȯ Դ. 12) 2013 2, 3 ٽ ѱ ٴɷ¿ Ͽ ѱ ٹ ؾ Ѵٴ Ͼ . ο 2/3 ѱ ٹ忡 Ÿ . 13) 1991 12 ̱ öߴ ѹ̱ ٹ ؾ Ѵٴ 嵵 Ǿ. ̿ ؼ ѱ δ å ϰڴٴ ǥϿ, ̱δ ѹݵ ʰ ̱ ٹ ÷緡Ĺ, ̻Ϲ 12)ѹα , ????2010鼭??????(: , 2010),pp.305-307. 13)ƻå, ???? ??????2013.2.13.-15. 150 Korea Institute for National Unifications International Conference on Strategies to Implement the Trust-building Process on the Korean Peninsula ü ѱ ŷڼִ Ȯ ִٰ õ ִ. Ư 2013 3 Ͽ ħ ǽϰ ִ Ű ѹ̿Ʒÿ ̱ B-2,B-52,F-117 ѱ ġŰ ٰݴɷ ½ ν ѿ Բ Ȯ ŷڼ ѱ ߴ. ̿ ̱ ѹݵ Ȯ ô ٰ ȿ ִ ֵǰ ֱ , ϴ ̱ پ ʿ䰡 , 2013 10 45 ѹ SCM ǵ Ȯ ʿ䰡 ִ. (2) ѿ й ٰ߰ ӵǴ ȿ 簡 ȭ ʿ䰡 ִ. ׵ ѱ, ̱, Ϻ, EU ٽ迡 ؼ 縦 öϰ Դ. 縦 ȿ ջ ٸ ƴ ߱ ̾. ߱ ٽ ʹ ȣ Դ. ̷ ߱ ߸ µ ӽŰ ʷ Ӹ ƴ϶, ߱ ȸ йڰ ȿ ݰŰ ʷߴ. ٰ , ߱ ȸ Ⱥ Ǹ öϰ ʿ䰡 ִ. 2012 ߱ ΰ ǹõǰ ־µ, 2013 2 3 ٽ Ŀ ߱ δ Ⱥ 2087ȣ 2094ȣ ö ش޶ ȸ û Ͽ ó ߱ ߾ΰ α ѹݵ ŷμ мȸ151 ü 縦 öϰ ϵ ˷ . 14) 3 ٽ ߱ ٹⰳ߰ ϰ ִ ǿ ؼ ؼ ȴٴ ڼ Ͼ ߱ε ߰ ° ߰ Ǹ ؼ ſʹ ٸ ȭ ˱ϸ鼭 翡 ؼ ִ µ ̰ ִ Ÿ ִ. ȸ ϵ 翡 ؼ ݹϴ µ ̴ ϸ Ѱ ܺμ迡 ȭ Ű ִ ȿ й . ٴɷ Ű Ư ̱ ڼ ϰ ٰ Ϲ̰ ȯŰ ̴. ⼭ Ϲ̰ õǰ, 6ȸ ۵Ǿ α׷ ̸, ٺ ް α׷ ϴ ȸ ų ̶ û ϰ ִ ̴. 1990뿡 Ϲ ׹ 븮 ִٸ, Ȱ ȴ. ̸ ϱ й ʿ䰡 ִ. (3) ѱ й ѱ , ѱ ó ִ ΰ?װ ٰ ̻ о߿ νϰ ־ Ѵ. , ѱ ٹ⸦ Ѵٰ ϴ ٹ̻ ݿ ؼ ѱ 14)http://www.baidu.com. 152 Korea Institute for National Unifications International Conference on Strategies to Implement the Trust-building Process on the Korean Peninsula cccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccc ϰų ִ ɷ ߰ Ǹ ѱ ڷ ޾Ƶ ̶ ̴. ̿ Ͽ ѱ ٹ̻ źϱ ź Ÿݴɷ° ̻ ü踦 ߾ Ѵٰ ϰ ִ. 15) ѱ ϴ Ž Ÿݱ ųü (Kill Chain)ɷ ߰ , ٹ̻ 󿡼 ѱ ڷ ޾Ƶ̰ ̴. ƿ﷯ ѱδ Ѻ 40質 켼 , ۷ι μ ܱ, ΰ бɷ ѵϿ ٹ̻ ų ȭų ִ ÷ 緡 ɷ° νĴɷ ȹ Ѿ Ѵ. ű ѱ ٹ̻ ݴɷ° ɷ ų Ҹ ﺸ ȭ ŷ ̴. 2. : ȭ ´ٸ, 6ȸ ѹϷ 5 ѿ ϴ ʿϴ. ü ѹϷ 5 Ű Ÿڴ ̴. ٹ ٹ, ٰ α׷ ⸦ ϰ, ѹϷ 5 Ⱓ ϸ鼭, IAEA(ڷ±ⱸ) Բ ⱸ ǽϴ ̴. 16) 15), 3 ٽ 츮 å, ????Ⱥ??????2013 3ȣ, ѱ , 2013. 16) δ ö, ձ, , 迵ȣ, , ????ѹݵ ȭ ȭ: (CTR) ????, KINUѼ 11-07,(: , 2011). ѹݵ ŷμ мȸ153 ȹ ̱ 簡(RichardLugar)ȭ ǿ ִ ǿ 1991 ʴ Ǹ ҷ ٹ ȭй ٹ , ٰбڵ ü Ʒ (job change) , μ(civilian) б Ų ؼ ų ҷ ȭ Ư þ, ũ̳, ν, ī彺ź  1992 ų 3ҿ 4ұ ִ ߴ (CTR: Cooperative ThreatReduction)α׷ ϴ. 17) 2002⿡ CTRα׷ G8(̱, ij, , , , ¸, Ϻ, þ) ν 뷮󹫱ⰨҸ α׷ (Global Partnership Againstthe Spreadof Weaponsand Materialsof Mass Destruction) ȮǾ. 1992 2012 ҷ ȭ ٹ⸦ ü ٹ 250 ̱ , ٹ ٰбڵ ŵξٰ 򰡵 ִ. ׷ ̷ CTR 뿡 ؼ ڱ ǰ Ƿ ִ. 18) ٹ Ѽ ܰ ٹ⸦ Ű, ٰ߿ ߴ ηµ ٸ ų ִٸ, ̷ ٺо߿ ѹݵ ŷμ θ ̴. ѹ α׷ ۵Ǹ, G8GlobalPartnershipκ ȭ ⸦ µ ̴. 17) Amy F. Woolf,Nunn-Lugar CooperativeThreatReductionPrograms: Issues for Congress,CRSReportfor Congress, CongressionalResearchService,97-1027 F,March23,2001. 18) ????߾Ϻ????, ڴ, ī彺ź 桱, 2013.4.27. 154 Korea Institute for National Unifications International Conference on Strategies to Implement the Trust-building Process on the Korean Peninsula . ٹ⸦ ϴ Ȳ Ͽ ؾ ѹݵ ŷμ ġ ڱ ΰ ѹݵ ٹ ذϰ Ⱥо߿ ŷڱ ְڴ° ϴ Ͽ. ٹ ص ̰ ʹ ũ, ȭ ڷμ ڰݵ ŷڱμ տ ִ ֹ ٴ ְ ִ. ǿ Ǹ ϰ ٰ Ա ٹ Ͽ ŷڸ ٺ 䱸Կ , ȭ ȭ ޼ ư ǰ ִ. ׷ ȭ ϱ ؼ ȭ Ŵ޸ ٴ й, ȭ ÿ ߱ϴ ̸ (twotrack strategy) ȿ ̴. 켱 ̱ Ȯ ϸ鼭 Ͽ йϴ ԰ ÿ ѱ ٹ̻ ź ִ Ÿݴɷ° ̻ ɷ ϴ ߱ؾ ̴. ̷ ٹμ ϱⰡ ƴٴ ν , ִ ٸ θ  ٺо 3ܰ ŷμ ̴. ٺо ŷμ 1ܰ α׷ , ٽ ̻Ͻ 丮 ϰ ϴ ̴. ׷ ѱ ȭ ڷ ϰ ѱ Ⱥо ŷڱ ֵ ֵ ̴. ﷯ 6ȸ ȭ ۵Ǹ, ٺо ŷμ 2ܰ ѹݵ ŷμ мȸ155  Ǵµ ̸ ŷڱܰ Ѵ. ŷڱܰ迡 ٹ ذϱ Ͽ, ѹ߷ 5 Ű ϰ ϸ, ѹ߷ 5 IAEA յ ü Ͽ. ̷ Ͽ ٺо 3ܰ ŷȭ ܰ迡 ̸ ȭ ϼǰ, Ⱥо ȸ ȭǾ ٹ ̵ ȣ Ȯ ִ ϰ ̴. ŷμ DZ ؼ Űμ Ұ շϿ ۵ؾ Ѵ. ù° ġ ŷڱ , ° ü ̰ ⿩, ° ġڿ Ȱ а ǿ ߰ ̴. Ҵ ѿ ϰ Ǿ Ѵ. ֳϸ ѿ ũ, ŷڱ ࿡ ȭ ġ ؿ ʼ̱ ̴. ȿ Բ ȣۿѴٸ ʾ ٺо߿ ѹݵ ŷ μ ۵ ̴. The Trust-building Process on the Korean Peninsula ^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^ and Directions to Resolve North Koreas Nuclear Issue __toward__ $$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$ __ trust what?__ trust for what?__yp __ eeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeee Han Yong-sup ^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^ Korea National Defense University '''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''' end ooooooooooooooooooooooooo sc http://www.kinu.or.kr/eng/news/news_01_01.jsp?bid=ENGNEW&page=1&num=70&mode=view&category= $$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$ KOR REơUNIFICATION II ̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡ %%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%% korean and german re--unification intro by dr yong k park ##################################################### 2013 seoul pppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppp ̡ ooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooo ch xviii--s --eee ppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppp sc http://www.kinu.or.kr/eng/news/news_01_01.jsp?bid=ENGNEW&page=1&num=70&mode=view&category= $$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$ Korea Institute for National Unifications International Conference on Strategies ((((((((((((((((((((((( to Implement the Trust-building ̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡ Process eeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeee on the Korean Peninsula ̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡ __ trust what?__ trust for what?__yp __ eeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeee Date 2013. 10. 29 %%%%%%%%%%%%%%% ѹݵ ŷμ ȭ $$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$ The Trust-building Process on the Korean Peninsula $$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$ and Establishing Peace $$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$ __ trust what?__ trust for what?__yp __ eeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeee Session2 ^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^ Presentation__s $$$$$$$$$$$$$ ? ѹݵ ŷμ $$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$ ٹ ذ $$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$ The Trust-building Process on the Korean Peninsula $$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$ and Directions to Resolve North Korea's Nuclear Issue__toward__ $$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$ __ trust what?__ trust for what?__yp __ eeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeee ? DMZ ȭ ѹݵ ȭ ^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^ Creating the DMZ World Peace Park and its Implications for Peace on the Peninsula ^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^ ? ѹݵ ŷڱ ȭ $$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$ __The Trust-building Process on the Korean Peninsula $$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$ and __ Directions to Establish Trust __toward__ $$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$ and Peace on the Korean Peninsula__toward__ ^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^ __ trust what?__ trust for what?__yp __ eeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeee Session2-1 $$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$ ѹݵ ŷμ ٹ ذ ttttttttttttttttttttttttttt The Trust-building Process on the Korean Peninsula $$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$ and Directions to Resolve North Korea's Nuclear Issue __toward__ $$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$ __ trust what?__ trust for what?__yp __ eeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeee Han Yong-sup l mmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmm Korea National Defense University ''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''' end ooooooooooooooooooooooooooooo sc http://www.kinu.or.kr/eng/news/news_01_01.jsp?bid=ENGNEW&page=1&num=70&mode=view&category= $$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$ KOR REơUNIFICATION II ̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡ %%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%% korean and german re--unification intro by dr yong k park ##################################################### 2013 seoul pppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppp ̡ ooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooo ch xviii--s--fff ppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppp sc http://www.kinu.or.kr/eng/news/news_01_01.jsp?bid=ENGNEW&page=1&num=70&mode=view&category= $$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$ Korea Institute for National Unifications International Conference on Strategies ((((((((((((((((((((((( to Implement the Trust-building ̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡ Process eeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeee on the Korean Peninsula ̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡ __ trust what?__ trust for what?__yp __ eeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeee Date 2013. 10. 29 %%%%%%%%%%%%%%% $$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$ Session2-2 $$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$ DMZ ȭ ѹݵ ȭ eeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeee Creating the DMZ World Peace Park ̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡ and its Implications for Peace on the Peninsula oooooooooooooooooooooo Park Eun-Jin l ccccccccccccccccc Gyeonggi Research Institute ppppppppppppppppppppppppppp ѹݵ ŷμ мȸ159 (((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((( Creating the DMZ World Peace Park ̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡ and its Implications for Peace on the Peninsula ((((((((((((((((((((( Park Eun-Jin """""""""""""""""""" Gyeonggi Research Institute """"""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""" . Progress of the Discussions and Policies regarding the DMZ1) 1. 1953-end of the 1960s: Militarization of the DMZ Ever since the DMZ(Demilitarized Zone) was set following the Korean Armistice Agreement, the relation between the North and the South remained hostile until the 1970s, reflecting the political landscape of the Cold War. Between the short period after the Armistice Agreement was signed and before Korean troops were sent to Vietnam, the DMZ remained far more demilitarized than it is now. However, diplomatic relations between the two Koreas have been exacerbated due to South Korea's decision to send troops to Vietnam in 1963 followed by the Blue House Raid of North Korean Special Forces in 1968. Both Koreas made the decision to fortify the DMZ by installing barbed-wire fences and military facilities, and placing more combat forces. 1 The content was edited and reorganized from The DMZ Speaks (Keonggi/Wisdom House, planned to be published in 2013, in Korean) 160 Korea Institute for National Unifications International Conference on Strategies to Implement the Trust-building Process on the Korean Peninsula 2. 1970-1980s: Global detente and discussions to demilitarize the DMZ From the 1970s, there was global atmospheric movement to make peace and relax tensions between states. There was a similar attempt on the Korean Peninsula with the July 4. North-South Joint Statement which created a momentary delusion of peace, but the remaining ideological differences and conflicts maintained hostile relations. Although there was a lack of substantial progress, the difference was that the two parties were engaging in formal talks to actually demilitarize the zone. On June 12, 1971, in the 317th talk between the Armistice Committee, Rodgers, the head of UN forces, formally suggested the Four Plans2) for Demilitarization. 3) Regarding this suggestion, North Korea voiced its own views on demilitarization and the sustenance of Peace, under the premise that the U.S. troopsin Korea be evacuated. 4) It is evident that both Koreas insisted on demilitarization, but the discussions remained unrealistic and non-engaging; rather, the two nations argued for superiority of respective systems. Afterwards, the South Korean Ministry of Unification proposed a cooperative development plan of the DMZ5) in 1973, right after the Joint-Statement, and in 1982, suggested the 20 demonstrative business 2 The plans are: evacuation of troops to where both parties have agreed upon, Destructing armistice military facilities, Demilitarization of the DMZ as a whole, Prohibition of armed forces from entering the DMZ 3 Recited from: Korean defense intelligence agency(KDIA), Assorted Files from Armistice Talks (Seoul, KDIA. 1986, in Korean) p168, Jung-soo Kim, 2010 4 Evacuation of American Troops in Korea, South Korean suspension of new weapons import, Pulling out arms from South Korea, Stopping military offense and invasions, Destructing armistice military facilities, Maintaining order in DMZ, Allowing free visits of South and North Korean civilians to the DMZ. KDIA (1986), p.169. Jung-soo Kim (2010), Recited from: Inter-Korean Discussions about the DMZ and future Goals, p.67 (in Korean) 5 Evacuation of American Troops in Korea, South Korean suspension of new weapons import, Pulling out arms from South Korea, Stopping military offense and invasions, Destructing armistice military facilities, Maintaining order in DMZ, Allowing free visits of South and North Korean civilians to the DMZ. KDIA (1986), p.169. Jung-soo Kim (2010), Recited from: Inter-Korean Discussions about the DMZ and future Goals, p.67 (in Korean) ѹݵ ŷμ мȸ161 models for ethnic unity and peaceful utilization of the DMZ.6) North Korea did not show any response to these suggestions, and discussions have not progressed. On the contrary, the series of events starting from the North Korean Axe Murder incident in August 18, 1976 in the Joint Security Area (JSA) which resulted in the death of two American officers, to the Rangoon Bombing of October 9, 1983, and the Korean Air Flight 858 Incident of November 28, 1987, reinforced the hostile mood between the two Koreas. Creating the DMZ World Peace Park and its Implications for Peace on the Peninsula ((((((((((((((((((((( Park Eun-Jin """""""""""""""""""" Gyeonggi Research Institute """"""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""" 3. End of the 1980s-Mid 1990s: Elementary agreements for peaceful usage of the DMZ In this period, the Communist regimes of Eastern Europe headed by the Soviet Union collapsed and the Cold War came to its end with the unification of Germany. Domestically, the newly inaugurated President Roh propelled a conciliatory policy towards the North, and began new dimensions of discourse on specific plans to utilize the DMZ. In particular, Inter-Korean Basic Agreement 7) on December 13, 1991, provided the foundation for both Koreas to work on applying the various plans. On 1988, President Roh Tae Woo suggested the construction of Peace City in DMZ to install facilities such as Reunion Rooms for parted families, Ethnic Culture Center, Academic Exchange Center, and Commodity Trade Center, in his speech in the UN General Assembly. The 6 There are seven articles regarding the DMZ: Connecting and opening roads between Seoul and Pyongyang, Opening Seorak and Kumgang mountains as tourism zones, Allowing free passage of foreigners through Panmunjeom, Settling mutual free-fishing zones, Joint-Construction of a sports stadium in the DMZ Joint-academic research of ecology within the DMZ, Complete destruction of military facilities for alleviation of military tension between the two Koreas. Jung-Soo Kim, Inter-Korean Discussions about the DMZ and futureGoal, Peace Studies, Article 1, Volume 11 (2010), p68. (in Korean) 7 A plan to construct History of Unification which connects railroads of the Gyeongui line, Reunion Square for parted families, Ethnic Culture Center, Academic Exchange Center, and Commodity Trade Center, Sports Stadium, and Religious Exchange Center according to the process of agreement between North and South, and expanding that plan to build the second and third Peace Cities, eventually to incorporate the whole DMZ. Ministry of Unification(1989), Inter-Korean Plans or Unification, pp.27-28. (in Korean) 162 Korea Institute for National Unifications International Conference on Strategies to Implement the Trust-building Process on the Korean Peninsula content of the speech was specified in his 1989 special speech in the National Assembly, as a Peace District part of the Korean National Community Unification Plan. Likewise, North Korea proposed Ten-Point Program for Disarmament in its Supreme Peoples Assembly, Central Peoples Committee, and Union Administrative Council Assembly of May, 1990, that the DMZ be established asa peace zone, combat troops and military equipments be withdrawn, facilities be dismantled, and the zone be open for peaceful usage by civilians.8) After the Inter-Korean Basic Agreement was adopted in 1991, the South Korean Government divisions pulled out various business plans9) , most notably, the development of the Korea Peace Industrial Complex and Exchange Center in DMZ. Since South Korea was actively contributing to designing the development of the DMZ, and the North was likewisesuggesting disarmament, the status of the DMZ was seeming to strive for changes. However, the actual usage of the DMZ was limited to carrying out basic agreements to alleviate military tensions. As the developmental design for the DMZ was being vitalized under the Roh regime, international organizations and groups started to show focused interest in establishing the DMZ as a natural park. In 1992, the United Nations Environmental Programme (UNEP) and the International Union for Conservation of Nature (IUCN) suggested plans to develope an International Nature Park in the DMZ. Later, the newly elected Kim Young Sam administration of 1993 offered a similar plan, but North Korea did not respond. 8 Jung-Soo Kim(2010), p.70. 9 South Korea suggested construction of 0.5~1 million pyeong sized Korea Peace Industrial Complex in the DMZ area west of the Panmunjom, and North Korea modified the plan as 3 million pyeong sized one in Haejoo. Discussions were also made on construction of pipelines for gas and oil, Joint-oil refining facility and thermoelectric power plant within the DMZ, Joint nuclear power plant and nuclear dump site, plans to utilize the forest of DMZ, develop tourism resources, and establishing exchange center for natural resources and agricultural products. ѹݵ ŷμ мȸ163 eeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeee Creating the DMZ World Peace Park ̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡ and its Implications for Peace on the Peninsula ((((((((((((((((((((( Park Eun-Jin """""""""""""""""""" Gyeonggi Research Institute """"""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""" 4. End of the 1990s-Mid 2000s: Active communication between the North and the South, raising expectations of progress in the status of the DMZ. In this period, the conciliatory atmosphere ofpeace and cooperation was the greatest between the two Koreas. The Kim Dae Joong administration inaugurated in 1998 propelled the Sunshine Policy towards the North, and tourism of Mount Kumgang which began inthe same year contributed to the cooperative atmosphere. In the year 2000, the first Korea Summit agreed to connect railroads and highways between Gyeonggi Line and Donghae Line. The roads were opened in 2007, and width which was 250 meters and 100 meters respectively. In 2003, the Kaesong Industrial Complex commenced construction, in 2007, the site was open for tourism, agreements were made on cooperation plans for Prevention of Flooding in the Imjin River, and civil exchanges of cooperation were also vitalized. However, even in the midst of the positive atmospheric changes, North Korea was either passive or made clear of its opposition of any plans to utilize or make changes to the status of the DMZ. From the end of the 1990s, there were animated discussionsin South Korea on establishing the DMZ as a peace park, vitalizing eco-tourism, and registering to the UNESCO as a biosphere reserve and world heritage, but North Korea once again confirmed its opposing stance on these issues.10) In 2006, the North went ahead with the first nuclear experimentation, and North-South relations were once again strained. Meanwhile, in the South, the head of local government was first elected by popular vote, and the municipal system began in earnest. There were increased political interests on the development of the borderline in the 10 South Korea suggested construction of 0.5~1 million pyeong sized Korea Peace Industrial Complex in the DMZ area west of the Panmunjom, and North Korea modified the plan as 3 million pyeong sized one in Haejoo. Discussions were also made on construction of pipelines for gas and oil, Joint-oil refining facility and thermoelectric power plant within the DMZ, Joint nuclear power plant and nuclear dump site, plans to utilize the forest of the DMZ, develop tourism resources, and establishing exchange center for natural resources and agricultural products. 164 Korea Institute for National Unifications International Conference on Strategies to Implement the Trust-building Process on the Korean Peninsula local level, and expectations on development grew with the legislation of Border Area Support Act in 2000, and establishment of Border Area Comprehensive Plan in 2001. During this time, the heightenedatmosphere of cooperation and reconciliation overall resulted in more policy designs on the DMZ, and diversified academic research supporting the plans. If the research on DMZ was previously limited to ecological studies and tourism development, it was now broadened and specified to include regional development and North-South cooperation. Also, towards the end of 1990s, international organizations and NGOs contributed to publicizing the DMZ issue. This added to the expectation regarding the increasing symbolic value of the DMZ and inducing the North's interest. 5. End of the 2000s-2013: Multilateral design of utilizing the DMZ in the midst of strained North-South relations As the relation between the two Koreas struggled after the second nuclear test in 2009, the Lee Myung Bak regime inaugurated in 2008 put forth the Peaceful Utilization ofthe DMZ as a national agenda. Accordingly, South Korean policy designs regarding adjoining regions of the DMZ became active. The Ministry of Security and Public Administration established a North-South Exchange, Hyper Multi-Regional Development Plan (2009) and Border Area Comprehensive Development Plan (2011), the Ministry of Environment, Basic Plans for Establishment of the DMZ Peace Eco-park (2009) and Promotion Plans of UNESCO Registration of the DMZ as a Biosphere Reserve (2011), and the Ministry of Culture, Sports, and Tourism, established Peace Eco-sphere Multi-Regional Tourism Development Plan (2009) and Design for Peaceful Use of the DMZ (2010). Policy designs and business plans todevelop adjoining regions with the DMZ were also materialized in the level of local government. In 2008, ѹݵ ŷμ мȸ165 aaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaa the Gyeonggi Province prepared a Plan for Establishment of the DMZ Peace Eco-park and Eco-Tourism Development Plan, and in 2010, issued a study report on the validity of selecting the DMZ as a biosphere reserve and how to manage it in the future. Ever since,the focus was placed on making various events and the DMZ related education and tourism active, and the DMZ Regional Comprehensive Development Plan established in 2012 is still ongoing. The Kangwon Province founded the Korea DMZ Peace Forum, and hosts an International Symposium every year. The province has also prepared plans to utilize the DMZ peacefully by constructing the DMZ Museum and the DMZ Peace-Life valley respectively in Kosung and Inje in 2009, and in Peace Culture Square in Chulwon in the year 2010. The interesting point during this period is that unlike previous times, there are more policies on premising the change in status of the DMZ and aiming to benefit from the value of the DMZ by vitalizing adjacent regions, rather than on the DMZ itself. This isbecause struggling relations between the two Koreas lead South Korea to strategically change its approach. On the premise that the DMZ will change in the future, South Korea began implementing its policies on the regions where it had jurisdiction, with the aim of branching out step by step. This is also due to the continuing emphasis on a need for policies to alleviate lagging development of adjoining regions and regional alienation. As the Park Geun-hye administration was newly elected in 2013, there have been discussions of a utilization of the DMZ in a different path compared to previous discourses. The key of the new discussion is a strong indication of a will to establish the DMZ Peace Park as a symbolic process and result of the Trust-building Process on the Korean Peninsula, the heart of this regimes policy towards North Korea. This means changing the focus of related policies from adjacentregions back into the DMZ, an active approach to improve inter-korean relations, and as the symbolic result, a stronger demand for substantial usage of the DMZ. 166 Korea Institute for National Unifications International Conference on Strategies to Implement the Trust-building Process on the Korean Peninsula Type 11) Prospect of Application to DMZ 1 ? The most standard type with more than two protected areas converging on the border ? Multiple examples including biosphere reserves ? Making protected area of all or parts of the DMZ, and establishing it as a peace park . Examples of Peace Parks and their Implications Internationally, peace parks are understood as having either of the two purposes. The first is a Peace Memorial Park like ones in Hiroshima and Nagasaki, which aims to reflect the pain of war, and commemorate the value of peace. It includes buildings, sculptures, monument of the victims, and exhibitions of related records in a historically significant site where war and hostile confrontation is over. In this case, mechanisms to encourage cooperation and improve relations are not highlighted, because the site typically symbolizes the termination of confrontation. Another type of peace park is a trans-border protected area purposed to stimulate peaceful cooperation, and currently, peace parks are weighing more on this interpretation. The ICUN defines peace parks as trans-border protected area aiming to stimulate peace and cooperation, meanwhile preserving ecological diversity, natural resources, and related cultural resources. According to a researchdone by the IUCN in 2007, there are 227 peace parks around the world, adding to surface area of 4.63 million, with largely five different types. (Table 1) Other than making peace parks out of adjoining regions, there are various ways including selecting two separate protected area as sister-peace-parks. [Table 1] IUCNs Classification of Peace Parks in Bordering Preservation Regions, and Application to the DMZ 11 Recited from: IUCN website (http://www.tbpa.net); Ali, Saleem H. (2007) Peace Parks: Conservation and ѹݵ ŷμ мȸ167 eeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeee Type 11) Prospect of Application to DMZ 2 ? Including non-protected area between trans-border pro-tected areas to establish a sin-gle park ? Connecting protected areas re-spectively in the South and the North ? IUCNs previous suggestion of Seorak-Kumgang-Korean Peninsula Peace Park falls under this 3 ? Excluding non-protected area and including separate pro-tected areas ? Although geographically sep-arate, ecological matters can be managed together ? Establishing geology parks and bio-sphere reservations In respective trans-border areas excluding the DMZ, and cooperating as Twin Parks or Friendship Parks ? Could be tried as a transitional at-tempt 4 ? Making a protected area out of one side, and expecting the other side to follow on with-out a formal agreement ? What the Ministry of Environment submitted to the UNESCO in 2012 as a plan for a biospheric reservation ? Could be tried as a transitional at-tempt 5 ? Adopting similar territorial usage policy in consideration of the fellow country, although one side is a protected area and the other side is not ? Can be developed centering around the protected area in marshes in the mouth of the Hangang River 1. Grunes Band of the United Germany The borderline between East and West Germany, represented by the Berlin Wall which served as a symbol of the Cold War, is an example which well demonstrates the ideal prototype for the DMZ and what it should aspire to become in later years.The Iron Barrier of East and West Germany was constructed, more to prohibit the escapeof East German residents, rather than for military purposes. For thirty years, the wall has endured severely Conflit Resolution. The MIT Press 168 Korea Institute for National Unifications International Conference on Strategies to Implement the Trust-building Process on the Korean Peninsula armed surveillance. However, unlike the DMZ where movement is strictly banned, the borderline of East and West Germany allowed transportation through four highways, ten roads, and nine railroads despite severe surveillance. It was a place of communication and contact where visits between residents, mail exchanges, and watching broadcasts were allowed with different degrees, depending on political circumstances. Full-scale cooperation began in1972, as Inter-German Basic Treaty was signed, and the Border Committee, consisted of representatives of the East German central government and four adjoining provinces of West germany, was installed in 1973. Various scales of cooperation were made, ranging from managing pollution of the river flowing from the East to the West, management of water resources and energy, to the prevention of natural disasters. Before the unification, cooperative businesses were usually funded by West Germany who had more capital and technical resources from higher economic standard. 2. The Peace Park of Cordillera del Condor at the borders of Ecuador-Peru Ecuador and Peru had several conflicts over the borders of Western Amazon since gaining independence from Spain in the 19th century. Due to an ambiguous borderline at the time ofthe independence, the two states conflicts and warfare to gain crucial passage leading to the Amazon River began in 1828 and repeated and continued on until the peace protocol in 1995. The Peace Park of Cordillera del Condor at the borders of ѹݵ ŷμ мȸ169 aaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaa Ecuador-Peru was one of the suggested solutions to the two states border conflicts that was concluded with Ecuador giving in to a somewhat unfavorable proposal and instead securing the navigation rights for the Peruvian Amazon Rivers Northern tributary and property rights for the 1 of land within the Peruvian borderswhere the military base was located. The Cordillera del Condor is home to many endangered species including the Andean Condors which has wings over 3m. In 1999 the two nations Ecuador and Peru, with the help of The International Tropical Timber Organization (ITTO) and other international organizations, established a total 16,425.7 of Peace Park, including the El Condor National Park in the Ecuadorian region and Santiago-Comaina Reserved Zone in the Peruvian region. The Peace Park of Cordilleradel Condor is a rare case of a direct symbol of conflict resolution and peaceful reconciliation. With the guarantee of joint management and free passage it has contributed to the peace settlement of the two states and became a good opportunity to secure the practical gains of joint resource usage. __ zeichen deleted__ yp__Cordillera del Condorat the borders of Ecuador-Peru __ zeichen deleted__ yp__ 1) __ zeichen deleted__ yp__View of the Cordillera d Condor __ zeichen deleted__ yp__ 2) __ zeichen deleted__ yp__Andean Condors__ zeichen deleted__ yp__ 3) Material 1) Eunjin Park, etc 2) Page of Missouri Botanical Garden ( ccccccccccccccc http://www.mobot.org ))))))))))))) ) 3)Wikipedia( aaaaaaaaaaa http://en.wikipedia.org/ aaaaaaaaaaaa ) 170 Korea Institute for National Unifications International Conference on Strategies to Implement the Trust-building Process on the Korean Peninsula __ zeichen deleted__ yp__The Reserve at the borderland of Finland-Russia and the Cooperation Parks __ zeichen deleted__ yp__ Material: Eunjin Park, etc (2012) 3. Finland-Russia Finland has maintained a hostile yet non-confrontational relationship with the historical powerRussia after its independence from Russia in 1917, invasion from the Soviet in 1939, and cease-fire agreement in 1944. The bordering region of Finland and Russia is a mountainous area with almost no residents thus was not referred to as The Iron Curtain but traffic was strictly restricted. Today as borderline of the EU, traffic is made via the border checkpoint, however other areas than that is distinguished by iron fences and still strictly regulated. 12) The Russian border region is especially known for its biological diversity and taiga natural forests and lakes, internationally recognized as having high protection values. In the 1990s as Russia concentrated on forestry production and the Taiga natural forests were put at risk of timbering and damage, the international communitys protection efforts and cooperation for scientific research was called for. Following the borders 14 reservations in Finland and 6 in Russia were designated, and Friendship Parks and Twin Parks were specially established in 3 regions for bilateral cooperation. With the support of the EU the two nations have beenpresenting active mutual research cooperation and exchange workshopsthrough each nation designating 12 The official borderline area which cannot be visited without permission is within 0.5~2.0km of Finnish and 20of Russian land. ѹݵ ŷμ мȸ171 cooperation agencies and establishing yearly plans. Also, by extending the connection of the European greenbeltthat began in Germany to the Finland-Russian borderland protection areas, a European-level cooperation was also strengthened. This case testifies the plausibility of appointing the protection areas neighboring the DMZ as friendship parks and building up scientific research focused basis for cooperation. For example, the Seorak-Kumgang Mountains, the biosphere reservesof the Kuwol Mountains-Gwangneung Forest, the estuary of the Han River- Yeseong River are each possible suggestions as cooperational friendship parks. Creating the DMZ World Peace Park and its Implications for Peace on the Peninsula ((((((((((((((((((((( Park Eun-Jin """""""""""""""""""" Gyeonggi Research Institute """"""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""" . The Implication of the World Peace Park and a Phased Approach The discussion and attempt to create a Peace Park in the DMZ has been repeated for a long time, so why has it not been realized? Also, how should the current administrative differentiate itself from the past discussions in pushing for the DMZ, and what is the implication it has to the peace on the Peninsula after its creation? The formulation for peace parks suggested in the past are generalized applications of cases of peace parks seen in other parts of the world. Such formulations mostly focused and remained at the hopeful conclusion of enhanced cooperation and various benefits attainable through creating a peace park rather than the circumstance or conditions prerequisite to creating a peace park. However the distinct characteristics of the Peninsula and the DMZ requires more focus on the conditions and process of creation of a peace park rather than the benefits and results. The situation in the DMZ is different from the other borderlands 172 Korea Institute for National Unifications International Conference on Strategies to Implement the Trust-building Process on the Korean Peninsula where peace parks were successfullycreated. The DMZ is a temporary military buffer zone within a divided nation aspiring reunification, not a border of two historically completely different nations thus is unstable and variable. Also, oftentimes the reasons for conflicts in borderlands is due to the resources or borderline drawing thus the direct solution exists within the given space, however the DMZ is the result of conflict ofpolitical ideology and systems thus the direct solution being outside the given space. Moreover there is more extreme political antagonism than anywhere else. Saleem Ali13), who has introduced a diverse range of cases and theories of peace parks explains that up to now mostpeace parks have been created in places without much polarized conflicts and environmental cooperation like the creation of peace parks is possible after a minimum alleviation of conflict. However peace parks can beimportant starting points for discussion in situations of harsh conflicts of ideologies, and provide solutions to situations of difficult stalemates by attracting international attention. Taking into consideration the uniqueconditions and instances of the Peninsula and its DMZ, the creation ofDMZ peace parks requires a different approach from the existing cases of peace parks. Since it begins from an extreme situation of political conflicts the step of building political and military trust and alleviating the situation of antagonism as a prior process is very important and focusing on what rolethe peace park would play in the process is also crucial.Depending on the politicalchanges in South and North Korea the following phased approaches are required. The first step is to escape the current conflict situation and build the basis for minimum level of tension alleviation to create the peace park. It is important to note at this step to activate the discussion for the DMZ World Peace Park, inducing North Korea to react to the Trust-building Process on 13 Ali, Saleem H. (2007) Peace Parks: Conservation and Conflit Resolution. The MIT Press. ѹݵ ŷμ мȸ173 aaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaa the Korean Peninsula and participate in the discussions so that international attention and the ground for cooperation is created. The domestic and international recognition for the drive to create a DMZ World Peace Park and the consultation process between the South and the North could become the barometer for the realization and the impetus for the Trust-building Process on the Korean Peninsula. The second step is to actually createa small scale pilot project peace park at a location that mutually has small military burden and enhance the level of cooperation. Regardless of how small the space may be, it may take a long time to reach an agreement for the change in the status of the DMZ, especially because a project such as the DMZ World Peace Park will require a considerable level of mutual trust and enhancement in relationships as a precondition. However once this step is reached rapid enhancements can be made to South-North relations, with the Peace Park itself acting as a catalyst. The pilot project must strengthen the symbol and cause to the outer world by focusing on practical cooperation and the creation of political and military trust that could induce irreciprocal development. The third step is the expansion and development process of the DMZ World Peace Park along with sustainable peace settlements on the Peninsula that would follow the creation of political and military trust and enhancement in inter-Korean relations. At this step more room for cooperation is built and developed into a borderland protection peace park, which will signal the complete change in the DMZ's status. . The direction of creating the DMZ World Peace Park The Peace Park is important in that albeit it cannot directly drive the settlement of conflicts between the South and the North, it can serve as an auxiliary role in conflict alleviation and becomethe means to maintain and 174 Korea Institute for National Unifications International Conference on Strategies to Implement the Trust-building Process on the Korean Peninsula enhance cooperative relations while it provides the starting point for discussions. If the Peace Park is to becreated within the DMZ, it would be able to start off as a very small symbolizing space to minimize military burden. However regardless of how small the space it must be presumed to be a time when much more enhancement in political and military trust is reached for it to be a situation where the South and North can agree and realize the creation ofthe park. Also no matter how small, if the Peace Park is to be created in the DMZ, the symbolic meaning it holds is very big and it can be anticipated to bring a rapid enhancement ofrelations between the South and the North with the park serving as a means. Furthermore, the DMZ World Peace Park must be approached as a step-by-step, dynamic process to react to the changes in the relations between the South and the North and auxiliate enhancement in relations rather than a plan at a certain one point of time and situation. In the process of doing so the content based approach must be emphasized with North Korea's acceptance and understanding, the conditions of the borderlands, and international cooperation, and several settings of directions with such in mind is needed. First, under the long-term roadmap what will start off as a creation of a small base for cooperation will eventually be expanded step by step to a borderland peace park. It is important to first establish a roadmap for the phased forwarding and expansion/development oor the DMZ following the sustainable peace progress on the Peninsula. Following this roadmap it is desirable to push for the development of peace parks and cooperation as a sign of creation and process of political and military trust at a location that mutually has small military burden. This could be expanded and developed by connecting several cooperation bases suited to the characteristics of each region. Second, the region's sustainable development must be desired with considerations to the DMZ's unique environmental, historical, cultural, and social characteristics and developments of multiple contents requiring the ѹݵ ŷμ мȸ175 preservation of value asresource and demand for application. The DMZ's preservation and usage of benefits of its biological diversity and ecological service, enhancement of its historicalrecord and symbols, utilization of related cultural resources, strengthening social integration and humanitarian cooperation and the like must be regionally specialized. In particular, preservation areas and utilizable areas must be distinguished so they are not conflicting, and the application contents must be based on scientific research and education of the DMZ. Third, it is important to develop connection foothold bases in the South-North borderland region to connect to a cooperation base within the DMZ and expand the external extension by building a connection network among the foothold bases. This is necessary on a level of balancing preservation and development by minimizing usage within the DMZ and preserving the region and attempting the development of adjacent borderlands and at the same time raising the feasibility of the plan by providing a practical incentive that North Korea can agree to. In other words, there needs to be a distinction of the inside of the DMZ as the place of preservation, research, and education ofecological, historical, and cultural resources and the adjacent region asthe connecting bases for regional development such as tourism infrastructure and cultural industries. Fourth, the priority between creating bases for cooperation within the DMZ and creating connecting bases outside the DMZ should be selected flexibly and pushed for depending on the changes in the political and military circumstances and it is desirable to push for strategies for mutual development at the same time.In other words, it is realistically necessary to simultaneously run two tracks of creating bases within the DMZ for cooperation between the South and North and creating bases outside the DMZ for vitalization of connection areas in the borderlands. Because the usage of the inner area of the DMZ willbe largely dependent on the relations between the South and the North and the political situation in East Asia, it is 176 Korea Institute for National Unifications International Conference on Strategies to Implement the Trust-building Process on the Korean Peninsula important to continuously strengthen the connecting bases in the adjacent area to the DMZ and to strengthen the ability to sustainable development of the region itself. Creating the DMZ World Peace Park and its Implications for Peace on the Peninsula ((((((((((((((((((((( Park Eun-Jin """""""""""""""""""" Gyeonggi Research Institute """"""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""" end iiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiii sc http://www.kinu.or.kr/eng/news/news_01_01.jsp?bid=ENGNEW&page=1&num=70&mode=view&category= $$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$ KOR REơUNIFICATION II ̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡ %%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%% korean and german re--unification intro by dr yong k park ##################################################### 2013 seoul pppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppp ̡ ooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooo ch xviii--s--fff ppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppp sc http://www.kinu.or.kr/eng/news/news_01_01.jsp?bid=ENGNEW&page=1&num=70&mode=view&category= $$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$ Korea Institute for National Unifications International Conference on Strategies ((((((((((((((((((((((( to Implement the Trust-building ̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡ Process eeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeee on the Korean Peninsula ̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡ __ trust what?__ trust for what?__yp __ eeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeee Date 2013. 10. 29 %%%%%%%%%%%%%%% $$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$ Session2-2 $$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$ DMZ ȭ ѹݵ ȭ eeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeee Creating the DMZ World Peace Park ̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡ and its Implications for Peace on the Peninsula oooooooooooooooooooooo Park Eun-Jin l ccccccccccccccccc Gyeonggi Research Institute ppppppppppppppppppppppppppp ѹݵ ŷμ мȸ177 pppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppp Creating the DMZ World Peace Park ̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡ and its Implications for Peace on the Peninsula ((((((((((((((((((((( Park Eun-Jin """""""""""""""""""" Gyeonggi Research Institute """"""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""" DMZ ȭ ̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡ ѹݵ ȭ (ⰳ߿) Creating the DMZ World Peace Park and its Implications for Peace on the Peninsula ((((((((((((((((((((( Park Eun-Jin """""""""""""""""""" Gyeonggi Research Institute """"""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""" . DMZ å õ 1) 1. 1953()1960 : DMZ ȭ ȭ DMZ ġ 1970 ϰ 븳衯 ε Ⱑ ũ Ͽ . ĺ ѱ ĺ ֱ DMZ ݺٴ ξ 塯 ¸ ߴ. ׷ 1963 ĺ 1968 ѱ Ưδ ûʹ 谡 ص ȭǸ鼭 öå ü ġ, ġ ȭ DMZ ȭϰ ߹ϱ ߴ. 2. 19701980 : Ʈ DMZ ȭ 1970 ʹݺʹ ȭ ȭ Ⱑ DZ ߴ. ѹݵ 1972 7.4ϰ ǥ Ͻ ȭغⰡ ⵵ , ̳ 浹 ӿ 븳 ӵǾ. 1970 ʺ DMZ ȭ ̾߱ϱ 1) ????DMZ ɴ????(⵵/Ͽ콺, 2013߰) Ǹ 8 DMZ ȭ غ() , Ͽ . 178 Korea Institute for National Unifications International Conference on Strategies to Implement the Trust-building Process on the Korean Peninsula eeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeee ߴٴ ٸ ̾. 1971 6 12 317 ȸ ǥ 4 DMZ ȭ 2) Ͽ3) . ̿ ѹ̱ ö Ͽ DMZ ȭ ȭ Ͽ4) . ̿ ȭ ϱ Ұ ؿ ӹ, ȣ ü ϰ Ͽ. Ŀ Ͽ 7.4ϰ ǥ 1973⿡ Ұ5) , 1982⿡ ѿ ȭ 20 ù ϸ鼭 DMZ ȭ ̿ 6) . ̷ ȿ ʾҰ,  ǿ ̷ ʾҴ. 1976 8 18 ǹ ̱ 屳 2 ѱ ǻǴ , 1983 10 9 ̾Ḷ ƿ Ļ, 1987 11 28 KAL Ļ ̸ ӿ 븳Ȳ ӵǾ. 2)ֹ ǵ ο ö, 豺 ü ıġ, ü DMZ ȭ, 깫ο Ա 4 3) , ????ȸڷ????(; , 1986), p.168;, 2010 ο 4)ѹ̱ ﰢ ö, 賲 Ź , 鳲 , 걺絵߰ ħ , ü ö ı, 񱸿 , ΰε 븦 Ͽ 7 ; (1986), p.169. (2010), DMZ õ , p.67 ο. 5) Ͽ, ߹() (: Ͽ, 1973a) - ȯ (2012) p.156ο 6) DMZ 7 , 缭?簣 θ ?, 輳ǻ ݰ , ǹ ܱ շ, ο ȹ , Ǽ, Ĺ ڿ° м, ȭ ü öſ. , DMZ õ , ȭп 11 1ȣ(2010), p.68. ѹݵ ŷμ мȸ179 Creating the DMZ World Peace Park and its Implications for Peace on the Peninsula ((((((((((((((((((((( Park Eun-Jin """""""""""""""""""" Gyeonggi Research Institute """"""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""" 3. 1980 1990 ߹ : DMZ ȭ ̿뿡 ñ ҷð ü ر, ü ̴. δ ¿ ΰ Ͽ ȭ å ϸ鼭 ٸ DMZ Ȱȿ ü ǿ ۵Ǿ. Ư 1991 12 13 ϱ⺻ Ǽ äϿ ο ִ 븦 ߴ ִ. 1988 ¿ ȸ DMZ ȭø Ǽ Ͽ ̻갡 ȸ, ȭ, м, ǰ ġڰ Ͽ. ̴ 1989 ¿ ȸ Ư ѹü Ϲȡ ȭ üȭǾ7) . 1990 5 ְιȸ, ߾ιȸ ȸǿ 10 ȡ ǥϰ ȭȭ, ο ö , ü ü, ΰο ȭ ̿롯 Ͽ 8) . 1991 ϱ⺻Ǽ ä ѿ ó پ ´µ9) DMZ ڸȭܰ ǥ ̾. ̿ ѿ پϰ DMZ 7) Ǽ ö ϴ ?Ͽ?, ̻갡 ? ?, ȭ м , ϻǰ, , ε ȸ ȭ ϰ ǿ ߰ ġϿ 2, 3 ȭø Ǽ ν DMZ ü Ȯϴ . Ͽ(1989), ????ѹü Ϲ????, pp.27-28. 8) (2010), p.70. 9) ǹ DMZ 50100 Ը ڸ ȭ ġ , ѿ ϴ 300 Ը . ܿ , DMZ ȭ¹ Ǽ, ڷ¹ ó , DMZ긲ڿ ̿ȹ , ڿ 谳 , õ ڿ 깰 DMZ ǵ. 180 Korea Institute for National Unifications International Conference on Strategies to Implement the Trust-building Process on the Korean Peninsula ϴ , ѵ ȭȭ Ͽ DMZ ȭ ȭǴ ߴ. ׷, DMZ ȭ ̿ ¸ ؼϱ ǻ õѴ١ ǿ ġ õ ߴ. ¿ ο DMZ ̿ Ȱ , ü DMZ ڿ ϴ ̱ ߴ. 1992 ȯȹ(UNEP) ڿ(IUCN) DMZ ڿ Ͽ. 1993 迵 ΰ Ͽ DMZ ڿȭ Ͽ ʾҴ. Creating the DMZ World Peace Park and its Implications for Peace on the Peninsula ((((((((((((((((((((( Park Eun-Jin """""""""""""""""""" Gyeonggi Research Institute """"""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""" 4. 1990 2000 ߹ : ϱ Ȱȭ DMZ ȭ Ȯ ñ ȭؿ Ⱑ ̴. 1998 ΰ ѿ ޺å Ͽ, ۵ ݰ ȭؿ Ⱑ ũ ϱ Ͽ. 2000 1 ȸ Ǽ ؼ ö θ Ͽ 2007 Ǿµ, ̸ DMZ 250m 100m Ǿ. 2003 , 2007 Ȱ, ع ǵ ̷, ΰ µ Ȱ ̷ Ǿ. ׷ ȭ? ӿ DMZ ̿ ȭ ȿ ؼ ұ µ Ǵ ݴ и Ͽ. 1990 ѿ DMZȭ ° Ȱ ȭ, ׽ Ǻ ȵ Ȱ µ ̿ ؼ ݴ и Ͽ10) . 2006⿡ ħ 1 ٽ ϸ鼭 ϰ ٽ Ǿ. ѹݵ ŷμ мȸ181 1990 ߹ݿ ѿ ó ü ü μ Ǿ ġ ۵Ǿ. å 2000 , 2001 հȹ DMZ Ȱ롤 밡 Ŀ. ñ⿡ ȭؿ Ⱑ Ǿ DMZ å , ̸ ޹ħ ִ м ξ پϰ . ַ Ϻ ߿ ѵ DMZ ߰ о üȭ . , 1990 Ĺݺ ⱸ NGO׷ DMZ ȭϴ ϱ Ͽ DMZ ¡ ġ ̰ ϴ ⿩ ̶ 밡 . Creating the DMZ World Peace Park ̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡ and its Implications for Peace on the Peninsula ((((((((((((((((((((( Park Eun-Jin """""""""""""""""""" Gyeonggi Research Institute """"""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""" 5. 2000 Ĺݢ2013 : ϰ ӿ DMZ Ȱ ٸȭ 2009 2 ٽ ϰ谡 Ǿ  2008 ̸ ΰ ϸ鼭 DMZ ȭ ̿롯 Ǿ. DMZ å Ȱµ, δ ϱ ʱ (2009) հȹ(2011), ȯδ DMZȭ ⺻ȹ(2009) DMZ Ͽ ׽ Ǻ ȹ(2011), ȭüδ 10) 2004 10 5 ȯ溸ȣ 뺯 ȭ п ܷ Ǵ ִ Ѱ ġ ¡ 밡 ϰ ؾ ȭ ִġ ݹϰ, п а輱 ƴ϶ ö ũƮ庮 Ⱦ ¡ ٲ Ѵ١ 182 Korea Institute for National Unifications International Conference on Strategies to Implement the Trust-building Process on the Korean Peninsula ȭ ߰ȹ(2009), Ϻδ DMZ ȭ̿ (2010) Ͽ. DMZ å ü ȭϱ Ͽ. ⵵ 2008⿡ DMZϿ ȭ° ° ߰ȹ ϰ, 2010⿡ 뼱 ߽ ׽ Ǻ Ÿ缺 ⿡ Ͽ. پ DMZü豳 ȰȭŰ ΰ , 2012 DMZϿ չȹ Ͽ ϰ ִ. 2007 ѱDMZȭ âϿ ų ϰ , DMZ ȭ ̿ Ͽ 2009⿡ DMZڹ DMZȭ, 2010 ⿡ ö ȭȭ ϴ DMZ ַϿ. ñ ̷ο ޸ DMZü 󺸴ٴ DMZ ȭ DMZ귣尡ġ Ȱϰ Ȱȭų ִ å ٴ ̴. ̴ ϰ谡 Ǿ DMZ ȭ Ȳ ӵ, ̷ DMZ ȭ 켱 ұ ִ å ȭϰ Ȯ ѳ ̴. ̰ Ŀ ҿܹ ؼϰ ϱ å ʿ Ǿ ̱⵵ ϴ. 2013⿡ ڱ ΰ 鼭 ٸ DMZȰ ǰ ۵Ǿ. å ٽɱ ѹݵ ŷμ ¡ μ DMZȭ ϰ ǥϰ ִ ̴. ̰ DMZ ٽ DMZη å ̵ϴ ǹϸ ϰ ϰ, ѹݵ ŷμ мȸ183 ¡ μ ϰ ü DMZ ȴ. Creating the DMZ World Peace Park and its Implications for Peace on the Peninsula ((((((((((((((((((((( Park Eun-Jin """""""""""""""""""" Gyeonggi Research Institute """"""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""" . ȭ ʿ û ȭ ǹ̷ νĵȴ. ϳ ȭ (peace memorialpark)ε νø ȭ̳ Ű ȭ ó ϰ ġϸ ȭ ġ ǻ ȴ. 븳 ¿ ¡ ǹ̰ ִ ȭ ¡ϴ ๰ , 买, ð Ѵ. Ϲ 븳 ؼ ¡ ȭϱ ӵǴ 踦 ؼϰ 踦 Ű ߵϴ Ŀ Ը ʴ´. ٸ ȭ ȭ ϱ 溸ȣ μ, ȭ ǹ̷ ؼȴ. ڿ (IUCN) ȭ پ缺 ڿڿ ȭڿ ȣ ϸ鼭 ȭ ϱ 溸ȣ ϰ ִ. 2007 IUCN 翡 , 227 463 ȭ ϰ, ũ 5 ȭ ˷ ִ(<ǥ 1>). ϴ ȣ ϳ ȭ ܿ 籹 ִ ȣ ڸŰ ȭ ϴ پ ϴ. 184 Korea Institute for National Unifications International Conference on Strategies to Implement the Trust-building Process on the Korean Peninsula aaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaa 11) DMZ ɼ 1 ?2 ̻ ȣ 濡 ִ Ϲ ?Ǻ ټ ?DMZü Ǵ Ϻο ȣ ϳ ȭ 2 ? ȣ ̿ ȣ ƴ Ͽ ϳ ȭ ? ִ ȣ ? IUCN ߴ ǻ-ݰ ѹݵȭ ⿡ ش 3 ?ȣ ̿ ϰ ִ ȣ ? ݸǾ ϰ ?DMZ , Ǻ ϰ Twin Parks,FriendshipParks ?ʱ ܰ õ 4 ?ʿ ȣ ϰ Ǵ ݴ ȣ Ȯ ϴ ?2012 ȯΰ ׽ڿ ߴ DMZǺ ٿ ش ?ʱ ܰ õ 5 ? ȣ̰ ٸ ȣ ƴ , ̿ ?Ѱϱ ȣ ߽ Creating the DMZ World Peace Park ̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡ and its Implications for Peace on the Peninsula ((((((((((((((((((((( Park Eun-Jin """""""""""""""""""" Gyeonggi Research Institute """"""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""" [ǥ-1] IUCN 溸ȣ ȭ з DMZ ɼ 1. ׷׽Ʈ ô ¡̱⵵ 庮 ǥǴ ? DMZ Ұ ⿡ ⸦ ִ 11) IUCN溸Ʈũ Ȩ(http://www.tbpa.net); Ali,SaleemH.(2007) PeaceParks:ConservationandConflitResolution.TheMITPressϿ . ѹݵ ŷμ мȸ185 . ? ö 帷 ٴ ֹ Ż ǼǾ 30 ð ̷ . ̵ öϰ ܵ 츮 DMZʹ ޸ ? 񿡵 ұϰ ӵ 4 10 ο 9 ö Ǿ ־, ġ ȭ ̴ ־ ֹε鰣 湮̳ ȯ, û ҿ. ? ̷ 1972 ? ⺻? üǰ 1973 ߾ ο 4 ǥ ȸ ġǸ鼭 ε, 귯 õ ۵Ǿ ڿ , , ڿ ع پ ̷. ַ δϰ ϴ » Ǿ. 1990 ϵǸ鼭 ? ο ȭ ϰ Ǿ. ? μ ϴ ? ŻٲϿ. дܵ 30 ΰ ̿ ѵǾ ־, ̷ Ȱϱ ΰȯü Ʈ(BUND) ֵ Ʒ ׷׽Ʈ(Grunes Band) ۵Ǿ. ׷׽Ʈ Elbe Ǻ, Harz , RhonǺ 140 ȣ ϴ ߿ Ʈũ ϰ , 600 ̻ ? ϰ ִ ˷ ִ. ׷ ׽Ʈ ö 帷 ׸Ʈ Ǹ鼭 ϴ μ дܰ 縦 Ӱɹ ؼ ϴ ¡ ڸ 186 Korea Institute for National Unifications International Conference on Strategies to Implement the Trust-building Process on the Korean Peninsula ű Ǿ. ִ , ž ô ü ڿ ȰϿ , ȭ յ پ ǰ ߵǸ鼭 Ȱȭ ̹ϰ ִ. Creating the DMZ World Peace Park and its Implications for Peace on the Peninsula ((((((((((((((((((((( Park Eun-Jin """""""""""""""""""" Gyeonggi Research Institute """"""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""" 2. ⵵- ܵ ȭ ⵵ο 19 ο ϸ鼭 漱 ѷΰ 浹Ͽ. Һ 漱 Ƹ ̾ ٽθ Ȯϱ 1828 Ͽ 1995 ȭ ü 븳 ݺϸ ӵǾ. ⵵ Ҹ 漱 ޾Ƶ̴ Ƹ رǰ ִ 1 Ȯϴ £ ذ ϳ ȵ ܵ (Cordillera delCondor) ȭ̴. ܵ 3m Ѵ ȵܵ ϴ ⵵ ⱸ (ITTO) ⱸ ޾ 1999 ⵵ ܵ , Ƽư-ڸ̳ ϴ 16,425.7 ȭ Ͽ. ܵ ȭ ذ ȭȭ ¡ 幮 ʷμ ϸ鼭 籹 ȭ ⿩Ͽ, ڿ̿ ѹݵ ŷμ мȸ187 Ȯ ִ ȸ Ǿ. __ zeichen deleted yp__ ⵵ - ܵ __ zeichen deleted yp__ 1) __ zeichen deleted yp__ܵ __ zeichen deleted yp__ 2) __ zeichen deleted yp__ȵܵ__ zeichen deleted yp__ 3) ڷ 1) (2012) 2) Missouri Botanical Garden (http://www. mobot.org) 3)Űǵ Ȩ( )))))))))))))) http://en.wikipedia.org/ )============= Creating the DMZ World Peace Park and its Implications for Peace on the Peninsula ((((((((((((((((((((( Park Eun-Jin """""""""""""""""""" Gyeonggi Research Institute """"""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""" 3. ɶ-þ ɶ 1917 þƷκ 1939 ҷ ħ ޾Ұ, 1944 δ 뱹 þƿ ̸鼭 ϰ 븳 ʴ 踦 ؿԴ. 1,250km ϴ ɶ þ ʴ 긲̱ ô ö 帷 Ҹ ʾ Ǿ. EUμ ˹Ҹ ؼ շ ̷ ö å еǾ ϰ ǰ ִ. 12) þ Ư پ缺 پ ȣ ġ ſ Ÿ̰ õ ȣ ϴ ̴. 1990 þư Ӿ꿡 ַ, Ÿ̰ õ Ѽ ̸鼭 ȸ ° ʿ伺 εǾ. ɶ忡 14, þƿ 6 ȣ Ǿ , Ư 12)㰡 湮 ɶ 0.52.0km,þ 20km ̳. 188 Korea Institute for National Unifications International Conference on Strategies to Implement the Trust-building Process on the Korean Peninsula )))))))))))))))))))))) __ zeichen deleted yp__ɶ-þ ȣ ° __ zeichen deleted yp__ ڷ : (2012) 3 (FriendshipPark) ֵ̰(TwinParks)Ͽ ϰ ִ. EU ޾ 籹 ± ϰ ȹ Ͽ ȣ ° ũ Ȱϰ ϰ ִ. , Ͽ ۵ ׸Ʈ ɶ -þ ȣ Ȯ ν ȭ . ʴ DMZ ȣ ϰ ߽ 븦 ״ ͵ ȿ ûѴ. , ǻ -ݰ, Ǻ- Ǻ, Ѱϱ- ϱ ϴ. . DMZ ȭ ǿ ܰ DMZ ȭ ڴ ǿ õ ̹ ݺǾԴµ ݵ ̷ ΰ?׸, ΰ ϴ DMZȭ ǿ  ϸ, ѹݵ ȭ Ǵ ΰ? ȵǾ DMZȭ ٸ ִ ȭ ʸ Ϲȭ ϴ Ͽ. ̷ κ ȭ ϱ ܰ Ȳ ǵ麸ٴ ȭ ѹݵ ŷμ мȸ189 ν ° پ ÿ ν ӹ Ҵ. ѹݵ DMZ Ư, ȭ ̳ ٴ װ ϰ 䱸Ѵ. ѹݵ DMZ Ȳ ȭ ٸ Ȳ ٸ. DMZ ٸ ƴ϶ ޲ٴ дܵ ̸ Ҿϰ ̴. , ڿ̳ 伱 μ Ǹ , DMZ ġ ̳ ü 븳 μ ذå ܺο Ѵ. ׸ ٸ  ġ 븳 Ȳ̴. پ ȭ ʿ ̷ Ұ SaleemAli13) κ ȭ 븳 ũ , ȭ ȯ ּ ȭ ־ ϴٰ Ѵ. ȭ 븳 ū Ȳ ȭ ߿ ְ, Ǯ ¿ Żⱸ ִٰ ִ. ѹݵ DMZ Ư Ȳ ȭ ʵ , DMZȭ ٸ ȭ ʿ ٸ ٹ ʿ Ѵ. ġ 븳 Ȳ ϱ ġ ŷڸ ϰ 븳 Ȳ ȭϴ ܰ谡 ſ ߿ϸ ȭ  ϴ ߿ϴ. ġ Ȳȭ 13) Ali, SaleemH.(2007) Peace Parks: Conservationand ConflitResolution.The MITPress. 190 Korea Institute for National Unifications International Conference on Strategies to Implement the Trust-building Process on the Korean Peninsula aaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaa ʿϴ. ù ° ܰ ɰ Ȳ  ȭ ּ ȭ Ͽ ϴ ̴ܰ. DMZȭ Ǹ Ȱȭϰ, Ͽ ѹݵ ŷμ , ȭ ϸ ȸ ɰ ± ߿ϴ. DMZȭ ѹݵ ŷμ ٷιͰ ִ. ° ܰ ȣ δ Ϸ Ʈ ȭ ϰ °踦 Ű ̴ܰ. DMZ ȭ DMZ ȭ ϱ, װ ƹ ȣ ŷڿ 䱸ϱ ܰ迡 ̸ ð ʿ ִ. ܰ迡 ̸ ȭ ü Ǿ ޼ ϰ ̷ ִ. ȭ Ϸ Ʈ 񰡿 ִ ǿ ° ġ ŷ θ鼭 ܺη 巯 DMZȭ ¡ ȭϴ ϴ. ° ܰ ġ ŷڱ ѹݵ ȭ Բ DMZȭ Ȯ ̴ܰ. ° ư 溸ȣ ȭ ϴ ܰ ̰ DMZ ȭϴ ǹѴ. Creating the DMZ World Peace Park ̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡ and its Implications for Peace on the Peninsula ((((((((((((((((((((( Park Eun-Jin """""""""""""""""""" Gyeonggi Research Institute """"""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""" . DMZ ȭ ȭ ؼҸ ߵ ȭ ѹݵ ŷμ мȸ191 ϸ鼭 ؼ ϰ, °踦 Ű Ű ִٴ ߿ϴ. DMZο ȭ , װ δ ּȭϴ ſ ¡ ̴. , װ ƹ ̶ Ͽ ų ִ Ȳ̶ ݺ ξ ġ ŷ ̷ ۿ . ׸ ƹ ۴ DMZ ȭ , װ ¡ ǹ̴ ſ ũ ̸ ϰ ޼ ȴ. , DMZȭ  Ȳ ȹ ƴ϶ ġ Ȳȭ ϰ Űϴ ܰ ʿϴ. ν, , Ǿ ϸ, ̷ 鿡 ʿϴ. ù°, ε Ͽ ʱ⿡ ° Ͽ 溸ȣ ȭ ܰ ȮϿ Ѵ. ѹݵ Ӱ ȭ DMZȭ ܰ Ȯ ε 켱 ϴ ߿ϴ. εʿ ʱ⿡ ȣ δ ġ ŷڱ μ ȭ ϰ ϴ ٶ ϴ. Ư ° ټ ° ̵ Ŵ ν Ȯ ų ִ. °, DMZ , , ȭ, ȸ پ Ư ϰ, ڿμ ġ Ȱ䱸 ݿϴ Ӱɹ ߱ؾ Ѵ. DMZ پ缺 °輭 Ȱ, ϰ ¡ , ȭڿ Ȱ, ȸհ ε Ҽ ȭ Ưȭ ʿ 192 Korea Institute for National Unifications International Conference on Strategies to Implement the Trust-building Process on the Korean Peninsula aaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaa ִ. Ư, Ȱ Ͽ ʵ , Ȱ DMZ ؾ Ѵ. °, DMZ ° ִ ϰ Ͽ ܿ Ȯϴ ϴ. ̰ DMZ ̿ ּȭϿ ϸ鼭 ν ȭŰ ÿ ִ ǿ μƼ긦 Ͽ ɼ ̴ ϴ. , DMZδ ¡繮ȭڿ , , ȭ Ȱȭ ϴ ʿϴ. °, DMZο ° ϴ Ͱ DMZܺο ϴ ̿ 켱 ġ Ȳȭ ź Ͽ ϰ, ֹ ÿ ϴ ٶ . , DMZ Ȱȭ DMZܺα Ʈ ÿ ϴ ʿϴ. DMZ ̿ ϰ Ͼ ġȲ ȭ ũ ¿ ̱ DMZ ȭس, ü Ӱɹ ȭϴ ߿ϴ. Creating the DMZ World Peace Park ̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡ and its Implications for Peace on the Peninsula ((((((((((((((((((((( Park Eun-Jin """""""""""""""""""" Gyeonggi Research Institute """"""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""" end cccccccccccccccccccccccccccc sc http://www.kinu.or.kr/eng/news/news_01_01.jsp?bid=ENGNEW&page=1&num=70&mode=view&category= $$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$ KOR REơUNIFICATION II ̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡ %%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%% korean and german re--unification intro by dr yong k park ##################################################### 2013 seoul pppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppp ̡ ooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooo ch xviii--s--fff ppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppp sc http://www.kinu.or.kr/eng/news/news_01_01.jsp?bid=ENGNEW&page=1&num=70&mode=view&category= $$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$ Korea Institute for National Unifications International Conference on Strategies ((((((((((((((((((((((( to Implement the Trust-building ̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡ Process eeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeee on the Korean Peninsula ̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡ __ trust what?__ trust for what?__yp __ eeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeee Date 2013. 10. 29 %%%%%%%%%%%%%%% $$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$ Session2-2 $$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$ DMZ ȭ ѹݵ ȭ eeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeee Creating the DMZ World Peace Park ̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡ and its Implications for Peace on the Peninsula oooooooooooooooooooooo Park Eun-Jin l ccccccccccccccccc Gyeonggi Research Institute ppppppppppppppppppppppppppp end uuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuu sc http://www.kinu.or.kr/eng/news/news_01_01.jsp?bid=ENGNEW&page=1&num=70&mode=view&category= $$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$ KOR REơUNIFICATION II ̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡ %%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%% korean and german re--unification intro by dr yong k park ##################################################### 2013 seoul pppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppp ̡ ooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooo ch xviii--s--ggg ppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppp sc http://www.kinu.or.kr/eng/news/news_01_01.jsp?bid=ENGNEW&page=1&num=70&mode=view&category= $$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$ Korea Institute for National Unifications International Conference on Strategies ((((((((((((((((((((((( to Implement the Trust-building ̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡ Process eeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeee on the Korean Peninsula ̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡ __ trust what?__ trust for what?__yp __ eeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeee Date 2013. 10. 29 %%%%%%%%%%%%%%% $$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$ Session2-3 ̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡ ѹݵ ŷڱ ȭ ̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡ __ trust what?__ trust for what?__yp __ eeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeee Directions ̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡ to Establish Trust __ toward__and Peace on the Korean Peninsula__ toward__ pppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppp __ trust what?__ trust for what?__yp __ eeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeee Park Jong-Chul l aaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaa KINU aaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaa ѹݵ ŷμ мȸ195 __________________________________________________________________ Directions ̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡ to Establish Trust and Peace __ toward__ on the Korean Peninsula__ toward__ $$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$ __ trust what?__ trust for what?__yp __ eeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeee Park Jong-Chul __________________________ Korea Institute for National Unification """""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""" . Preface Unstable peace has lasted on the Korean Peninsula for more than 60 years ever since the Korean War. The unstable peace is sustained by the balance of military force ofthe two Koreas. The two Koreas are in a security dilemma, which is caused by the building up of arms. North Korea is increasing conventional military power and promoting forward deployment while continuing to develop nuclear missiles. In the perspective of international law, the system that controls the peace in the Korean peninsula is the armistice system. The armistice system consists of the armistice agreement, the armistice committee that manages and supervises, and neutral state committee. However, after North Koreas nullification of the armisticesystem, the armistice system went into disarray with only the outer shape of the armistice system maintained. The meaning of peace should be reexamined in order to find a way to settle peace in the Korean peninsula. According to Johan Galtung, peace can be divided into negative peace, represented by the absence of conflict and positive peace in which the structural conditions that cause conflicts are removed.1)In order to establish negativepeace, the cause for conflicts 1 Johan Galtung, Violence, Peace and Peace Research, Essays in Peace Research, Vol. 1 (Copenhagen: 196 Korea Institute for National Unifications International Conference on Strategies to Implement the Trust-building Process on the Korean Peninsula should be eliminated by the suppression of power. Afterwards agreed regulations and device that can systematically guaranteepeace should be arranged. Measures such as armistices, non-aggression pacts, and arms control are used to establish negative peace. In order to establish positive peace, fundamental solutions such as settlement of political conflicts, alleviation of economic and social inequality, conversion of confrontation structure to a coexistence system are required. In order to establish peace on the Peninsula, framework for coexistence should be prepared by terminating the unstable situation on the Korean peninsula eliminating the possibility of outbreak of war. In order to establish peace on Korean Peninsula, a peace system, including explicit and implicit regulation, principle and process of policy decision, should be established with the goal of attaining negative peace. For this, institutional procedures and devices such as arms control, settlement of peace treaty, and the assurance of peace is needed. The priority of the agenda is problems of the concerned parties, the method of contractual enforcement, international assurance plan are the related issues. Peace establishment on Korean Peninsula can be understood on the conflict management level. 2) Conflict management consists of conflict regulation and resolution. Conflict regulation limits the possibilities that can cause conflict by reducing the tensions; armistice, trust establishment, arms control and disarmament are such examples. Moreover, control resolution arranges resolution to the cause of the conflict and nonaggression treaty, and peace treaty are the examples to conflict resolution. In order to establish peace on the Korean Peninsula, while building trust and relaxing tensions by conflict regulation, conversion to a peace regime and international guarantee plans should be arranged for conflict resolution. Christian Ejlers, 1975), pp. 109-134. 2 C. R. Mitchell, The Structure of International Conflict(New York: St. Martins the Press, 1981), pp. 253-279. ѹݵ ŷμ мȸ197 cccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccc However, the stances of South and North Korea are exceedingly different with their stances towards the basic direction ofpeace establish-ment being the first problem. North Korea argues peace can be established on the Korean Peninsula by substituting armistice system with a North Korea-United States peace treaty, the dissolution of United Nations Command, and evacuation of US Armed Forces in Korea. North Korea emphasizes the legal and institutional aspect of peace establishment. On the other hand, Republic of Korea argues peace treaties do not guarantee peace and what enables peace are peace guarantee devices, arms control and willingness to the peace establishment. Second, the stance on armscontrol, an important condition of peace assurance, is different between South and North Korea. North Korea argues for one-time disarmament of troops and military equipment. South Korea argues for phased arms control since the execution of arms control is difficult. South Koreas stance is that itis more rational to go through stages as such as basic military trust building of, operational arms control, and structural arms control,utilizing the arms control experience of Europe. Moreover, South Korea stresses on verification, which is the confirming performance process of the arms control. Third, the essential point of peace establishment on Korean Peninsula is how to reconcile the principles of the concerned parties and the role of the surrounding countries. South Koreas stance as South and North Korea party principle and North Koreas stance as North Korea-United States Peace Treaty by agreement between North Korea and United States are acutely conflicting. Fourth, there is a problem of deciding in which permutation with what procedure to carry on proceduresrelated to peace establishment in Korean peninsula such as conclusion ofa peace treaty, arms control, and international assurance measures. This is also related to the issue of deciding in which dimension under which players leading several issues related to the 198 Korea Institute for National Unifications International Conference on Strategies to Implement the Trust-building Process on the Korean Peninsula establishment of peace regime in Korean peninsula. Meanwhile, North Koreas development of nuclear qualitatively changed the peace establishment and trust building issues. For peace establishment in Korean peninsula, not only does the solution to establish peace in traditional military area but alsothe need to resolve nuclear issues broke out as well. In order to establish peace, denuclearizing and peace establishment is inseparable. In this context, North Koreas denuclearization and peace regime issue in Korean peninsula is dealt together in the 6 Party Talks. Following is suggestion of sustainable peace establishment in Korean peninsula. First the paper analyzes previous stance on peace establishment in Korean peninsula and changed stance and then provide a direction of policy to establish sustainable peace in Korean peninsula. Directions ̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡ to Establish Trust __ toward__ and Peace on the Korean Peninsula__ toward__ $$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$ __ trust what?__ trust for what?__yp __ eeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeee Park Jong-Chul __________________________ Korea Institute for National Unification """""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""" . North Koreas nullification of armistice system and insistence on North Korea-United States peace treaty agreement 1. North Koreas previous stance North Korea had been insisting on a North Korea-South Korea peace treaty until 1974. However in Marcfh 1974, North Korea insisted on a North Korea-United States peace treaty befcause the armistice party is the United Nations Command and United States is in charge ofUnited Nations Forces Command. North Koreas insistence on North Korea-United States peace treaty may be the result after witnessing Vietnam being unified as a communist country after the peace treaty between North Vietnam and United states. North Korea in January 1984 suggested a 3-Party Talk with 2-tier structure of signing North Korea-United States peace treaty and adopting ѹݵ ŷμ мȸ199 aaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaa non-aggression declaration. From the 1990s, North Korea gradually ended the armistice and disabled armistice organizations (Military Armistice Commission and Neutral Nations Supervisory Commission). In March 1991, Korean representative was appointedas the chief delegate ofUnited Nations Military Armistice Commission and North Korea refused to participate in the general meeting. North Korea withdrew their representative(1994.4) and the Chinese representative (1994.12) fromthe Military Armistice Commission representatives. Also, North Korea set up ?Democratic Peoples Republic of Korea Military Panmunjeom Representatives? to substitute Military Armistice Commission in May 1994, attended colonel level chief secretary conference under the name of representatives and insisted on holding a North Korea-United States general-level talks Also, North Korea withdrew Czech representatives (1993.4) and Polish representatives (1995.2) and disabled Neutral Nations Supervisory Commission. From this, the two largest armistice organizations Military Armistice Commission and Neutral Nations Supervisory Commission virtually lost its function. And in May 1995, North Korea closed down North Korean Neutral Nations Supervisory Commission office in Panmunjeom by the Panmunjeom representatives statement and stated they will limit the access of Neutral Nations Supervisory Commission and USmilitary forces to North Korean area of the Joint Security Area. As North Korea disabled the armistice system, the clause on the maintenance of the demilitarized zone was the only part left in the armistice pact. North Korea in April 1994, suggestedsubstituting armistice treaty with peace treaty and establishing new peace assurance system that substitutes Military Armistice Commission through the statement by the foreign ministry spokesperson. In February 1996, North Korea suggested details of the new peace assurance system by the foreign ministry spokesperson. North Korea suggested to settle for North Korea-United States 200 Korea Institute for National Unifications International Conference on Strategies to Implement the Trust-building Process on the Korean Peninsula temporary treaty on military demarcation line, maintenance of the demilitarized zone, solution to the armed clash and outbreak. North Korea also suggested forming a North Korea-United States joint military organization that substitutes Military Armistice Commission to carry out the temporary agreement. 3) At present, UNC-North Korea general-level meeting is organized and operated instead of armistice commission as the armistice system lost its normal function and militaryarmistice commission does not perform its role. UNC and South Korea understands this within the framework of military armistice commission. However North Korea percepts that UNC-North Korea general-level meeting is different from military armistice commission and that it is a middle stage from armistice system to North Korea- United States temporary agreement. 2. North Koreas insistence on nuclear disarmament talk and North Korea-US peace treaty agreement After the North Korean nuclear issue rose, the peace regime issue on the Korean peninsula was linked to the North Koreas nuclear issue. After the second North Korea nuclear crisisin October 2002, North Korea argued for US abandonment of hostile policy 4) and assurance for North Korean regime in order for them to discard nuclear and especially argued for the need of North Korea-US peace treaty. North Korea argued that the 6 party talks should be the disarmament talks (2005.3.31), and argued for the necessity of the legal and institutional device for peace regime establishment 3 Statement by the spokesperson of North Korean Foreign Ministry, ????North Korean Central Broadcasting????, February 22, 1996. 4 United States Hostile policy towards North Korea means non-aggression commitment towards North Korea, North-US diplomatic relationship, discontinuation of disturbance of econominc cooperation between North Korea and surroundng countries. Park Jong-chul North-US relationship under Bush administration, Korea Institute for National Unification academic council series, ????Domestic environment change of ROK and US and peace on Korean peninsula??????(Seoul: Korea Institute for National Unification, 2004), pp. 114-132. ѹݵ ŷμ мȸ201 cccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccc and North Korea-US peace coexistence. This shows North Koreas stance of linking nuclear issues to peace and US Armed Forces in Korea. North Korea carried out three nuclear experiments and stated its status as a nuclear power state in their consistitution (2012.4). North Korea hopes to be internationally recognized as a nuclear power state and signing North Korea-US Peace Treaty using nuclear power as a bargaining chip. North Korean asks the US to halt its hostile policy towards North Korea, negative security assurance, making the Korean Peninsula a nuclear-free zone. On April 18, 2013, as for the condition for denuclearization, the North Korea National Defense Committee demanded the following three; lifting UN sanctions on North Korea, Assuring negative security, denuclearizing the Korean Peninsula and the surrounding areas. First, North Korea argues that the USshould withdraw hostile policy toward North Korea, approve North Korea diplomatically, and normalize the relationships. Second, the US should apply negative security assurance that excludes nuclear preemptive strike on non-nuclearpower states on North Korea as well. Third, North Korea argued that not only North Korea should denuclearize but also the United States should realize a nuclear weapon free zone in which the US excludes employment of nuclear weapons on the Korean Peninsula and surrounding area, including the nuclear umbrella. Especially, North Korea argues that since the US is also a nuclear power state, one-sided denuclearization is unfair and that the nuclear disarmament should be carried out at equally. North Korea is strengthening the US peace offensive along with nuclear disarmament talk. In early 2013, North Korea increased military tension and strengthened the US peace offensive. While increasing tension on Korean Peninsula witharmistice treaty nullification statement (2013.3.5), South and North Korea nonaggression treaty, North Korea suggested a peace treaty with the US. With nuclear and missile capability, 202 Korea Institute for National Unifications International Conference on Strategies to Implement the Trust-building Process on the Korean Peninsula North Korea is giving its best effortto secure its negotiation position. After June 2013, North Korea concentrated on offensive rhetoric ctowards the US. North Korea, through discourse of the spokesperson of the national defense committee (2013.6.16), suggested high ranking level talk between North Korea and US and proposed military tension easement, change of a armistice regime to a peace regime, issue of building world without nukes, an interest of the US, and other several issues both parties want as the agenda for the talk. Such stance of North Korea was readdressed by Ambassador Park Kil-yon from the North Korea Ministry of Foreign Affairs at his speech in the UN General Assembly (2013.10.1). 5) Meanwhile, series of recent 1.5 track talks between the US and North Korea, it is considered North Korea is tapping the US opinion towards North Koreas proposal. North Koreas goal is to achieve military superiority on the Korean Peninsula through assuring North Koreas security by North Korea-US peace treaty and evacuating US Armed Forcesin Korea. North Korea, believes it produced an effective leverage to require for negotiation with the US with their nuclear capability. North Korea uses its new measure, nuclear threat, to attain goal of disintegrating the ROK-United Sates Alliance and evacuating the US Armed Forces in Korea. Directions ̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡̡ to Establish Trust __ toward__ and Peace on the Korean Peninsula__ toward__ $$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$ __ trust what?__ trust for what?__yp __ eeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeee Park Jong-Chul __________________________ Korea Institute for National Unification """""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""" . Direction of peace establishment on the Korean Peninsula with trust-building Peace establishment on the Korean Peninsula is still a far way to go. North Korea is violating the armistice system and continuing provoking 5 Ambassador Park Kil-yon of North Korean Foreign Ministry argued for abandonment of hostile policy of United States, hosting of nuclear disarmament discussion, dissolution of UNC, substitution of armistice treaty with peace treaty and such. ѹݵ ŷμ мȸ203 aaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaa ROK with various measures. Moreover,North Korea, by developing nuclear weapon and missiles, is threatening security. Meanwhile, there has been international agreement on North Koreas denuclearization and rudimentary agreement on the trust building such as ?South and North Basic Agreement?. However these agreements have lost its regulation powerand have been disabled as North Korea does not implement the agreement. Sustainable peace should be made in order to establish peace on Korean Peninsula. Peaceis not assured by the treaties or agreement statements but the assurance of them and conditions that promote should be prepared. Mutual trust thatthe parties are not threatened by each other and that they will coexist by peace establishment and increase cooperation should be built. Considering the distrust and conflict, sustainable peace on the Korean peninsula should gradually take place. First, peace should be maintained by suppression and security arrangements. Second, previous agreements should be restored and should conduct trust building measures in order to create trust condition between South and North Korea. Third, peace regime discussions should be propelled according to trust building and proceeding of denuclearization proceedings. These tasks do not have tobe carried out in this particular order. Time is required in propelling these tasks,but it is suitable to have a level of strategic flexibility. It can be carried out simultaneously and the preparation time for the next assignment can be abridged. Also, these assignments can be overlapped for a certain period of time. Important is that the actual condition for trust and peace establishment is be prepared. 204 Korea Institute for National Unifications International Conference on Strategies to Implement the Trust-building Process on the Korean Peninsula 1. Restraint power towards the North and peace establishment by security arrangement Securing restraint power towards the North and resolution of the North Korea nuclear issue is not only security policy but also fundamental background to carry out North Korea policies. Restraining North Koreas power should be attained in three directions; nuclear restraint power against nuclear threat, restraint power against missile attack, and restraint power against traditional and untraditional provocations. First, procurement of restraining North Koreans nuclear threat is the biggest assignment. Amongst many alternatives for nuclear threats, preemptive attack theory is difficult torealize because of its uncertainty and possibility of it escalating into a full-scale war. Also, independent nuclear armament is not feasible since South Korea has the Non-Proliferation Treaty (NPT) and ROK-US Atomic Energy Agreement. Moreover, if South Korea develops nuclear weapons, it would be at the cost of breaking the ROK-US alliance and the fact that South Korea has to bear international sanctions should be considered. Also, realigning tacticalnuclear weapon is unfeasible. In terms of military technology, the US sees it is possible to provide a nuclearumbrella over the Korean Peninsula by tactical nuclear weapons. Moreover, the Obama administration, withthe goal of making a world without nuclear weapons, is not considering the realignment of tactical nuclear weapon which was withdrawn from the Korean Peninsula in 1991. One alternative Korea can take is increasing the actual effectiveness of the US nuclear umbrella by strengthening the ROK-US alliance. South Korea and the US are devising a measure to strengthen Koreas customized control capability by Extended Deterrence Policy Committee. In October 2013, the joint statement section 6 from the 45th ROK-US Security Consultative Meeting states, reaffirmed the US continuous promise to ѹݵ ŷμ мȸ205 aaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaa provide and strengthen expansion restraint using all categories of defense capabilities including US nuclear umbrella, traditional strike capability, missile defense capability. Second, the Korean defense system should be built as a provision to the North Koreas missile threat. The South Korean government is propelling a plan for combat arrangement of ballistic missiles with a shooting range of 800 km according to ROK-US Missile Revision of Guidance. Also, measures to build Kill Chain, which detects, distinguishes, and strikes North Koreas missile attack before the launch. Moreover, plan to develop the Korean Air and Missile Defense System is being carried out in case preemptive strike to North Koreas missile attack fails. Third, there should be contingency plans in case of North Koreas provocation, infiltration, terror by traditional military force and asymmetry infiltrating force. South Korea and the U.S. signed the Combined Counter-Provocation Plan (2013.3.22). Thiscontingency plan works against all provocation types by North Korea and prepares South Korea and US joint response protocols. It is stipulated that when North Korea provokes places such as the Northern Limit Line (NLL) the Demilitarized Zone, the South Korean will respond with an act of self-defense and receive military assistance from the US. There has not been a clear standard for the reaction plan in case of local provocation of North Korea. Now that the reaction plan is clearly stated according to each type, it is possible to react rapidly when there is a provocation. Also, it is meaningful that the U.S., fearing the action may develop into a bigger conflict and reacting passively to North Koreas provocation prepared contingency plans. Also, a comprehensive security attitude should be strengthened. Strengthening the government and local governments integrated defense and emergency provision organization building private; the governmental, military and police information sharing system; and increasing preparatory attitude toward cyber wars are needed to prepare the military. 206 Korea Institute for National Unifications International Conference on Strategies to Implement the Trust-building Process on the Korean Peninsula 2. Constructing peace conditions by military trust building Considering issues like North Koreas military threats and provocations, nullification of previous agreements between South and North on military trust building, the peace conditions should be created by military tension easing measures in order to establish sustainable peace. Peace creation can be carried out from three directions. First, previous agreements on military descalation should be restored. South and North Korea had to agreed on four types of military trust building measures. Direct telephone line had been set up between South and North Korea. Agreements that assures exchange and cooperation was adopted. Agreement on road works and railroad works for military assurance was made.? (2002.9) ?and temporary agreement for military assurance of train test running? (2007.5) were selected. ?measures to prevent accidental collision in the west coast? was selected in order to prevent accidental collisions (2004.6). Halting propaganda around the Military Demarcation Line area and demolishing propaganda message was agreed (2004.6). However as North Korea on January 30th 2009, stated in the statement by the North Korea Committee for the PeacefulReunification of Korea that they nullify all the agreements related to political and military conflict situation, all the agreementson military trust building was disabled. Considering this reality, South and North Korea s military talks should be held again in order to restore military trust building measures that were once agreed. Militaryworking-level talks or defense ministerial talks could be held.6) Second, in order to stimulate cooperation of exchange, military trust building in terms of functional dimensions is needed. One particular feature 6 Jo Soeng-ryul, Korean peninsula trust process and balance policy: Security and peace field, ????Korea Peninsula Arms Control????, 53 (2013.6), pp. 50-56. ѹݵ ŷμ мȸ207 ccccccccccccccccccccccccccc about tension easement the Korean Peninsula is that military trust building was realized in terms of functional aspect rather than tension easement itself. One example of military agreement for functional cooperation between South and North Korea is partial demilitarization of the demilitarized zone for Gyeongui-Line rail and road construction. Also, Jangjeong Harbor was open and army was rearranged for tourism in Geumgang Mountain and pulled military force to the backdue the Kaesong Industrial Complex7) Military talks and military trust building process should take place in order to build the DMZ World Peace Park, one of the main undertakings of the Trust-building Process. In doing so, the preceding experience of South and North Korea cooperating on the peaceful use of DMZ by the UNC in linking the Gyeongui Line rail and roadconstruction could be used. Also through this plan, South and North Korea s military talks should be held and regarding actions such as removal oflandmines, withdrawal of troops and equipment, construction of facilities. Third, there should be additional trust building measures. Military trust building measures should be agreed according to ?Inter-Korean Basic Agreement? and?Attached Agreement on Non-aggression?. Above all, the way to carry out the way to realize the second chapter of ?Attached Agreement on Non-aggression?, peaceful solution to conflicts and prevention of accidental clash of fire, should be found. Also, carrying out the trust building measures from the clause 12 of ?Inter-Korean Basic Agreement?, notice of large scale troop transfer and military exercise, issue of peaceful use of the DMZ, military personnel exchange and information exchange issues and such should be agreed upon. On one hand, North Korea has beenagainst measures such as military personnel exchange or information exchange may undermine North 7 Park Jong-chul, ????Plans to carry out military measures to increase inter-Korean cooperation ???? (Seoul: Korea Institute for National Unification, 2002), pp. 3-15. 208 Korea Institute for Nationa